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an  unhe2Ltxi  S  pnce  Jo*  auch  a  lot  ,    surely 



>3   3HT 

(i.e.  JAMES  CHRISTIE-  I,). 

From  a  print  by  R.  DIGHTON,  published  March  25,  1794. 



FROM  1766  TO  1896 




VOL   I. 



"  Hie  Liber  est  conglutinatus  ex  tarn  multis  libris,  quot 
unus  pinguis  Cocus  Oves,  boves,  sues,  grues,  anseres, 
passeres,  coquere,  aut  unus  fumosus  Calefactor  centum 
magna  hypocausta  ex  illis  calefacere  possit." 




HE  chief  difficulty  experienced  in 
the  compilation  of  these  "  MEMORIALS 
OF  CHRISTIE'S  "  has  been,  not  the  lack 
of  material,  but  the  wealth  of  it. 
To  compress  into  two  volumes  the 
essence  of  many  thousands  of  catalogues  has  been 
a  task  of  no  little  difficulty,  and  I  do  not  pretend 
to  claim  that  every  "lot"  of  importance  is  to 
be  found  mentioned  within  these  covers.  To 
compile  a  complete  record  of  the  sales  at 
Christie's  would  require  a  lifetime  of  constant 
application,  and  a  long  series  of  volumes  dealing 
with  each  of  the  many  special  objects  which  come 
under  the  hammer  at  Messrs.  Christie,  Manson 
and  Woods'.  Such  a  work  would  be  of  the 
greatest  possible  value,  and  in  many  respects  of 
very  considerable  interest,  but  it  naturally  could 
not  be  undertaken  by  one  upon  whose  time  the 
daily  press  makes  large  demands.  In  the  pre- 
paration of  this  work,  I  have  gone  through  all  the 
earlier  Christie  catalogues,  page  by  page,  and  all 
the  more  important  oaes  of  the  later  issues  have 
been  carefully  scanned.  I  -think,  therefore,  that 


these  two  volumes  will  be  found  to  contain  a  fairly 
exhaustive  r6sum£  of  the  chief  public  sales  which 
have  been  held  at  Christie's  during  the  long  period 
of  nearly  a  century  and  a  half.  The  task  has  been 
no  light  one,  and  if  the  results  are  commensurate 
with  the  amount  of  labour  and  time  which  it  has 
involved  I  shall  feel  at  all  events  that  my  work  has 
not  been  in  vain. 

If  Messrs.  Christie  had  not  been,  from  the  very 
first,  in  the  habit  of  preserving  their  priced  cata- 
logues, no  such  work  as  this  could  possibly  have 
been  carried  into  even  an  approximately  successful 
issue.  Even  as  it  is,  their  earlier  volumes  of 
catalogues  are  in  some  instances  incomplete,  and 
a  few  of  the  first  importance  and  interest  are 
wanting :  they  were  borrowed,  when  borrowing  was 
not  prohibited,  and  they  have  met  the  usual  fate  of 
borrowed  books — they  have  never  been  returned. 
Catalogues  of  art,  as  of  book  sales,  become  after  a 
time  excessively  difficult  to  obtain,  and  some  are 
absolutely  unprocurable.  A  few  of  those  absent 
from  Messrs.  Christie's  invaluable  "  file,"  are  to  be 
found  at  the  British  Museum,  and  possibly  else- 
where, and  I  have  been  able  to  make  good  some 
"  gaps "  from  outside  sources,  and  from  con- 
temporary newspaper  reports.  Messrs.  Christie 
have  courteously  given  me  every  facility  in  the  pre- 
paration of  this  work,  which  is  not  to  be  regarded  as 
in  any  sense  of  an  "  official"  nature  produced  under 
the  auspices  of  the  firm  itself;  and  I  desire  here  to 
express  the  deep  sense  of  obligation  I  feel  towards 
the  members  of  the  historic  firm  in  this  matter. 


Without  Messrs.  Christie's  courtesy  I  could  not 
have  obtained  permission  to  reproduce  the  series 
of  collotype  plates  with  which  these  volumes  are 
illustrated,  and  in  this  matter  Mr.  L.  Hannen  has 
actively  interested  himself  by  obtaining  permission 
from  the  various  possessors  of  the  pictures  and 
other  objects  of  art.  I  am  also  indebted  to  The 
Times  for  a  generous  selection  from  the  many 
brilliant  articles  which  have  appeared  in  its  pages 
when  any  great  sale  has  been  about  to  take 
place.  My  friend  Mr.  Gleeson  White  has 
assisted  me  in  the  selection  of  plates  and  in  other 

"  MEMORIALS  OF  CHRISTIE'S'*  is  not  in  any  sense 
a  rival  of  the  late  George  Redford's  "  Art  Sales," 
published  in  two  volumes  in  1888,  from  which  it 
differs  entirely,  not  only  in  arrangement,  but  in  the 
fact  that  it  is  devoted  entirely  to  Christie's.  It  is 
not  easy  to  decide  as  to  the  most  convenient  plan 
for  such  a  work  as  this.  My  own  preferences  would 
have  been  to  model  it  on  the  system  adopted  by 
M.  Charles  Blanc  in  his  "  Tresor  de  la  Curiosite, 
tir£  des  Catalogues  de  Vente"  (Paris,  1857-8), 
giving,  in  addition,  some  account  of  the  collectors 
themselves,  and  relying  on  a  very  full  index  as  the 
means  of  making  it  a  valuable  work  of  reference. 
That  plan  is,  indeed,  followed  here,  but  with  many 
important  modifications,  as  one  preferable  to  Mr. 
Redford's  :  had  it  been  followed  entirely,  however, 
it  would  not  have  been  possible  to  compress  the 
information  already  contained  in  these  pages  into 
less  than  half-a-dozen  volumes.  A  very  consider- 


able  percentage  of  the  collectors  were  men  who 
may  be  said  to  have  had  no  individuality  beyond 
their  collections,  and  are  consequently  unconsidered 
by  the  various  biographical  dictionaries.  I  have, 
however,  given  a  few  brief  personal  details  where 
such  have  been  accessible. 

I  do  not  think  that  any  elaborate  details  as  to 
the  scope  of  the  work  are  necessary,  as  my  object 
has  been  to  make  the  text  as  simple  as  possible. 
It  may,  nevertheless,  be  necessary  to  point  out  that 
several  moderately  important  sales  which  do  not 
appear  as  substantive  articles  will  be  found  in- 
corporated with  other  auctions.  The  Heugh  sales, 
for  instance,  included  a  number  of  important 
pictures,  nearly  all  of  which  have  occurred  sub- 
sequently in  other  collections,  where  they  are 
duly  referred  to.  This  practice  has  saved  much 
valuable  space.  Another  point  may  be  mentioned 
to  prevent  any  possible  confusion.  Where  two  or 
three  pictures  by  one  artist  occur  in  a  single  sale,  it 
has  not  been  thought  necessary  to  repeat  the  artist's 
name  :  the  conjunction  "  and,"  of  course,  indicating 
that  the  second  picture  is  by  the  same  artist  as  that 
immediately  preceding — for  example  :  Ruysdael, 
a  Waterfall,  oooo  guineas,  and  a  Cascade,  oooo 
guineas.  One  of  the  great  difficulties  would  have 
been  to  draw  a  hard  and  fast  line  as  to  prices. 
I  have  not  attempted  to  draw  any  such  line,  but 
have  mentioned  objects  which  appeared  to  me  to 
be  worthy  of  note.  Price  is  by  no  means  an  in- 
fallible guide  as  to  the  authenticity  of  a  picture  or 
its  value  as  a  work  of  art.  Innumerable  instances. 


have  occurred  in  which  a  picture  realized  say  £10 
in  the  early  part  of  the  century  has  within  recent 
years  sold  for  upwards  of  ,£1,000.  The  tastes  of 
collectors  of  works  of  art,  as  in  everything  else, 
undergo  changes,  and  can  be  guided  by  no  law 
of  logic  :  in  such  a  work  as  this,  therefore,  common 
sense  and  the  absence  of  any  kind  of  enthusiasm 
for  any  particular  school  of  art  are  an  author's  most 
valuable  attributes. 

The  writer  of  an  article  in  the  first  volume 
of  the  Library  of  the  Fine  Arts,  March,  1831, 
says  that  James  Christie,  the  elder,  first  started  in 
Wardour  Street,  where  he  opened  business  as  a 
book  auctioneer.  "Diligent  and  successful  in  his 
calling,  he  improved  his  means,  and  removing  to 
Spring  Gardens,  Charing  Cross,  commenced  as 
general  auctioneer,  under  the  firm  of  Christie  and 
Ansell.  It  was  here  that  he  experienced  his  first 
great  loss,  the  precursor  of  those  misfortunes  to 
which  his  generous  nature  too  frequently  exposed 
him  throughout  life.  He  became,  under  particular 
circumstances  of  friendship,  security  for  a  minor 
of  great  expectations,  to  the  amount  of  ,£20,000. 
The  young  gentlemen  died  just  before  the  ex- 
piration of  his  minority,  and  Christie  lost  the 
whole  sum.  Happily  he  had  many  friends, 
amongst  others,  the  illustrious  Garrick.  No  sooner 
was  this  great  player  acquainted  with  Christie's 
loss,  than  he  generously  advanced  him  the  loan  of 
;£  1 0,000  which  the  borrower  within  a  given  period 
repaid ;  and  such  was  his  grateful  recollection  of 
the  circumstance,  that  when  deputed  by  Garrick's. 


widow  to  sell  part  of  her  honoured  husband's 
effects,  Christie  very  feelingly  related  the  whole 
affair  to  his  auditors  from  the  rostrum." 

From  the  same  writer  we  learn  that  of  the  two 
partners  mentioned  in  vol.  i.,  p.  n,  Sharp  was  a 
diamond  merchant  in  the  city,  and  that  Harper  was 
a  brother  of  the  wife  of  Jack  Banister,  the  comedian. 
This  writer  also  informs  us  that  the  first  James 
Christie  was  not  exactly  a  connoisseur,  but  to  have 
"  had  the  advantage  of  a  constant  and  friendly 
intercourse  with  many  of  the  distinguished  artists 
and  connoisseurs  ;  so  much  so  that  a  certain  coterie, 
who  frequently  partook  of  his  venison  and  claret, 
were  denominated  Christie's  Fraternity  of  God- 
Fathers,  as  they  sometimes  in  the  character  of 
sponsors  christened  questionable  graphic  specimens 
of  the  genius  obscure,  Domenichino's,  S.  del 
Piombo's,  Da  Vinci's,  etc." 

Garrick,  Richard  Wilson,  and  Gainsborough 
frequently  dined  with  Mr.  Christie,  and  it  was  on 
such  occasions  that  Tcm  Gainsborough  and  Davy 
Garrick  gave  loose  to  their  crazy  fancies,  in  their 
travesties  of  every  remarkable  picture  that  had 
passed  the  ordeal  of  the  ivory  hammer. 

The  first  Christie  acquired  "  a  universal  reputa- 
tion for  honour  and  integrity,  and  so  boundless 
was  his  liberality  that  he  was  commonly  designated 
the '  Princely-minded  Christie.'  He  died  honoured 
and  respected— but  certainly  not  rich."  According 
to  the  same  writer,  "  Young  Christie  "-  —by  which 
distinction  he  was  known  up  to  the  time  of  his 
death—"  never  cared  for  the  auction  business," 


which  his  father  induced  him,  only  after  repeated 
efforts,  to  enter.  He  first  entered  the  rostrum  "  in 
the  spring  of  1794,  to  relieve  his  father  of  the 
tedium  of  the  six  days'  sale  of  the  effects  of  J. 
Alexander  Gresse,  the  artist  and  collector."  The 
second  James  Christie  was  a  member  of  the 
Spectacle  Makers'  Company,  and  his  son  George 
was  eventually  elected  a  member  of  the  same 

The  Christies'  burial-place  was  at  St.  James's, 
Hampstead  Road,  where  a  runic  cross  now  bears 
the  names  of  nine  members  of  the  family.  James 
Christie  I.  was  an  ardent  Jacobite,  and  the  names 
of  all  his  children  bear  witness  of  his  devotion  to 
this  cause.  He  first  married  Isabella  Chapman, 
daughter  of  a  Suffolk  landowner ;  and  secondly 
Mrs.  Urquhart,  widow  of  a  Scotch  wine  merchant. 

Two  interesting  relics  of  the  founder  of  the  firm 
are  still  in  constant  use  at  King  Street,  namely  the 
fine  old  mahogany  rostrum  said  to  have  been  made 
by  Chippendale,  and  the  original  ivory  hammer 
which  has  sealed,  so  to  speak,  the  fate  of  so  many 
great  collections.  W.  R. 


March,  1897. 


VOL.  I. 


CHAP.  I.  James  Christie  and  his  Successors .....         i 

CHAP.  II.  Some  Early  Sales :  English  Porcelain — Sir 
Robert  Strange  —  R.  Ansell — Captain  O'Kelly — 
Greenwood — Samuel  Dickinson — H.  E.  J.  Got  de 
Grote — Libraries — Signer  Biondi — Samuel  Foote — 
W.  Laws— N.  J.  Desenfans— The  Chevalier  D'Eon 
— Sir  Joshua  Reynolds — B.  Vandergucht — Hogarth's 
Marriage  a  la  Mode — John  Trumbull 20 

CHAP.  III.  1800-1810  :  John  Udny's  pictures  from  the 
Colonna  Palace  and  Florentine  Gallery — Lord  Bess- 
borough — Sir  William  Hamilton — William  Young 
Ottley — Alderman  Beckford — Countess  Holderness 
— Guy  Head — Sir  Simon  Clarke  and  George  Hibbert 
—Walsh  Porter— The  Novellara  collection— Robert 
Udny— Pictures  from  the  Barberini  Palace — Alder- 
man Boydell — Welbore  Agar  Ellis — Lafontaine — 
Speaker  Lenthall — Walsh  Porter  (and  sale)  ...  54 

CHAP.  IV.  1811-1847:  William  Young  Ottley — Duca 
San  Pietro — Duke  of  Roxburghe — Henry  Hope — J. 
F.  Tuffen— Ph.  Panne* — Benjamin  West — Arthur 
Champernowne — Marchioness  of  Thomond — John 
Lamb — Marquis  of  Bute — Fonthill — G.  Watson 
Taylor  —  David  Garrick  —  Nollekens  — Madame 
Murat— Sir  M.  M.  Sykes,  H.R.H.  the  Duke  of  York 
— Egyptian  Antiquities — Duke  of  Bedford — Lord 
de  Tabley — Lord  Carysfoot — George  Canning — 
Lord  Gwydyr — Sir  Thomas  Lawrence — Earl  of  Mul- 
grave— Lord  C.  Townshend— W.  G.  Coesvelt — Sir 



Simon  H.Clarke — John  Penrice— Edmund  Higgin- 

son  of  Saltmarshe — Edward  Solly 88 

CHAP.  V.  1848-1854:  The  Stowe  collection  of  the 
Duke  of  Buckingham — J.  Newington  Hughes — 
Casimir  Perier — Sir  Thomas  Baring — Montcalm 
Gallery  at  Montpellier — W.  Coningham— W.  Wells 
of  Redleaf— W.  W.  Hope — Lord  Ashburnham — 
Charles  Lucien  Bonaparte — Louis  Philippe — J.  D. 
Gardner — E.  J.  de  Bammeville 139 

CHAP.  VI.  1855-1870  :  Ralph  Bernal — Samuel  Rogers, 
the  Poet— Lord  Orford— The  Alton  Towers  collec- 
tion of  the  Earl  of  Shrewsbury — Rev.  F.  Leicester — 
Hon.  Percy  Ashburnham — Charles  Scarisbrick — L. 
V.  Flatou — China  Sales — Sir  John  Swinburne— T. 
E.  Flint's  Pre-Raphaelite  Pictures — Elkanan  Bick- 
nell — John  Leech's  Drawings  and  Pictures — Edwin 
Bullock — David  Maclise — Charles  Dickens  .  .  .  167 

CHAP.  VII.  1872-1876:  Joseph  Gillott — Prince  Jerome 
Napoleon — Alexander  Barker — Sir  E.  Landseer — 
The  Marlborough  Gems — Sam  Mendel  of  Manley 
Hall — William  Quilter — Charles  Bredel — Rev.  John 
Lucy — Thomas  Woolner — Jesse  Watts  Russell  of 
Ham  Hall— W.  E.  Gladstone — Wynn  Ellis— Gains- 
borough's Duchess  of  Devonshire — Albert  Levy — 
R.  Foster  of  Clewer  Manor — Dunn  Gardner  .  .  .  213 

CHAP.  VIII.  1877-1882  :  W.  Stone  Ellis— Robert  Na- 
pier, of  Shandon — Robert  Vernon — Baron  Albert 
Grant's  Kensington  House  Gallery — John  Knowles 
of  Manchester — Sir  Henry  Raeburn — The  Due  de 
Forli's  Dresden  Porcelain — Dr.  Sibson's  Wedgwood 
— H.  A.  J.  Munro,  of  Novar — Thomas  Greenwood 
—Porcelain  Sales — H.  G.  Bohn— J.  S.  Virtue — 
Lord  Lonsdale — Joseph  Arden — Jonathan  Nield — 
W.  and  J.  Fenton— J.  Wardells— W.  Benoni  White 
— J.  H.  Anderdon — Charles  Dickens — F.W.  Hooper 
— Charles  Kurtz— Colonel  Holdsworth — Charles 
Sackville  Bale— E.  J.  Coleman— W.  Sharp— E. 
Hermon,  M.P.,  of  Wyfold  Court 258 


VOL.  I. 


"  THE  SPECIOUS  ORATOR,"  /.<?.,  James  Christie  I.  Re- 
produced in  colours  from  a  print  by  R.  Dighton 


JAMES  CHRISTIE  I.     From  an  engraving  after  the  original 

portrait  by  T.  Gainsborough face       10 

JAMES  CHRISTIE  II.     From  a  bust  by  Harry  Behnes,  in 

the  possession  of  Messrs.  Christie 12 

WILLIAM  MANSON.    From  an  engraved  portrait  in  the 

possession  of  Messrs.  Christie 14 

CHRISTIE'S  AUCTION  ROOMS.  From  the  original  drawing 
by  Rowlandson,  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  T.  H. 
Woods 22 

CHRISTIE'S  AUCTION  ROOMS.     From  "  The  Microcosm 

of  London,"  plate  8 80 


print  by  Gillray 88 

THE  SALE  OF  "  THE  SNAKE  IN  THE  GRASS."  From  the 
original  picture  by  J.  Gebaud,  in  the  possession  of 
Messrs.  Christie 120 





A  PICTURE  SALE,  CIRCA  1770 xii 





ANCIENT  GAELIC  BROOCH  (Bernal  Sale) 53 

SIR  THOMAS  MORE'S  CANDLESTICK  (Bernal  Sale)     .     .  138 

RAPHAEL  AND  FORNARINA  PLATE                „            .     .  141 

PILGRIM-SHAPED  GRES  BOTTLE                     ,,            .     .  169 

DRESDEN  PORCELAIN  CLOCK                        „            .     .  170 

„              „            CANDELABRA              ,,            .     .  171 

PILGRIM'S  BOTTLE,  FAENZA  WARE               „            .     .  172 
SEVRES  VASES                                                „               174-175 

ST.  THOMAS  A  BECKETT'S  RELIQUAIRE        „            .     .  177 

LIMOGES  ENAMEL  CASKET                            „            .    .  178 




iT  is  not  only  a  curious  but  a  very  re- 
markable fact,  that  the  founders  of 
two  eminent  London  firms  should 
have  been  "drawn,"  at  about  the 
same  time,  from  a  source  which 
seemed  little  likely  to  augur  success.  Both  John 
Murray  I.  and  James  Christie  primus  left  the 
Navy  for  the  respective  callings  of  publishing  and 
auctioneering  in  London,  practically  within  a  few 
months  of  one  another.  They  were  both  Scots- 
men, and  each  seems  to  have  possessed,  in  a  con- 
spicuous degree,  not  only  a  more  than  native  share 
of  pluck  and  energy,  but  the  infinite  capacity  for 
mastering  details  which  alone  makes  successful 
men  of  business.  Although  neither  the  firm  of 
Christie  nor  that  of  Murray  is  the  doyen  of  the 
trade  in  its  respective  line  ;  yet  they  are  rightly 
regarded  as  the  heads  of  the  two  great  phases  of 
commercial  enterprise. 


Of  James  Christie's  parentage  and  family  con- 
nections very  little  appears  to  be  known  ;  and  of 
his  career  up  to  the  time  when  he  started  as  an 
auctioneer  in  London,  even  less  information  has 
been  published.  He  was,  as  we  have  already 
stated,  a  Scotsman,  having  been  born  at  Perth  in 
1730;  his  mother  was  a  Macdonald,  his  father 
an  Englishman  of  good  family,  whilst  Flora 
Macdonald  was  a  near  relation  and  intimate  friend. 
He  entered  the  Navy,1  and  held  a  commission 
under  which  he  served  some  years  as  midshipman. 
He  is  said  to  have  resigned  his  commission  before 
he  was  twenty,  owing  to  a  romantic  attachment 
to  a  lady  of  great  beauty  whom  he  eventually 
married,  and  on  coming  up  to  London,  he  be- 
came assistant  to  an  auctioneer  named  Annesley, 
in  Covent  Garden.  With  Annesley  he  remained 
in  partnership  for  some  years,  but  towards  the  end  of 
the  year  1 766 2  he  started  on  hfs  own  account  at  the 
rooms  in  Pall  Mall,  formerly  occupied  by  Richard 
Dalton,  printseller ;  the  business  was  at  first 

1  It  may  be  nothing  more  than  a  coincidence,  but  the  fact  is 
worth  mentioning,  that  the  Add.  MSS.  at  the  British  Museum, 
5439,  f.  137,  contains  "Proposals  for  better  Victualling  a 
Hospital  Ship,"  by  James  Christie,  dated  1704.  It  would  be 
interesting  to  know  if  James  Christie's  father  was  a  sailor. 

It  is  not  perhaps  wise  to  be  too  dogmatic  on  this  point,  as 
since  the  above  statement  has  been  in  type  the  writer  learns 
that  the  Public  Advertiser  of  July  2ist,  1763,  contains  an 
advertisement  of  Mr.  Christie's  as  an  auctioneer.  This  was  the 
sale  of  the  effects  of  a  large  house  about  to  be  demolished  in 
St.  James's  Square.  The  file  of  catalogues  now  preserved- at 
King  Street  does  not  extend  back  earlier  than  the  year  1766. 


almost  entirely  devoted  to  the  sale  of  estates  and 
London   houses,  and   the   sales   of   pictures   and 
other    chattels    formed    but   a   small    percentage 
of  the  transactions.     All  contemporary  accounts 
of  James  Christie  are  laudatory  in   the  highest 
degree,  and  coming,  as  these  do,  from  so  many 
men  of  widely  differing  and  indeed  antagonistic 
tastes   and   creeds,    there    can    be    no    question 
as   to    the    high    estimation    in    which    he    was 
held.     "  He  was,"  says  one,  "of  tall  and  dignified 
appearance,  remarkable  for  eloquence  and  profes- 
sional enthusiasm,  and  was  intimate  with  Garrick, 
Reynolds,  Gainsborough  and  other  men  of  note." 
The  stories  told  about  him  are  very  numerous, 
although  the  majority  of  them  are  perhaps  not  too 
authentic.     In  one  of  these  traditions  he  plays  the 
part  of  patriot.     At  the  time  when  Admiral  Sir 
Hugh  Palliser's  house  in  Pall  Mall  was  attacked 
because  its  owner  did  not  bring  home  fresh  laurels 
to  the  British  Navy,   Mr.   Christie  called  all  his 
porters  together,  and   sallied   out   at   their  head, 
armed  with  good  stout    sticks;   they  completely 
routed  the  mob,  driving  them  away  in  confusion. 
John  Taylor,  the  author  of  "  Monsieur  Tonson," 
describes    in    his    interesting    "  Records    of    My 
Life,"  1832  (vol.  ii.  206-211),  James  Christie  in 
highly  flattering  terms.     He  says  : — "  There  was 
something  interesting  and  persuasive,  as  well  as 
thoroughly  agreeable    in    his    manner.     He   was 
very  animated,  and  it  may  be  justly  said,  eloquent, 
in  his   recommendation  of  any  article  to  be  an- 
nounced from  his  '  Rostrum/  as  well  as  in  occasional 


effusions  of  genuine  humour.  He  was  courteous, 
friendly  and  hospitable  in  private  life,  and  was 
held  in  great  esteem  by  his  numerous  friends, 
among  whom  there  were  many  of  high  rank.  It 
was  reported,  and  I  believe  truly,  that  he  lost  con- 
siderable property  by  his  confidence  in  Mr.  Chace 
Price,  a  gentleman  well  known  in  the  upper 
circles  of  his  time,  and  more  admired  for  his  wit 
and  humour  than  for  the  strictness  of  his  moral 
principles.  It  was  understood  that  Mr.  Christie's 
loss  by  this  gentleman  amounted  to  five  thousand 
pounds  ;  and  this  event  afforded  an  additional 
proof  of  the  generous  feelings  of  Mr.  Garrick,  who, 
hearing  of  the  loss  and  of  the  high  character  of 
Mr.  Christie,  though  but  little  acquainted  with 
him,  with  great  delicacy  offered  to  accommodate 
him  with  the  full  amount  of  his  loss,  if  his  conse- 
quent situation  rendered  such_assistance  necessary 
or  expedient.  Whether  Mr.  Christie  had  occasion 
to  avail  himself  of  this  liberal  offer,  I  know  not, 
but  that  it  was  tendered  is  certainly  true,  and  it 
corresponds  with  the  testimony  in  favour  of  Mr. 
Garrick's  benevolent  disposition,  as  given  by  Dr. 
Johnson,  by  Mr.  Smith  the  actor,  in  several  of  his 
letters  to  me,  and  by  my  late  friend,  Mr.  Arthur 
Murphy.  .  .  . 

"  As  a  proof  of  the  estimation  in  which  Mr. 
Christie's  character  was  held,  particularly  by  the 
great  Earl  of  Chesterfield,  a  nobleman  distin- 
guished for  his  intellectual  powers  and  knowledge 
of  mankind,  as  well  as  for  the  polish  of  his 
manners,  I  relate  the  following  fact,  which  was 


told  to  me  by  my  late  esteemed  friend,  Sir  Francis 
Bourgeois.  Mr.  Christie  had  a  particularly 
valuable  collection  of  pictures  to  dispose  of,  most 
of  which  were  of  very  high  reputation  abroad. 
Anxious  that  this  collection  should  be  distin- 
guished from  those  of  less  celebrity,  he  waited 
upon  the  Earl  of  Chesterfield,  to  whom  he  had  the 
honour  of  being  known.  It  happened  that  the 
Earl  had  seen  many  of  the  pictures  in  question 
during  his  travels.  Mr.  Christie  told  his  lord- 
ship how  anxious  he  was  that  these  pictures  should 
excite  the  attention  which  they  deserved,  and  he 
requested  that  his  lordship  would  condescend  to 
look  at  them.  His  lordship  promised  to  attend 
the  public  view,  and  gave  Mr.  Christie  leave 
to  announce  his  intention  among  his  friends,  or 
wherever  he  thought  proper,  and  in  order  to 
give  tclat  to  the  occasion,  he  promised  to  come 
in  state.  On  the  day  appointed,  therefore,  the 
room  was  crowded  in  the  expectation  of  seeing 
this  venerable  and  celebrated  nobleman,  who 
arrived  in  a  coach  and  six,  with  numerous  atten- 
dants. The  company  gave  way  and  afforded  a 
convenient  space  for  his  lordship.  He  was  at- 
tended by  Mr.  Christie,  who  took  the  liberty  of 
directing  his  lordship's  attention  to  some  pictures, 
and  requested  to  be  favoured  with  his  opinion  of 
the  chief  productions  in  the  room.  .  .  .  The 
auditors  pressed  as  near  as  respect  for  his  lordship 
would  permit  them,  in  order  to  hear  and  circulate 
his  opinions.  .  .  . 

"  I  remember  calling  on  Mr.  Christie  one  morn- 


ing,  just  before  he  was  going  into  his  great  room  to 
dispose  of  an  estate.  Always  alive  to  the  interest 
of  his  employers,  he  requested  that  I  would  act  as 
a  bidder.  I  observed  that  if  any  of  my  friends 
happened  to  be  present,  they  would  laugh  if  they 
saw  me  come  forward  on  such  an  occasion,  and 
that,  as  it  would  be  totally  new  to  me,  I  should 
commit  some  blunder.  He,  however,  repeated  his 
request,  and  I  assented.  It  happened  as  I  appre- 
hended, for  I  made  a  bidding  beyond  that  of  a 
bond  fide  purchaser,  who  would  go  no  further,  and 
the  estate  was  knocked  down  to  me.  I  apologized 
for  my  blundering  ignorance,  which  Mr.  Christie 
treated  with  his  usual  good-nature  and  affability, 
and  insisted  on  my  staying  to  dine  with  the  family." 
A  great  feature  of  the  sales  at  Christie's  at  the 
latter  part  of  the  last  century  was  the  private  view 
day.  This  was  a  fashionable  lounge  where  persons 
of  distinction  congregated  in  great  numbers.  Dur- 
ing the  season,  when  any  remarkable  collections 
were  on  view,  occasional  evening  receptions  took 
place  :  the  great  room  was  then  lighted  up,  and 
persons  of  quality  attended  in  such  large  numbers 
that  an  official  from  the  Opera  was  stationed  at 
the  entrance  to  prevent  the  intrusion  of  those  not 
belonging  to  the  fashionable  world.  The  last  of 
these  evening  receptions  was  held  when  Watson 
Taylor's  pictures  were  on  view.  Gillray's  "  A  Peep 
at  Christie's,"  published  on  September  4th,  1796, 
gives  us  a  very  good  idea,  more  or  less  imaginary, 
of  a  private  view  day  at  the  celebrated  auction 
room  at  this  period.  This  caricature  has,  as  its 


second  title,  "  Tally-ho  and  his  Nimeney  Pimeney, 
Taking  their  morning  Lounge;"     Miss  Farren, 


whose  inimitable  performance  of  the  character 
of  Nimeney  Pimeney  in  General  Burgoyne's 
"  Heiress  "  obtained  her  the  nickname,  had  not 
yet  become  the  second  wife  of  the  Earl  of  Derby. 


Lord  Derby  is  admiring  a  sporting  picture,  The 
Death  of  Reynard,  in  allusion  to  his  tastes  and 
circumstances;  whilst  Miss  Farren  is  scrutinizing 
the  merits  of  a  different  subject,  Zenocrates  and 
Phryne  ;  in  the  background,  engaged  in  the  study 
of  Susannah  and  the  Elders,  is  a  group  of  fashion- 
able loungers  dressed  in  the  height  of  the  prevailing 
mode.  Gillray  hated  both  Lord  Derby  and  Miss 
Farren,  so  that,  in  his  caricature,  he  has  libelled 
both  the  lady  and  her  protector. 

On  two  occasions,  James  Christie  I.  added  to 
the  responsibility  of  a  rapidly  growing  business  by 
investing  in  newspaper  property.  He  was  one  of 
the  twenty  original  proprietors  of  the  Morning 
Chronicle^  which  started  in  June,  1769, — the 
other  proprietors,  it  is  interesting  to  mention,  in- 
cluded John  Murray,  Peter  Elmsley,  and  four 
other  booksellers.  The  Morning  Chronicle  was 
Whig  in  politics,  and  its  editor  was  William 

1  Here  is  an  exceedingly  interesting  advertisement  copied 
from  the  Morning  Chronicle,  of  Saturday,  November  24th, 

By   Mr.    CHRISTIE, 

On  the  premifes,  in  the  courfe  of  a  fhort  time. 

ALL  the  fuperlatively  rich,  elegant,  and  fu- 
perb  HOUSEHOLD  FURNITURE,  pier  glaffes 
of  great  magnitude,  beauty,  and  perfection  j  a  most  capi- 
tal and  valuable  collection  of  Italian,  French,  Flemifh, 
and  Dutch  Pictures  of  the  moft  efteemed  Mafters,  and  in 
the  higheft  (late  of  perfection. 

Ineftimable  China,  a  fuite  of  the  Gobeline  Tapeftry, 
choice  wines,  and  a  profufion  of  valuable  articles,  the  pro- 
perty of 

His  Excellence   COUNT    D'ADHEMAR, 
AmbafTador  to  his  Moft  Chriftian  Majefty,  returned  to 


At  his  Excellency's  Houfe  in  Piccadilly. 
Notice  of  viewing  and  fale  will  be  given. 


Woodfall  ("  memory  "  Woodfall),  who  was  also 
printer  and  reporter.  How  long  Christie  re- 
mained a  proprietor  is  not  known,  probably  not 
long,  and  almost  certainly  not  after  1789,  when 
Woodfall  left  the  paper,  which  had  previously 
passed  into  the  hands  of  James  Perry.  It  is  pro- 
bable, indeed,  that  he  did  not  remain  connected 
with  the  paper  for  more  than  a  year  or  two,  as 
he  was  one  of  the  earlier  proprietors  of  the 
Chronicles  "  impudent  rival,"  the  Morning  Post, 
which  started  as  a  Tory  paper  in  November, 
1772.  The  daily  circulation  of  the  Morning  Post, 
m  t795>  had  dwindled  down  to  350,  and  Tattersall, 
the  auctioneer,  who  was  chief  proprietor,  disposed 
of  his  interest  to  David  Stuart  for  ^600,  which 
price  included  the  house  in  Catherine  Street,  the 
plant  and  copyright.  Stuart  himself  tells  us : 
"  Soon  after  I  joined  the  Morning  Post  in  the 
autumn  of  1795,  Christie,  the  auctioneer,  left  it  on 
account  of  its  low  sale,  and  left  a  blank,  a  ruinous 
proclamation  of  decline.  But  in  1802  he  came  to 
me  again,  praying  for  readmission." 

The  value  of  the  press  as  an  advertising 
medium  had  from  the  very  first  been  fully  recog- 
nized by  him.  His  advertisements  constantly 
appeared  in  the  leading  newspapers  of  the  day. 
One  of  the  earliest  of  these  advertisements  ap- 
peared in  Lloyd's  Evening  Post,  December  nth- 
I4th,  1767.  It  announced  that  on  Thursday  next, 
the  1 7th  inst.,  Mr.  Christie  would  sell  at  his  Great 
Auction  Rooms,  in  Pall  Mall,  "a  valuable  collec- 
tion of  Italian,  French  and  Flemish  Pictures,  the 


property  of  a  Person  of  Distinction,  the  Principal 
of  which  are  in  high  Preservation."  In  the  next 
issue  of  the  same  journal,  December  1 4th- 1 6th, 
we  find  an  announcement  that,  immediately  after 
Christmas,  Mr.  Christie  would  "  sell  all  the  genuine 
and  neat  household  furniture  and  other  valuable 
effects  of  a  gentleman  of  distinction  leaving  off 
housekeeping,  at  his  house  opposite  the  Middlesex 
Coffee  House,  in  Charles  Street,  Cavendish 
Square."  The  same  journal,  December  i8th- 
2ist,  announces  the  sale  by  auction  of  "all  this 
year's  produce  of  the  Artificial  Stone  Manu- 
factory, consisting  of  above  100  different  subjects, 
including  antique  bustos,  figures,  vases,  tables, 
friezes,  medallions,  architect  and  chimney  pieces, 
both  antique  and  modern."  It  was  not  until 
very  late  in  the  century  that  Mr.  Christie's  sales 
were  reported  by  the  press,  and  then  only  in 
fits  and  starts,  and  in  a  very  perfunctory  kind  of 

James  Christie  died  at  his  house  in  Pall  Mall 
on  November  8th,  1803,  aged  73,  and  was  interred 
at  St.  James's  Burial  Ground  in  the  Hampstead 
Road.  He  was  twice  married,  the  eldest  of  his 
children,  James,  succeeding  him ;  the  second, 
Charles,  Captain  in  the  5th  Regiment  of  Bengal 
Native  Infantry,  was  killed  in  1812  in  Persia, 
during  a  Russian  attack  ;  the  third,  Albany,  died 
in  1821  ;  the  fourth,  Edward,  a  midshipman,  died 
at  Port  Royal,  in  Jamaica,  1821  ;  and  the  fifth, 
Samuel  Hunter  Christie  (1784-1865),  became 
afterwards  the  distinguished  mathematician. 

From  an  engraving  after  the  original  portrait  by  T.  GAINSBOROUGH. 

as,  Mr 

.•nt  sul     . 


"..    '•: 



n  November  8th 
t  St.  Jar 
oad.     He  was  twice  r 

:dren,    James,    succe 
.-s,  Captain  in  th< 
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ri£  nioi  i 

t  Of  his 


In  an  obituary  notice,  the  Gentleman's  Maga- 
zine said  : — "  In  Pall  Mall,  aged  73,  after  a  long 
and  lingering  illness,  Mr.  James  Christie,  many 
years  well-known  and  justly  celebrated  as  an 
auctioneer,  and  the  successful  disposer  of  property 
of  every  kind,  whether  by  public  sale  or  private 
contract.  With  an  easy  and  gentleman-like  flow 
of  eloquence,  he  possessed  in  a  great  degree  the 
power  of  persuasion,  and  even  tempered  his  public 
addresses  by  a  gentle  refinement  of  manners.  His 
remains  were  interred  on  the  I4th  inst." 

In    1/78,    Gainsborough    painted    his    friend's 
portrait  and  presented  it  to  him ;    it   is  a   half- 
length,    standing    leaning    on    a    picture.      This 
portrait  continued  to  be  hung  in  the  King  Street 
Rooms  until  1846.     Gainsborough  is  said  to  have 
made  a  request  that  the  picture  should  be  hung 
in  the  great  sale-room,  avowedly  for  the  purpose 
of  drawing  the  public  attention  to  his  name  as  a 
portrait  painter.     This  portrait,  of  which  we  give 
a  reproduction,  has  been  engraved  ;  the  original  is 
now  in  Mr.  Christie's  possession  at  Framingham. 
On    two    occasions    the    first    James    Christie 
admitted   partners.     From    January    i6th,    1777, 
until  October  I2th-i3th,  1784,  the  firm  was  known 
as  Christie  and  Ansell ;  and  from  February  i6th, 
1797,  up  to  and  including  May  2Oth  of  the  same 
year,  it  stood  as  Christie,  Sharp,  and  Harper, — the 
catalogue  of  the   sale   held   on    May   22nd,  was 
printed  with  the  two  latter  names,  which  are,  how- 
ever, blotted  out  in  the  auctioneer's  copy. 

James  Christie  the  Second,  was  born  in   Pall 


Mall  in  1773.  He  was  educated  at  Eton,  and 
was  intended  for  the  Church,  but  entered  the 
auctioneer's  business,  which  after  his  father's 
death  he  carried  on  with  increased  success.  The 
younger  James  Christie's  success  as  an  auctioneer 
was  only  one  degree  less  than  his  abilities  as  an 
author,  his  publications  being  as  follows  : 

"  An  Enquiry  into  the  Antient  Greek  Game, 
supposed  to  have  been  invented  by  Palamedes, 
antecedent  to  the  Siege  of  Troy  ;  with  reasons  for 
believing  the  same  to  have  been  known  from 
remote  antiquity  in  China,  and  progressively  im- 
proved into  the  Chinese,  Indian,  Persian,  and 
European  Chess ;  also  two  dissertations  on  the 
Athenian  Shiophoria,  and  on  the  mystical  meaning 
of  the  bough  and  umbrella  in  the  Skiran  rites." 
4to,  London,  1801. 

"  A  Disquisition  upon  Etruscan  Vases,  display- 
ing their  probable  Connections  with  the  Shows  at 
Eleusis,  and  the  Chinese  Feast  of  Lanterns."  4to, 
London,  1806.  Of  this  work,  which  contains  16 
plates,  only  100  copies  were  printed  for  private 
distribution.  To  some  copies  is  added  an  engrav- 
ing of  a  vase  which  belonged  to  J.  Edwards. 

"  An  Essay  upon  the  Earliest  Species  of 
Idolatry,  the  Worship  of  the  Elements."  4to, 
Norwich,  1814.  In  addition  to  a  frontispiece,  this 
volume  has  also  a  coloured  folding  Chinese  plate  ; 
it  further  contains  a  description  of  a  colossal  vase 
found  in  the  ruins  of  Hadrian's  villa,  near  Rome, 
formerly  belonging  to  the  noble  family  of  Lanti, 
afterwards  acquired  by  Francis,  Duke  of  Bedford. 


From  a  bust  by  HARRY  BEHNES,  now  in  possession  of 
Messrs.  Christie. 

ly  im- 
i,  and 

.11   StiaiJIHp   83MAI 

•     ;     .... 



only    i 

r  of  a  \  ^t!  %\ 
:'An     I 


"  Disquisitions  upon  the  painted  Greek  Vases, 
and  their  probable  connection  with  the  Shows  of 
the  Eleusinian  and  other  mysteries  "  in  "  Outline 
Engravings  and  Descriptions  of  the  Woburn 
Abbey  Marbles."  4to,  London,  1825. 

"An  Enquiry  into  the  Early  History  of  Greek 
Sculpture."  4to,  London,  1833. 

His  intimacy  with  Charles  Townley  is  said  to 
have  led  James  Christie  into  the  study  of  the 
painted  Greek  vases,  the  result  of  which  was  the 
privately  printed  edition  of  a  limited  number  of 
copies  of  the  first  work  in  the  foregoing  list.  It 
was  enlarged  and  issued  again  in  1825,  its  published 
price  being  two  guineas.  The  last  work  on  the 
list  had  been  written  to  form  the  introduction  to 
the  second  volume  of  "  Specimens  of  Ancient 
Sculpture,"  published  by  the  Dilettanti  Society, 
but  a  less  speculative  paper  by  R.  P.  Knight  was 
chosen  instead.  Fifty  copies  of  Christie's  essay 
were,  however,  privately  printed  by  the  author's 
son,  James  Stirling  Christie.  This  publication  is 
additionally  valuable  from  the  fact  that  it  contains 
a  portrait  of  the  author  from  a  bust  by  Harry 
Behnes,  drawn  by  Henry  Corbould,  and  engraved 
by  Robert  Graves. 

The  second  James  Christie  was  not  only  a 
scholar,  but  he  was  also  a  great  student  of  biblical 
and  poetical  studies  ;  "  his  position  as  a  fine-art 
critic  was  recognized  by  his  election  to  the 
Athenaeum  Club,  1826,  and  to  the  Dilettanti 
Society,  1824."  He  was  for  several  years  one  of 
the  registrars  of  the  Literary  Fund.  He  died  at 


his  house  in  King  Street,  February  2nd,  1831, 
aged  58,  and  left  two  sons,  James  Stirling  Christie, 
who  died  in  1834, and  George  Henry  Christie,  J. P., 
of  Framingham  House,  near  Norwich,  who  re- 
tired from  the  firm  in  1863,  and  who  died  in  1887, 
aged  seventy-six.  He  was  succeeded  as  the  head 
of  the  business  by  his  son,  Mr.  James  H.  B. 
Christie,  who  retired  from  the  firm  in  1889. 

On  February  23rd,  1831,  the  firm  became  known 

as  Christie  and  Manson.     William  Manson,  who 

died    in    1852,    and    Edward    his    brother,    who 

subsequently  became  a  partner  and  who  died  in 

1884,  were  sons  of  the  well-known   bookseller, 

J.   P.    Manson,  who  carried  on  business  first  in 

Westminster  and  subsequently  in  Gerard  Street, 

Soho,  where  he  died  in  1812.     The  present  head 

of  the  firm,  Mr.  Thomas  H.  Woods,  who  had  been 

for  many  years  an  assistant,  became  a  partner  in 

1859,  his  name  appearing  for  the  first  time  on  the 

sale  catalogue  of  the  library  of  John  Allan  Powell, 

November  ist.     After  the  secession  of  Mr.  James 

H.  B.  Christie,  the  firm  was  reconstituted,  the  new 

partners   being    Mr.    Taylor,  who    had    been    an 

assistant  since    1858;    Mr.   Arthur   Nattali,    who 

entered  the  house  a  year  later,  and  seceded  in  July, 

1896  ;  Mr.  W.  Agnew,  son  of  the  well-known  dealer, 

Sir  William  Agnew ;  and  Mr.  L.  Hannen. 

James  Christie's  first l  sale  took  place,  at  Dalton's 
Print  Rooms,  in  Pall  Mall,  on  December  5th,  1 766. 
The  exact  locality  of  the  house  is  disputed,  for  Pall 
Matt  was  constantly  changing  its  appearance  from 

1  See  note,  p.  2. 


From  an  engraved  portrait  in  possession  of  Messrs.  Christie. 

M  lJj 




•d  in 


rst    in 


tit  head 



the  latter  part  of  the  last,  up  to  about  the  middle  of 
the  present  century.  The  Academy  Rooms  were 
opposite  Market  Lane,  which  is  supposed  to  have 
been  a  narrow  thoroughfare  about  a  hundred 
yards  to  the  west  of  the  Haymarket,  and  on  the 
site  of  the  present  Senior  United  Service  Club. 
In  1768  the  Royal  Academy  took  possession  of  a 
part  of  the  house  in  which  Mr.  Christie  had  been 
established  for  six  years.  In  1770,  Christie  re- 
moved westward  to  No.  125,  adjoining  Schom- 
berg  House,  where  Gainsborough,  on  his  arrival 
in  London  from  Bath  in  1774,  set  up  his  studio. 
Schomberg  House,  on  the  south  side  of  Pall  Mall, 
is  close  to  the  present  War  Office,  or  rather  the 
half  of  it  which  was  not  pulled  down  in  1852. 
Christie's  "  Great  Rooms  "  were  to  be  found  next 
to  Schomberg  House  until  the  autumn  of  1823, 
when  the  next  move  was  to  8,  King  Street,  St. 
James's  Square,  the  present  position,  which  covers 
what  was  formerly  Wilson's  European  Emporium, 
or  Museum,  prior  to  which  the  place  had  an  unenvi- 
able notoriety  as  a  gambling  hell.  The  first  sale 
after  the  firm  established  itself  in  King  Street  was 
that  of  a  Library  of  Books,  December  i8th.  The 
late  Mr.  George  Redford  suggests  that  the  pre- 
mises in  King  Street  were  probably  acquired  some 
years  before  Christie  finally  took  possession.  This 
suggestion  has  something  in  its  favour,  but  it  is 
more  probable  that  the  European  Museum  was  let 
out  for  various  purposes,  such  as  picture  exhibitions. 
On  May  nth  and  i2th,  1791,  Mr.  Christie  held  a 
sale  of  prints  and  drawings  here  ;  and  again  on 


January  3ist,  and  February  ist  and  2nd,  1793,  he 
sold  John  Bertel's  immense  collection  of  pictures 
and  prints  at  8,  King  Street.  These  catalogues 
contain  an  intimation  that  copies  were  to  be  had 
at  the  Great  Rooms  in  Pall  Mall.  Apparently  the 
first  James  Christie  lived  in  Castle  Street,  Oxford 
Road  (or  Market),  at  the  time  he  commenced 
business,  as  catalogues  were  to  be  had  there,  as 
well  as  at  his  Great  Rooms.  The  dingy  exterior 
and  entrance  of  8,  King  Street,  gave  way  in  1893 
to  the  present  handsome  portico  and  spacious 
entrance  hall ;  the  interior  has  frequently  undergone 
alteration,  whilst  the  octagon  room  is  a  copy  of 
one  built  in  the  Adelphi  by  Adam  for  Whitefoord. 
James  Christie  primus  started  in  business  at  a 
most  opportune  time.  The  dispersal  of  the  cele- 
brated collection  of  pictures  belonging  to  Charles  I. 
had  apparentlyput  a  stop  to  the  taste  for  the  acquisi- 
tion of  works  of  art,  and  for  over  a  century  after- 
wards picture  collecting  in  England  was  almost 
unknown.  About  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth 
century  this  dormant  faculty  began  to  give  frequent 
signs  of  life,  and  in  the  course  of  a  very  few  years 
it  had  developed  into  a  prevailing  passion.  Various 
circumstances  which,  however  fateful  and  ruinous 
to  foreign  countries,  gave  it  an  impetus  to  which 
modern  history  presents  no  parallel.  "  La  chute 
du  trone  de  Constantin  porta  dans  1' Italic  les 
debris  de  1'ancienne  Grece  ;  la  France  s'enrichit 
a  son  tour  de  ces  precieuses  depouilles ; "  and 
England  in  her  turn  enriched  herself  with  the 
spoils  of  France  and  Italy.  The  greater  propor- 


tion  of  the  pictures  which  were  sold  at  auction 
before  the  middle  of  the  last  century  were  doubt- 
less good  old  copies,  or  possibly  in  many  cases 
replicas,  either  by  the  artists  themselves,  or  by 
their  pupils.  Few  of  the  picture  sales  up  to  this 
period  contain  items  for  which  a  higher  figure 
than  ^20  was  paid,  and,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  they 
nearly  all  realized  very  considerably  less  than  that 
sum.  This  applies  even  to  the  sale  of  the  Earl 
of  Oxford's  collection  by  Cock,  on  March  8th 
and  five  following  days,  1741-2,  when,  however, 
"an  exceedingly  fine  head  by  Holbein"  realized 
50  guineas  ;  and  a  fine  portrait  by  Vandyck  of  Sir 
Kenelm  Digby,  his  wife  and  two  sons,  produced 
1 70  guineas.  The  sale  of  Dr.  Mead's  collection 
by  A.  Langford,  on  March  2oth,  2ist,  22nd,  1754, 
shows  a  much  higher  average,  the  pictures  realizing 
the  then  high  total  of  ^3,417  i  is. ;  a  Holy  Family 
by  Maratti  selling  for  175  guineas;  Holbein's 
Erasmus,  a  Kit-cat,  £\  10  ;  Rubens'  Sir  Theodore 
Mayerne,  1 10  guineas,  and  so  forth. 

England's  isolated  position,  and  the  known  im- 
possibility of  its  successful  invasion  by  any  foreign 
power,  doubtless  had  much  to  do  with  the  trans- 
ference here  of  many  celebrated  collections — the 
Orleans  and  the  Calonne  for  example — during  the 
early  days  of  the  French  Revolution.  But  the 
importance  of  London  as  a  market  for  great 
pictures  had  been  fully  recognized  nearly  a  quarter 
of  a  century  before  this  event.  London  had 
become  a  wealthy  city,  and  rich  men  from  all  parts 
of  Europe  had  come  here  to  live.  Picture  buyers 

i.  c 


were  numerous,  and  their  purses  were  well  filled. 
Desenfans,  Le  Brun,  Ansell,  Sir  Robert  Strange, 
and  other  buyers,  collectors  or  agents,  found 
London  an  exceedingly  safe  and  agreeable  place. 
Desenfans  came  here  in  1770;  it  was  not  until 
1790,  immediately  after  the  French  Revolution, 
that  Stanislaus  sent  him  a  commission  to  purchase 
a  collection  of  pictures  for  Poland  ;  but  there  can 
be  no  doubt  that  Desenfans  had  from  the  very 
first  been  an  assiduous  picture  hunter.  About 
1786  or  1787  he  created  a  sensation  by  paying 
2,500  guineas  for  The  Seaport  with  St.  Ursula, 
by  Claude,  which  had  been  imported  in  i  760  by 
Mr.  Lock,  from  the  Palace  Barbarini  at  Rome. 
Over  a  century  had  passed  since  such  a  large  price 
had  been  paid  for  a  single  picture.  A  few  years 
after  this  another  sensation  was  caused  by  the  fact 
that  ,£7,000  were  paid  for  a.pair  of  Claudes.  The 
result  of  these  sensational  prices  was  that  the 
French,  Italian  and  Dutch  dealers  brought  their 
best  wares  to  London.  For  many  years  rich 
Englishmen  had  either  collected  pictures  when  on 
their  travels  on  the  Continent,  or  had  sent  their 
agents  for  this  purpose;  but  this  costly  and  unsatis- 
factory proceeding  was  dispensed  with  at  the  close 
of  the  last  century,  the  market  in  London  being, 
in  fact,  for  a  time  glutted  with  pictures  by  the 
best  masters. 

Before  the  first  quarter  of  the  present  century, 
the  most  important  collections,  wholly  or  in  part,  of 
Paris,  Rome,  Florence,  Bologna  and  Genoa  had 
found  their  way  into  this  country.  The  Orleans 


collection  was  dispersed  in  London  by  private 
contract,  and  at  auction  by  Coxe,  producing  a  total 
of  nearly  80,000  guineas.  Buchanan,  in  his  inter- 
esting "  Memoirs  of  Painting,"  tells  us  that  until 
the  arrival  of  the  Orleans  collection  in  England, 
"  the  prevailing  taste  and  fashion  had  been  for  the 
acquisition  of  pictures  of  the  Flemish  and  Dutch 
schools  ;  this  likewise  had  for  a  long  period  been 
the  rage  in  France.  These  were  much  more 
easily  acquired,  and  came  more  frequently  before 
the  eye  of  the  public  than  works  of  the  Italian 
masters ;  it  might,  therefore,  be  deemed  some- 
what singular  to  see  with  what  avidity  the 
present  collection  was  seized  on  by  amateurs  of 
painting  in  general ;  and  it  will  not  be  deemed 
surprising  that,  for  a  time,  a  new  turn  was  given 
to  the  taste  for  collecting  in  this  country.  Sub- 
sequent importation  of  the  works  of  the  Italian 
masters,  gave  an  opportunity  of  improving  the 
taste,  and  brought  the  English  collections  gener- 
ally to  a  standard  of  consequence  which  they 
could  not  boast  of  before  that  period." 

The  few  foregoing  facts  will  indicate  the  posi- 
tion of  the  picture  market  previous  to  and  during 
Mr.  Christie's  first  quarter  of  a  century  in  business. 
In  addition  to  Cock  and  Langford,  who  between 
them  sold  most  of  the  picture  collections  which 
came  under  the  hammer  before  Christie  started, 
the  other  art  auctioneers  included  Coxe,  who  dis- 
persed some  important  collections  ;  Skinner  and 
Dyke,  who  sold  the  Calonne  collection  ;  and  other 
firms  of  considerably  less  importance. 





SIGNOR     BIONDI SAMUEL     FOOTE W.     LAWS — N.     J.     DES- 


HE  early  sales,  of  which  we  possess 
catalogues,  of  James  Christie  differed 
very  little,  if  anything,  from  those  of 
other  auctioneers,  who  sold  whatever 
they  could  get  to  sell ;  but  the  earlier  of 
the  Christie  auctions  possess  a  kind  of  independent 
interest,  having  regard  to  the  high  position  which 
the  firm  was  destined  to  occupy  at  a  comparatively 
early  period  of  its  existence.  The  first  sales  in- 
cluded a  great  and  queer  variety  of  objects,  from 
coffins  to  barrel  organs,  from  the  property  of  a 
builder  to  that  of  a  farmer,  including,  of  course, 
pigs  and  poultry ;  from  the  stock-in-trade  of  the 
late  Mr.  Stephen  Paris,  weaver,  of  Spitalfields — 
"  well  known  for  his  excellent  taste  and  good 
execution  in  that  branch  of  business  ;  "  dripping 
pans,  razors,  and  a  lady's  sedan  chair  (which  fetched 
IQS.)  ;  to  "  this  year's  produce  of  the  Artificial 


Stone  Manufactory"  (of  Golden  Square,  White- 
chapel)  ;  and  a  strange  assortment  of  other  articles 
which,  however  useful,  are  not  usually  associated 
with  the  Christie's  of  to-day.  For  instance,  in 
1777  (June  2nd),  Mr.  Christie  was  called  upon  to 
sell  seven  bright  bay,  nagtail  coach  geldings  of 
Thomas  Rumbold,  Esq.,  at  the  Mary-le-Bonne 
Mews,  which  realized  from  eight-and-a-half  to 
38  guineas  ;  and  in  1795  (January  22nd),  "about 
72  loads  of  excellent  meadow  hay,"  etc.,  at  Holland 
House,  Kensington,  the  Duke  of  Queensberry 
purchasing  the  whole  of  it  for  ^247  i6s. 

Mr.  Christie's  first  general  sale  of  which  there 
is  any  record  in  the  shape  of  a  catalogue,  com- 
prised the  genuine  household  furniture,  jewels, 
plate,  fire-arms,  china,  wine  and  so  forth,  "  late  the 
property  of  a  Noble  Personage  (deceas'd)."  It 
was  a  five  days'  sale,  beginning  each  day  at  twelve 
o'clock.  The  then  prevalent  system  of  number- 
ing independently  the  lots  in  each  day's  sale  was 
observed  ;  the  only  lot  in  this  sale  that  calls 
for  particular  reference  was  "a  most  beautiful 
needle- work  carpet ;  "  5  yards  by  4^  yards, 
which  realized  50  guineas.  The  second  sale 
appears  to  have  had  its  pathetic  as  well  as 
commercial  side.  It  comprised  the  household 
furniture  of  "  a  gentleman  going  abroad,"  "  to 
which  is  added  the  rich  wearing  apparel,  fine  laces, 
jewels,  etc.,  of  his  Intended  Lady,  deceased,  pre- 
parative for  his  nuptials"  (February  i6th,  1767, 
and  five  following  days).  The  third  sale  took  place 
on  March  i8th,  and  following  day,  and  was  held 

22  EARLY    SALES,    1767. 

at  No.  4,  on  the  west  side  of  Northumberland 
Street,  in  the  Strand,  the  property  "  of  a  gentle- 
man retired  into  the  country."  This  sale  included 
"A  Signum  of  the  Order  of  the  Holy  Ghost, 
composed  of  diamonds,  rubies,  sapphires,  emeralds, 
onyx,  pearl,  etc.,  worn  by  Mary  Queen  of  Scots, 
the  morning  she  was  beheaded,  which  she  gave  to 
a  Lady  then  in  Waiting,  in  whose  family  it  has 
been  'till  this  short  time,  as  can  be  well  authenti- 
cated." This  curious  relic  sold  for  1 2  guineas  ; 
and,  according  to  Mr.  Christie's  MS.  entry  in  his 
catalogue,  it  had  been  "  worn  by  the  King  of 

On  Friday  and  Saturday,  March  2Oth  and  2ist, 
1767,  Mr.  Christie's  first  auction  of  pictures  took 
place.  It  comprised  "a  genuine  and  valuable  col- 
lection of  Italian,  French  and  Flemish  pictures, 
consigned  from  abroad,  some  of  which  are  by  the 
following  masters  : 

M.  Angelo,  N.  Poussin, 

Andrea  del  Sarto,  Jouvenet, 

Parmegiano,  Rembrandt, 

Titian,  Ostade, 

Tintoret,  Gerard  Dow, 

Salvator  Rosa,  Teniers, 

Carlo  Maratti,  Cuyp, 

Borgognone,  Molenaer." 

This  sale,  taking  its  tangible  results  as  a  guide, 
was  not  a  successful  one,  many  of  the  pictures 
being  bought  in.  A  portrait  by  Holbein  sold  for 
iSs.  ;  a  Titian  for  2  guineas;  a  Guido  for  i 


1)\  T.  ROWLANDSON.     From  the  original  drawing  now  in  possession 
of  Mr.  T.  H.  Woods. 



.ble  col- 


<ig  ntr 




l-W0#  .1' 



THE    FIRST    CHINA    SALE.  23 

guinea  ;  a  "  very  fine  "  Holy  Family  by  Schedoni 
for  26  guineas  ;  "  A  Vestal  "  by  Casali,  10 guineas; 
and  "a  man  smoaking,"  by  Teniers  for  145.  The 
total  of  the  two  days'  sale  only  amounted  to 
^244  i8j. 

China  sales  date  from  May  25th  and  26th, 
1767,  when  the  stock-in-trade  of  Mr.  Stewart 
("who  is  going  into  another  Way  of  Business"), 
at  his  "  Glass  and  Staffordshire  Warehouse,  oppo- 
site Argyle  Buildings,  Oxford  Road,"  was  offered 
by  Mr.  Christie,  who  also  sold  the  stock  of  the  late 
Mr.  Thomas  Turner,  "  China-man,  who  had  been 
in  business  over  30  years,"  in  July,  1767.  At 
this  period  china  was  collected  with  as  great  a 
fervour  as  it  is  in  the  present  year  of  grace.  The 
prices  have,  it  is  true,  greatly  altered.  When 
Mr.  Christie  started  in  business  the  works  of 
Sevres,  Dresden,  Chelsea  and  Derby  were  in  the 
height  of  their  fame.  It  will  be  interesting  to 
quote  here  a  few  of  the  prices  realized  at  some  of 
the  early  china  sales  of  James  Christie.  Two 
white  Chelsea  groups  of  the  four  quarters  of  the 
globe,  £i  is.-,  twenty-six  crimson  and  gold  plates 
of  the  same  ware,  enamelled  with  birds,  £2  6s. , 
and  other  Chelsea  ware  included ;  a  white  group 
of  Hercules  and  Omphale,  half-a-guinea,  and  a 
figure  of  Apollo,  145-.,  and  four  statuettes,  $s. ;  a 
complete  service  of  this  porcelain,  ^"25  14^.  6d.  ; 
a  dessert  service,  ^"25  14^.;  and  four  "compo- 
teers,"  125-.  A  Worcester  tea  set,  £2  i2s.  ;  a 
Nankin  blue  and  white  table  service,  ^25  45-. 
Sevres  urns  and  vases  varied  in  price,  from  10 


guineas  to  less  than  £20 ;  among  the  property  of 
the  celebrated  sporting  character,  Captain  O'Kelly, 
was  a  tea  and  coffee  equipage  of  Dresden  China, 
which  sold  for  1 7  guineas ;  and  also  a  complete 
dessert  service  of  Japanese  porcelain,  which 
brought  19  guineas,  and  so  on.  These  totals 
would  not  go  very  far  at  Christie's  to-day,  when 
three  articles  of  Sevres  alone  realized  10,000 
guineas,  and  when  everything  else  that  is  not 
modern  antique  attracts  not  only  a  big  crowd,  but 
prices  which  only  the  very  wealthy  can  afford  to  pay. 
The  early  porcelain  sales,  despite  their  great 
interest  and  importance,  are  too  numerous  to 
be  dealt  with  in  this  place.  Moreover,  Mr. 
J.  E.  Nightingale,  F.S.A.,  has  edited  a  series  of 
reprints  from  the  Christie  catalogues,  of  the  sales 
of  Chelsea,  Derby,  Worcester  and  Bristol  manu- 
factories, from  1769  to  1785.  Unfortunately,  Mr. 
Nightingale's  valuable  "  Contributions  towards  a 
History  of  Early  English  Porcelain"  (1881)  was 
printed  for  private  circulation  only- — the  present 
writer  is  indebted  to  Mr.  James  H.  B.  Christie  for  a 
copy — and  is  not  nearly  so  well  known  as  its  great 
merits  deserve.  It  was  at  one  time  the  fashion 
for  persons  of  quality  to  frequent  sales  and  make 
purchases  for  themselves  ;  this  practice  culminated 
about  1780.  Mr.  Nightingale  tells  us  that  at 
Duesbury's  sale  of  Derby  and  Chelsea  porcelain 
in  1782,  the  following  distinguished  persons  were 
present  and  became  purchasers  : — Dr.  Johnson, 
The  Duchess  of  Portland,  Lady  Bute,  Sir  Abra- 
ham Hume,  Lord  FitzWilliam,  Lady  Weymouth, 

MR.    DKI.BOURCS    SALE.  25 

Lady  Essex,  Lady  Cornwall,  the  Duchess  of  An- 
caster,  Sir  Joseph  Banks,  and  many  others. 

From  the  end  of  the  year  1767,  picture  sales 
became  more  numerous,  and  more  important  as 
time  passed  on.     The  second  of  James  Christie's 
picture  sales,  held  on  Thursday,  December  i7th, 
1767,  was  a  far  more  successful  performance  than 
the  first,  inasmuch  as  it  included  several  of  con- 
siderable importance,  e.g.,  a  Guercino,   Susannah 
and   the  two    Elders,    £200 ;    and    two    of    L. 
Jordanus,    Mars    and    Venus   with    Vulcan,    and 
its  companion,  The  Judgment  of  Paris,  each   of 
which  realized  ^200 — a  very  good  figure  indeed 
to  pay  for  a  picture  at  that  period.     Early  in  the 
following  year,  January  3Oth,  another  picture  sale 
included  a  Boar  Hunt  by  Snyders,  "the  very  best 
of  the  master,"  7  feet  x  1 2  feet,  90  guineas.    The 
earliest  collection  of  pictures  sold  by  Mr.  Christie, 
to  which  the  name  of  the  collector  was  attached,  is 
that  of  "the  late  Mr.  Delbourg,  first  musician  to 
H.M.,"  sold  on  Friday  and  Saturday,  March  nth 
and   1 2th,  1768.     The  collection  itself  contained 
nothing  of  note,  except,  perhaps,  an   example  of 
Sir  Peter   Lely,  described  by   Mr.  Christie  as  "a 
capital  picture  of  King  Charles  II.,  in  the  character 
of  Cymon,  looking  at  the  Dutchesses  of  Cleveland 
and  Portsmouth  and  Nell  Gwyne  asleep,  with  the 
most  graceful  parts  of  their  bodies  exposed,  par- 
ticularly mentioned  in  the  Anecdotes  of  the  Hon. 
Horace  Walpole  " — but  its  various  attractions  only 
resulted  in  the  low  figure  of  ^8  7$.  6d.   In  February, 
1769  (Saturday  4th  and   nth),  Mr.  Christie  held 


two  picture  sales  ;  the  later  of  the  two  collections 
"  was  collected  abroad  last  season  at  a  vast  ex- 
pense, and  consigned  to  Mr.  Robert  Ansell,  of 
Margaret  Street,  Cavendish  Square."  This  may 
be  regarded  as  Christie's  first  great  sale,  and  it  was 
attended  by  quite  a  number  of  eminent  personages, 
some  of  whom  were  buyers — Lord  Palmerston, 
Lord  Barrymore,  the  Duke  of  Argyle  and  others. 
Eighty-five  lots  realized  ,£1,327  los.  6d.,  the 
highest  single  amount  being  100  guineas  paid  for 
a  portrait  of  Raphael,  by  himself — "  an  un- 
doubted original."  On  February  9th  and  loth, 
1770,  Mr.  Christie  sold  yet  another  consignment 
of  pictures  to  Robert  Ansell ;  and  in  March  (23rd 
and  24th),  the  pictures  of  Count  Bruhl,  Prime 
Minister  to  the  late  King  of  Poland  ;  and  during 
the  same  month,  "  for  the  benefit  of  an  infant," 
the  pictures  of  the  late  Charles  Gambarini, 
Librarian  and  Antiquarian  to  the  Landgrave  of 
Hesse-Cassel.  On  December  i4th  and  i5th  of 
the  same  year,  Mr.  Christie  held  another  interest- 
ing sale — the  collection  of  pictures,  coins,  medals, 
bronzes — "  a  matchless  and  superb  vase  and  two 
urns  of  the  ancient  Roman  ware,"  of  Pope  Paul  IV., 
left  to  Prince  Carafa  of  Naples. 

The  important  collection  of  pictures,  "  collected 
during  a  journey  of  several  years  in  Italy  and 
France"  by  the  celebrated  engraver,  (Sir)  R. 
Strange,  came  under  the  hammer  at  Christie's  on 
February  7th,  8th  and  9th,  1771,  the  153  lots 
realizing  ,£6,367  17^.  6d.  The  more  notable  of 
these  were — Murillo,  Our  Saviour  in  the  char- 


acter  of  a  Shepherd,  24^-  x  30,  300  guineas 
(Dr.  Hunter);  Vandyck,  Portrait  of  Charles  I., 
45!  x  27,215  guineas  (Dundas);  Albani,  The  Three 
Marys  at  the  Sepulchre,  210  guineas  (the  same); 
and  Luca  Giordano,  Adoration  of  the  Shepherds, 
58|-  x  49,  270  guineas.  Sir  Robert  Strange  (who 
died  in  1792)  published  in  1769  "  A  Descriptive 
Catalogue  of  a  Collection  of  Pictures,"  which  he 
collected  when  abroad.  Strange  was  a  member  of 
the  Royal  Academy  of  Painting  of  Paris  ;  of  the 
Academies  of  Florence,  Rome  and  Bologna ; 
Professor  of  the  Royal  Academy  of  Parma ;  and 
a  Director  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Artists  of  Great 
Britain.  In  addition  to  the  1771  sale,  there  were 
two  others,  first,  on  March  5th  and  6th,  1773,  when 
1 15  pictures  realized  a  total  of  ,£3,093  19^.  6d.,  and 
included  N.  Poussin,  a  Prospect  of  the  Ancient  City 
of  Terracina,  in  Naples,1  ^650  (Sir  W.  Wynn) ; 
Leonardo,  Christ  and  the  Virgin  with  St.  Joseph, 
^283  (Lord  Clive) ;  and  Claude,  The  Departure 
of  Joseph,  painted  for  the  Abbe  Chevalier,  at 
Rome  in  1677,  400  guineas,  the  drawing  of  which 
is  in  the  Liber  Veritatis.  On  May  5th  and  6th, 
1775,  when  a  total  of  ,£1,877  was  realized,  the 
only  noticeable  picture  was  a  Vandyck,  Christ 
and  the  Virgin,  with  angels,  290  guineas.  Accord- 
ing to  Mr.  Christie,  Strange  made  at  least  two 
picture-collecting  expeditions  abroad. 

1  "  The  subject  (a  man  bitten  by  a  snake)  is  the  catastrophe 
of  1641.  The  picture  is  mentioned  by  Fenelon  in  his  dialogue 
at  the  end  of  his  life  of  Mignard.  It  was  painted  for  Pointelieu, 
1648." — REDFORD. 

28          ANSELL  AND  OTHER  SALES. 

On  February  1 5th  and  i6th  of  1771,  Mr.  Christie 
disposed  of  yet  another  consignment  of  pictures, 
sent  to  Mr.  Ansell,  seventy-seven  lots  realizing 
,£3,502  195-.  6d.  In  drawing  up  the  catalogue  of 
this  sale,  Mr.  Christie  apparently  thought  that  of 
his  well-known  judgment  something  more  was 
expected  by  the  public  than  a  mere  bald  list  of 
names  and  subjects.  Consequently  he  branches  out 
in  the  following  manner — the  subject  is  a  Madonna 
and  Child  of  Carlo  Dolci  :  "  If  we  consider  this 
matchless  and  inestimable  picture,  we  shall  find 
in  it  an  union  of  the  whole  art  of  painting.  The 
charming  and  becoming  grace  of  the  Virgin,  with 
the  innocent  sweetness  and  sublimity  of  the  Child, 
renders  this  picture  excellent  beyond  descrip- 
tion." The  picture,  which  measured  48  x  42,  was 
purchased  at  520  guineas  by  Mr.  Hewitt. 

Indeed,  Ansell,  prior  to  the  partnership  which 
commenced  in  1777,  was  one  of  Mr.  Christie's 
most  important  clients,  and  was  the  means  of 
bringing  a  large  amount  of  trade  to  the  great  rooms 
in  Pall  Mall,  in  addition  to  his  own  importations. 
In  1772  (February  6th,  7th,  and  8th),  he  sold  at 
Christie's  an  assortment  from  "  the  celebrated  and 
well-known  collections  of  the  late  Mr.  Bramcamp, 
of  Amsterdam,  the  Sieur  Freneau,  of  Munick," 
and  others,  in  all  1 70  lots,  of  which  the  most  im- 
portant was  a  sea  piece  by  W.  Van  de  Velde,  300 
guineas.  Many  of  the  anonymous  picture  sales 
were  evidently  made  up  in  part  from  Ansell's  ap- 
parently inexhaustible  stock,  as  the  catalogues 
of  about  this  period  contain  many  memorandums 


of  payments  to  him.  On  April  6th  and  7th,  1773, 
another  Ansell  appears  on  the  scene,  and  the 
"  superb  collection  of  pictures  "  sold  on  this  occa- 
sion, the  property  of  the  Right  Hon.  James 
Ansell,  included  a  set  of  four  cartoons  by  Rubens, 
210  guineas,  and  set  of  five  by  Jordans,  £"179  9^., 
the  total  amounting  to  ,£1,582  iSs.  3^. 

Two  or  three  fairly  good  picture  sales  took  place 
in  January,  1772,  including  that  of  "a  nobleman, 
brought  from  his  lordship's  seat  in  the  country;" 
on  February  27th  and  28th,  pictures  "  consigned 
from  abroad,"  which  included  a  Guercino,  Angelica 
and  Meodora,  "very  capital,"  500  guineas,  pur- 
chased by  Mr.  Dillon,  for  Lord  Carlisle  ;  and  on 
March  2Oth,  and  four  following  days,  "all  that 
grand  and  noble  collection  of  pictures  of  Italian, 
French,  Flemish,  and  Dutch  pictures  of  a  noble- 
man, brought  from  his  lordship's  seat  in  Notting- 
hamshire." There  were  very  few  high  prices  in  this 
sale,  and  only  one  of  three  figures,  a  Guido,  Christ 
in  the  House  of  Simon  the  Pharisee,  150  guineas. 
On  January  27th,  and  three  following  days  "that 
much-esteemed  Museum  of  the  Marquis  Lenori 
of  Pesaro,"  came  under  the  hammer,  and  com- 
prised curious  intaglios  and  cameos,  a  variety 
of  "  most  beautiful "  and  scarce  gems,  of  Greek 
and  other  workmanship,  vases,  cups,  and  up- 
wards of  a  thousand  specimens  of  valuable  stones 
(,£1,036  4^.).  But  quite  the  most  celebrated 
character  whose  household  furniture  and  other 
effects  were  sold  in  1772  was  Captain  O'Kelly, 
The  sale  took  place  at  the  Captain's  house  at  the 

30  EARLY    SALES. 

corner  of  Great  Marlborough  Street  and  Poland 
Street,  on  February  i7th  and  i8th,  the  gross  total 
being  ,£286  qs.  only.  O'Kelly  was  the  man  who 
"  placed  "the  horses  in  a  race  at  Newmarket,  by 
naming  his  own  Eclipse  first  and  the  rest  "  no- 
where," and  won  the  bet  and  many  thousands  of 
pounds  by  instructing  his  jockey  to  "  come  away  " 
and  "  distance"  the  field.  One  of  O'Kelly's  eccen- 
tricities consisted  in  his  carrying  about  in  his 
pockets  a  "map  of  his  estates"  in  the  shape  of  a 
roll  of  bank  notes  of  a  thousand  pounds  each. 
This  roll  must  have  considerably  decreased  by 
1772.  Two  years  previously  Mr.  Christie  sold 
him  up  when  in  Dover  Street,  Piccadilly,  at  which 
place  one  of  his  effects  was  a  two-gallon  punch- 
bowl. Another  sale  of  this  year  (July  i7th  and 
1 8th)  is  too  interesting  to  be  omitted.  It  com- 
prised the  household  furniture,  plate,  trinkets, 
china,  laces,  linen,  some  wearing  apparel,  etc.,  of 
Mrs.  Winter,  deceased,  "  body-laundress  "  to  her 
late  Royal  Highness  the  Princess  Dowager  of 
Wales,  at  her  house  in  Duke  Street,  St.  James's 
(^339).  The  emoluments  of  a  "  body-laundress  " 
must  have  been  considerable  a  century  and  a 
quarter  since,  for  at  that  period  Duke  Street  was  a 
very  superior  locality. 

A  certain  Mr.  Greenwood  was  another  important 
client  of  Mr.  Christie's,  and  several  collections  of 
pictures  formed  by  him  were  sold  at  the  Great 
Rooms.  One  of  these  sales  (February  22nd, 
1 773),  comprised  a  "  valuable  collection  of  pictures 
purchased  abroad  "  by  Mr.  Greenwood,  the  best  of 


which  was  a  Backhuysen,  the  famous  sea  engage- 
ment off  La  Hogue,  between  Admirals  Russel  and 
Torville,  which,  according  to  the  cataloguer,  "  the 
great  number  of  the  ships  and  figures,  the  effects 
of  light  and  shade,  the  harmony  and  perfect  preser- 
vation of  the  whole,  pronounce  it  the  finest  picture 
of  the  subject  in  the  world."  In  spite  of  all  this 
praise  it  only  sold  for  150  guineas.  Another  of 
Greenwood's  collections  was  sold  on  February 
1 8th,  1774,  and  included  a  group  of  A  Country 
Surgeon  with  his  Patients  by  Teniers,  70  guineas  ; 
An  Interior  of  a  Country  Tavern,  by  Jan  Steen, 
135  guineas  ;  and  a  pair  by  Cortona,  The  Mar- 
riage of  the  Virgin  and  St.  Joseph,  and  "  Noli 
me  tangere,"  which  were  secured  by  Lord  Carys- 
footfor  140  guineas.  These  two  pictures  were  pur- 
chased out  of  Marshall  Tallard's  collection,  "and 
have  since  that  time  graced  the  cabinet  of  Monsieur 
L'Empereur,  where  they  have  always  met  with  the 
approbation  they  justly  deserve."  The  sales  of 
1773  included  "  the  large  elegant  mahogany  book- 
cases forming  a  complete  set "  of  the  Hon.  Topham 
Beauclerk,  Dr.  Johnson's  great  friend  ;  and  the 
two  parts  of  the  previous  year's  produce  of  the 
Derby  and  Chelsea  porcelain  manufactories. 

Samuel  Dickinson's  pictures  (March  nth  and 
1 2th),  which  Mr.  Christie  sold  in  1774,  included 
two  Claudes  from  the  cabinet  of  M.  Jullien,  of  Paris, 
A  landscape,  185  guineas  ;  and  an  Italian  seaport, 
70  guineas  ;  also  "  the  most  capital  picture  extant " 
of  Ph.  Champaigne,  230  guineas.  In  the  follow- 
ing week  (March  i8th  and  iQth),  "the  superb 


and  valuable  collection  "  of  Italian,  French,  Flem- 
ish and  Dutch  pictures,  "  collected  with  great  taste 
and  expense  out  of  some  of  the  principle  cabinets  " 
by  M.  Le  Brun,  of  Paris,  included  among  the  1 34 
lots  (,£2,142)  a  few  fairly  good  pictures.  The 
most  important  picture  sale  of  1774  (April  22nd 
and  23rd)  comprised  ninety-four  pictures  from  the 
collection  of  Sir  George  Colebrooke,  who  was  the 
head  of  an  old  and  wealthy  firm  of  bankers,  M.  P.  for 
Arundell,  and  a  constant  defender  of  the  privileges 
of  the  East  India  Company,  of  which  he  became 
Chairman  in  1769.  These  pictures  included 
a  Giordano,  Adoration  of  Shepherds,  150  guineas, 
which  was  purchased  by  the  Chelsea  Porcelain 
Manufactory  ;  Carlo  Dolci,  Virgin,  Child  and  St. 
John,  a  circle,  130 guineas;  Claude,  A  Landscape  in 
Italy,  from  Lady  Betty  Germaine's  collection, ^131  ; 
Titian,  A  Holy  Family,  130 guineas;  Vandyck,  Por- 
trait of  Cardinal  Trieste,  230  guineas  ;  Bassano, 
The  Vintage,  from  Boucher's  collection,  165 
guineas  ;  Cuyp,  a  view  of  Nimeguen,  290  guineas  ; 
and  Guido,  Venus  attired  by  the  Graces,  145 
guineas.  Total,  ^4»385  17S- 

Mr.  Christie's  picture  sales  sometimes  ran  in  fits 
and  starts.  Several  would  occur  within  a  few  weeks 
of  one  another,  and  then  cease  for  months.  After 
the  Colebrooke  dispersal,  for  example,  no  more  note- 
worthy picture  sales  occurred  until  December  I4th. 
From  the  catalogues  it  would  appear  that  there 
was  no  such  institution  as  a  vacation  invented,  for 
auctions  were  held  throughout  August,  September 
and  October — whenever,  in  fact,  they  were  wanted 


or  could  be  made  up.  Mr.  Christie's  holidays  ap- 
pear to  have  resolved  themselves  into  business 
excursions  into  the  country,  which  were  fairly 
frequent  throughout  the  year.  He  was  engaged 
for  eight  days  in  July,  1772,  at  Dawley,  Hillington, 
Middlesex;  and  on  August  i7th  and  i8th,  in 
selling  the  household  and  other  property  of  John 
Zoffany,  at  his  house  "  near  the  six-mile  stone  on 
the  road  leading  to  Brentford."  In  May,  1773,  we 
find  he  took  six  days  in  selling  Major  Granard's 
property  at  Langley,  Bucks,  three  miles  from 
Windsor;  and  in  January,  1774,  he  was  engaged 
for  three  days  at  the  Right  Hon.  Lord  Viscount 
Vane's  place,  at  Easton,  near  Winchester.  These 
country  excursions  were  continued  for  many  years, 
and  were  often  as  profitable  as  they  must  have 
been  enjoyable. 

Two  interesting  picture  sales  only  occurred  in 
1775,  the  earlier  of  which  (March  loth  and  nth), 
comprised  the  collection  of  Thomas  Bladen,  Esq., 
"  to  which  is  added  some  superb  pictures,  late  the 
property  of  a  nobleman,"  etc. ;  this  sale  included 
a  Guido,  Santa  Christina,  or  the  Force  of  Religion 
represented  by  her  Martyrdom,  430  guineas.  On 
April  1 2th  and  i3th,  the  collection  of  pictures, 
late  the  property  of  Count  Schulenburg,  of  Zell, 
the  principal  of  which  were  purchased  out  of  the 
Duke  of  Mantua's  collection,  by  Field  Marshal 
Schulenburg,  of  Venice,  were  brought  over  from 
the  Count's  palace  at  Heblen  on  the  Weser. 
The  128  lots  included  some  good  pictures,  notably 
a  Rubens,  The  Graces,  life-size,  which  realized 

I.  D 

34  THE    FOULIS    SALE. 

200  guineas.  In  the  course  of  the  following  year, 
two  or  three  rather  interesting  sales  occurred. 
Lord  Montfort's  collection  from  Horse  Heath 
(February  i6th  and  i7th,  1776),  included  A  Seaport 
by  Salvator  Rosa,  190  guineas;  the  pictures  of 
His  Excellency  J.  Got  de  Grote,  Baron  of  the 
Roman  Empire,  were  sent  over  from  his  Palace  at 
Hanover  (March  29th,  3Oth),  and  included  a 
Landscape  by  Berghem,  with  peasants  and  cattle 
reposing  in  the  shade  of  a  stupendous  rock,  250 
guineas  ;  and  a  Rembrandt,  The  Adoration  of  the 
Kings,  390  guineas.  The  concluding  picture  sale 
of  this  year  comprised  "  the  large  well-known  col- 
lection of  the  Roman,  Florentine,  Parma,  Bolog- 
nese,  Venetian,  Flemish  and  French  schools  of 
Robert  Foulis,"  which  had  formed  the  Public 
Academy  at  Glasgow  (December  6th  and  7th),  the 
192  lots  realizing  a  total  of  only  ^381  8s.  6d. 
The  taste  of  the  brothers  Foulis  for  the  fine  arts 
is  one  of  the  few  instances  on  record  which  proved 
financial  and  physical  ruin.  The  collection  of 
pictures  was  formed,  chiefly  abroad  and  at  a  great 
cost ;  after  the  death  of  Andrew,  the  younger 
brother,  Robert  decided  to  sell  the  "  Academy," 
of  which  a  catalogue  in  three  volumes  was  issued. 
He  came  up  to  London  in  April  1776,  and  "  con- 
trary to  the  advice  of  Mr.  Christie,  and  at  a  period 
when  the  market  was  glutted  with  importations 
of  pictures  from  Paris,  his  collection  was  sold  off 
greatly  under  its  supposed  value."  After  all  ex- 
penses were  defrayed,  the  balance  in  Foulis's 
favour  is  said  to  have  amounted  to  fifteen  shillings. 

EARLY    BOOK    SALES.  35 

At  about  this  period  a  number  of  interesting 
and  important  libraries  were  sold  at  Christie's. 
These  sales  usually  took  place  in  the  evenings  at  six 
o'clock.  The  well-known  and  valuable  collection 
of  books  of  John  Ratcliffe,  Esq.,  of  Bermondsey, 
was  sold  on  March  27th,  and  the  eight  following 
days  (1776),  on  which  occasion  ten  books  printed 
by  Caxton  realized  the  total  of  ^46  i$s.  6d. 
On  April  3Oth,  and  seven  following  days  of  the 
same  year,  the  library  of  the  late  Francis  Hare 
Naylor  was  sold.  On  February  2oth,  1777,  and 
ten  following  days,  Sir  George  Colebrooke's  library 
was  brought  from  his  house  in  Soho  Square  to 
Christie's  Great  Rooms  and  sold.  The  bankrupt 
stock  of  Henry  Payne  (of  Pall  Mall),  bookseller, 
was  sold  on  March  2Oth,  1782,  and  nineteen 
following  days. 

The  picture  sales  of  1771  commenced  on 
February  2ist  and  22nd,  with  the  "  superb  " 
collection  of  Signor  Biondi,  who  is  "  going 
abroad,"  and  it  included  a  Pordenone,  a  Holy 
Family  with  a  view  of  Porcie,  near  Perdonone, 
"a  capital  picture,"  130  guineas.  Picture  sales  to 
the  unusual  number  of  three  were  held  in  March, 
the  first  (6th,  7th  and  8th),  comprising  the  collection 
of  the  late  Gerard  Vandergucht,  in  which  was  a 
Bacchanalian  scene  by  Poussin,  200  guineas  ;  the 
second  on  the  i4th  and  1 5th,  included  four  pictures 
"by  that  ingenious  artist,  Mr.  West,"  Jupiter 
and  Semele,  60  guineas  ;  Pylades  and  Orestes, 
loo  guineas;  its  companion,  Continence  of 
Scipio,  100  guineas ;  and  Agrippina  landing 


the  Ashes  of  Germanicus,  105  guineas;  and  the 
third  and  last  sale  of  the  month,  2ist  and  22nd, 
comprised  the  collection  of  Gilbert  Fane  Fleming, 
which  included  Giordano's  Adoration  of  the 
Shepherds,  210  guineas,  and  a  view  of  the  City 
of  Verona,  by  Canaletto,  for  which  Lord  Cadogan 
gave  205  guineas. 

By  far  the  most  interesting  of  the  sales  of  1 778 
were  those  of  the  late  Samuel  Foote,  the  irrepres- 
sible actor,  who  died  on  October  2ist,  1777.  The 
first  of  these,  on  January  the  2nd  and  3rd,  com- 
prised the  household  furniture,  large  wardrobe  of 
table  and  bed  linen,  pictures,  prints,  china, 
carriages,  farming  and  gardening  utensils,  a  rick 
of  hay,  live  and  dead  stock,  etc.,  at  his  villa, 
"  North  End,  between  Brompton  and  Hammer- 
smith." The  second  sale  was  held  at  Foote's 
town  house,  on  the  26th,  27th  and  28th,  of  the 
same  month,  in  Suffolk  Street,  Charing  Cross, 
and  comprised  books,  jewels,  watches,  fire-arms, 
air  pump,  and  books  which  were  chiefly  in  French. 
The  third  sale  was  held  September  i8th,  and 
offered  among  other  items,  carriages,  and  a 
fine  rick  of  new  hay,  which  latter  brought 
65  guineas.  The  picture  sales  of  this  year  were 
neither  numerous  nor  important,  but  they  included 
(March  6th  and  7th)  the  properties  of  Charles 
Ogilvie,  and  others,  in  which  was  N.  Poussin, 
Jupiter  nourished  by  the  Fawns  and  Satyrs, 
460  guineas;  and  on  June  ist  and  2nd,  the  pic- 
tures of  the  late  Duchess  of  Bridgwater,  among 
which  was  a  chef-d'oeuvre  of  Murillo,  The  Good 


Shepherd,1  590  guineas,  apparently  bought  in.  In 
the  sale  of  February  i8th  and  iQth,  1/80,  there 
were  "two  matchless"  pictures  of  Murillo,  The 
Virgin  embracing  the  Infant  Christ,  300  guineas, 
and  St.  Joseph  contemplating  the  Sleeping 
Saviour,  its  companion,  280  guineas.  The  Earl 
of  Harrington's  pictures  were  sold  March  3<Dth 
and  3ist,  1781. 

The  picture  sales  of  1782  were  both  numerous 
and  interesting.  On  February  i6th,  "the  reserved 
collection  of  the  celebrated  Monsieur  Law,  well- 
known  for  being  the  founder  of  the  Mississippi 
scheme,  and  Prime  Minister  to  the  Regent,  Duke 
of  Orleans  "  ;  this  collection  included  a  Correggio, 
Jupiter  and  lo,  which  "  the  son  of  the  Duke  of 
Orleans  ordered  to  be  cut  to  pieces,"  39  guineas  ; 
a  work  of  W.  Van  de  Velde,  the  picture  of  the 
engagement  fought  on  June  3rd,  1665,  between 
the  English  and  Dutch  fleets,  respectively  under 
the  commands  of  the  Duke  of  York,  and  Admiral 
Opdam.  This  picture  was  painted  for  Pepys, 
it  was  afterwards  purchased  by  Admiral  Russel, 
and,  later,  by  the  Earl  of  Oxford,2  73  guineas. 
Among  the  Earl  of  Halifax's  collection  (April 

1  This  work,  catalogued  as  the  Pastor  Bonus,  was  bought  of 
Major,  the  engraver  (who  engraved  it  in  1772),  in  1773,  by  the 
Duchess  for  ^400,  and  was  at  the  time  considered  to  be  an 
original,  but  afterwards  ascertained  to  be  a  copy  by  Grimoux.  The 
original  is  now  in  possession  of  Baron  Rothschild,  at  Gunnersbury. 

1  The  only  picture  in  the  Earl  of  Oxford's  sale,  March 
1741-42,  which  may  possibly  be  identified  with  this  work, 
was  lot  twenty-four  in  the  fifth  day's  sale,  purchased  by  Lord 
J.  Cavendish  for  5^  guineas. 

38  EARLY  SALES,  1782-1785. 

1 9th  and  2Oth,  1782),  we  get  the  earliest  of 
Reynolds'  pictures  in  an  auction  room — Juvenile 
Amusement,  which  was  "  passed";  and  the 
celebrated  work,  Garrick  between  Tragedy  and 
Comedy,  which  realized  250  guineas;  The 
Marriage  Feast  at  Cana  in  Galilee,  catalogued 
as  by  Paul  Veronese,  and  accompanied  by  a 
most  minute  and  elaborate  description,  only 
fetched  47  guineas.  During  this  year  Christie 
and  Ansell  sold  the  household  goods  and  chattels 
of  the  Earl  of  Chesterfield,  at  his  lordship's 
house  at  Blackheath,  adjoining  to  Blackheath 
Park  (April  29th,  and  five  following  days) ;  of 
his  Excellency  Count  Belgioiox,  Envoy  Extra- 
ordinary and  Plenipotentiary  of  His  Imperial 
Majesty  to  the  Court  of  Great  Britain,  at  Portman 
Square  (November  27th  and  2Qth),  and  of  the 
Earl  of  Roseberry,  at  Holland  House,  Kensington 
(December  iQth  and  2ist). 

No  more  notable  picture  sales  occurred  until 
the  spring  of  1785.  On  March  i8th  and  igth, 
and  on  April  2nd,  the  collection  of  M.  Le  Brun, 
of  Paris,  was  sold  ;  a  made-up  sale  on  April  2Qth 
and  3Oth,  included  a  Greuze,  La  Pere  de  Famille, 
painted  for  M.  De  La  Dive,  the  patron  of  this 
artist,  350  guineas ;  the  famous  Berghem  en- 
graved by  Aliamet  under  the  title  of  L'Ancien 
port  de  Genes,  from  the  cabinet  of  Le  Comte 
Merle  (dispersed  in  Paris  during  the  previous  year), 
610  guineas.  It  was  at  this  period  that  a  very 
interesting  personage  comes  on  the  scene.  On 
May  nth,  i2th,  i3th  and  I4th,  1785,  the  first 


part  of  the  "truly  superb  collection  of  Italian, 
Roman,  Spanish,  Venetian,  English,  French, 
Flemish  and  Dutch  pictures,"  of  M.  Desenfans, 
was  offered  by  Mr.  Christie.  For  some  reason 
or  other,  which  does  not  seem  very  clear,  this 
sale  was  a  failure,  and  a  large  number  were  bought 
in.  In  July  of  the  following  year,  another  four 
days'  sale  was  an  equal  failure,  the  whole  of  the 
fourth  day,  in  fact,  being  withdrawn;  of  the  £2,622 
1 js.  6d.  realized  from  the  three  days'  sale,  lots  to 
the  value  of  ,£1,043  13S*  6df.  were  bought  in. 
Desenfans,  who  is  virtually  the  founder  of  the 
Dulwich  Gallery,  deserves  here  more  than  a 
passing  notice,  and  the  following  brief  epitome 
of  his  career  will  doubtless  be  acceptable  : 

Noel  Joseph  Desenfans  was  born  at  Douai,  in 
1745  ;  and  it  is  said  was  brought  up  in  a  foundling 
institution.  He  was  educated  partly  at  Douai, 
and  partly  at  Paris.  He  commenced  life  as  a 
writer,  but  before  he  was  thirty  years  of  age  came 
to  London  as  a  teacher  of  languages.  He  had 
considerable  taste,  and  much  love  of  the  fine  arts, 
and  often  attended  picture  sales  ;  at  one  of  these 
he  bought  a  small  picture,  by  Claude,  so  advan- 
tageously, that  when  he  sold  it  to  George  III.  for 
;£i,ooo,  the  profit  he  made  induced  him  to  turn 
his  whole  attention  to  picture-dealing.  His  friend- 
ship with  the  Prince  Primate  of  Poland,  brother 
to  Stanislaus,  was  the  means  of  his  obtaining 
a  commission  from  that  monarch,  to  purchase  fine 
pictures.  He  was  made  Consul-General  for 
Poland,  in  England.  In  1802  as  he  found  there 


was  no  probability  of  his  being  repaid  for  the 
pictures  he  had  bought,  he  issued  a  Catalogue,  in 
two  volumes,  of  the  pictures,  which  he  then  tried 
to  dispose  of  by  private  contract.  Of  the  187  pic- 
tures in  his  Catalogue,  only  thirty-nine  are  in  the 
Dulwich  Gallery ;  but  he  added  to  his  collection 
considerably  between  1802  and  1807.  He  married 
Margaret  Morris,  sister  of  Sir  John  Morris,  of 
Claremont,  Glamorganshire.  In  1799  he  pub- 
lished a  plan  for  the  advancement  of  the  fine  arts 
in  England,  by  the  establishment  of  a  National 
Gallery.  If  the  scheme  was  carried  out,  he  offered 
to  contribute  liberally  to  it  in  pictures  and  in 
money.  He  died  on  July  8th,  1807,  and  by  his 
will,  dated  October  8th,  1803,  he  left  the  whole  of 
his  collection  to  Sir  Peter  Francis  Bourgeois,  R.A. 
(1756-181 1)  chief  landscape-painter  to  George  III., 
to  whom  Desenfans  bequeathed  his  collection  of 
pictures  and  by  whom  they  were,  with  his  own 
additions,  bequeathed  to  the  Master,  Warden  and 
Fellows  of  Dulwich  College.  This  collection  now 
comprises  380  pictures.  Redford  states  that 
Christie  held  seven  sales  of  Desenfans  pictures, 
but  this  must  be  incorrect,  as  there  is  no  record 
of  more  than  two  having  taken  place  there.  Any 
attempt  to  identify  the  pictures  which  occurred 
at  the  two  Christie  sales,  either  with  those 
enumerated  in  Desenfans'  Catalogue  of  1802,  or 
with  those  now  at  Dulwich,  must  be  attended  with 
great  difficulty.  About  one,  however,  there  can 
be  no  question — the  famous  Claude,  St.  Ursula 
and  her  Maidens,  which,  moreover,  was  among  the 


pictures  withdrawn  on  the  fourth  day,  and  formed 
subsequently  part  of  the  Angerstein  Gallery,  now 
in  the  National  Gallery. 

The   February  (gth  and   loth)  sales  of   1787, 
included  Mortimer's  picture  of  Edward  the  Con- 

Painted  by  Northcote.     Engraved  by  Freeman. 

fessor  putting  away  his  Queen,  which  obtained 
the  premium  from  the  Society  for  the  Encourage- 
ment of  Arts  and  Sciences,  200  guineas ;  on 
April  26th  and  27th,  the  late  Sir  John  Taylor's 
pictures,  "  collected  by  him  during  his  residence 
in  Italy,"  included  a  Parmigiano,  The  Madonna 


and  St.  Catherine,  the  Infant  Saviour  and  St.  John, 
405  guineas.  Several  pictures  of  considerable 
importance  occurred  in  the  property  of  a  gentle- 
man, sold  at  his  house,  "the  third  on  the  South 
side  of  Upper  Seymour  Street,  Portman  Square," 
for  example,  a  Titian,  Holy  Family  with  St.  John 
and  Elizabeth,  470  guineas ;  and  a  Vandyck, 
Samson  and  Delilah,  700  guineas  ;  both  ot 
which  were  purchased  by  Ottley.  The  Holy 
Family  was  painted  when  Titian  was  at  Rome, 
and  he  kept  it  in  his  studio  the  remainder  of  his 
life ;  his  son  sold  it  with  fourteen  others  to  a 
Flemish  nobleman,  whose  heirs  sold  it  to  Charles  I. 
The  most  interesting  picture  in  the  sale  of 
January  25th  and  26th,  1788,  was  Murillo's 
Beggar  Boys,  which  was  originally  purchased  in 
Spain  for  400  guineas,  and  was  now  apparently 
bought  in  for  62  guineas.  The  collection  of  the 
late  Edmund  Antrobus,  Esq.  (March  I2th),  in- 
cluded a  few  choice  things,  a  Paolo  Veronese, 
The  Adulteress  brought  before  Christ,  180 
guineas.  The  sale  of  the  year  (March  i4th  and 
1 5th,)  comprised  "the  superb  collection,  collected 
at  an  immense  expense "  by  Mr.  Vandergucht, 
which  included  a  view  of  the  Escurial,  said  to 
have  been  painted  in  1 625  by  Rubens,  200  guineas  ; 
An  Italian  Seaport,  by  Claude,  from  Lord  North- 
ington's  collection,  290  guineas ;  and  a  Berghem, 
Le  Retour  des  Champs  (the  engraved  picture), 
320  guineas.  On  May  23rd  and  24th,  the  greater 
number  of  the  pictures  exhibited  at  the  "  Great 
Imperial  Exhibition,"  were  sold,  the  only  notable 


example  being  a  Guercino,  Our  Saviour  taken 
in  the  Garden — which  was  engraved,  soon  after 
its  execution,  by  Baptista  Pasqualini — 350  guineas. 
The  collection  of  the  Right  Hon.  Richard  Rigby 
(January  9th,  1 789),  included  a  View  of  Nimeguen, 
by  Cuyp,  250  guineas ;  of  William  Beckford 
(January  23rd),  Titian,  portrait  of  two  dogs, 
20  guineas  ;  of  the  late  Richard  Price  Jones,  of 
the  Custom  House  (February  26th,  1791),  the 
head  of  an  old  woman,  by  Denner,  1 50  guineas ; 
and  a  collection  sold  May  i4th,  1791,  "the 
undoubted  property  of  a  nobleman,  selected  about 
fifty  years  ago,  with  great  taste  and  at  a  most 
liberal  expense,"  included  several  of  interest, 
notably  a  Rubens,  The  Nativity,  450  guineas 
(Tasssert).  The  sale  of  the  pictures  of  Richard 
Cosway,  R.A.  (March  2nd,  1792),  does  not  call 
for  any  lengthy  reference  here.  In  1793  (June 
6th),  the  pictures  and  drawings  of  "  that  esteemed 
artist  George  Morland,"  were  sold  by  Mr.  Christie 
at  prices  which  varied  from  20  to  69  guineas. 

It  is  impossible  not  to  refer  here  to  one  of 
Mr.  Christie's  great  friends,  the  Chevalier  D'Eon, 
whose  furniture,  swords,  trinkets,  jewels,  etc., 
he  sold  on  May  5th  and  6th,  1791  ;  and  whose 
library  was  dispersed  by  the  second  James  Christie, 
February  i4th,  1813.  Mr.  James  Christie,  who 
retired  from  the  firm  a  few  years  ago,  still 
possesses  the  corset  and  other  relics  which  this 
eccentric  individual  wore  during  his  enforced 
adoption  of  the  feminine  habit.  D'Eon's  connec- 
tion with  the  Christies  will  be  found  dealt  with  in 


the  "  Lives  "  by  Telfer  and  Vizetelly,  and  by  the 
present  writer  in  fa&Gentlemaii s  Magazine,  March, 
1 896.  The  jewels  of  another  highly  distinguished 
French  individual  came  under  the  hammer  at 
Christie's  on  February  iQth,  1795,  those  in  fact 
of  "  La  Comtesse  Dubarry,  deceased."  This  sale 
naturally  excited  very  great  interest,  and  the 
articles  were  described  by  Mr.  Christie  as  not 
only  a  selection  from  the  Royal  Cabinet,  but 
from  every  Cabinet,  both  public  and  private,  in 
France.  The  sale  was  without  reserve,  and  the 
total  realized  by  65  lots  amounted  to  ,£8,791  4^.  9^. 

The  great  sale  of  1794,  that  of  Sir  Joshua 
Reynolds's  collection  of  pictures,  was  also  one  of 
the  most  important  which  had,  as  yet,  come  into 
Mr.  Christie's  hands.  The  catalogues  announced 
the  sale  for  Wednesday,  Thursday,  Friday,  and 
Saturday,  March  nth-i4th,  but  the  date  was 
altered  to  1 3th- 1 7th  of  the  same  month.  Sir 
Joshua's  death  had  taken  place  on  February  23rd, 
1792,  and  in  due  course  the  whole  of  his  collection 
of  411  pictures  was  ordered  to  be  sold  by  the 
three  executors,  Edmund  Burke,  Edmond  Malone, 
and  Philip  Metcalf.  These  pictures  comprised 
"  the  undoubted  works  of  the  greatest  masters 
of  the  Roman,  Florentine,  Bolognese,  Venetian, 
French,  Flemish,  and  Dutch  schools,  in  the  most 
perfect  state  of  preservation."  To  Mr.  Christie's 
catalogue  the  executors  prefixed  a  very  interesting 
address  which  is  well  worth  quoting  in  full  : 

"  The   public  has    here  a  collection,   of  great 
extent  and  variety,  of  the  Pictures  of  the  most 


eminent  Artists  of  former  Ages,  made  by  the  most 
eminent  Artist  of  the  present  Time.  He  chose 
these  Pictures  as  Objects  at  once  of  Study  and  of 
Rivalship.  No  Person  could  do  more  than  the 
great  Man  we  have  lately  lost  from  the  Funds  of  his 
own  Genius  ;  no  Person  ever  endeavoured  more 
to  take  Advantage  of  the  Labours  of  others.  He 
considered  great  Collections  of  the  Works  of  Art 
in  the  Light  of  great  Libraries ;  with  this  difference 
in  the  favour  of  the  former,  that  whilst  they  instruct 
they  decorate.  Indeed,  all  his  Passions,  all  his 
Tastes,  all  his  Ideas  of  Employment,  or  of  Re- 
laxation from  Employment,  almost  all  his  Accu- 
mulation, and  all  his  Expenditure,  had  a  Relation 
to  his  Art.  In  this  Collection  was  vested  a  large, 
if  not  the  largest  Part  of  his  Fortune  ;  and  he  was 
not  likely  from  Ignorance,  Inattention,  or  want  of 
practical  or  speculative  Judgment,  to  make  great 
Expenses  for  Things  of  small  or  of  uncertain 

"The  whole  of  the  within  collection  were  the 
Property  of  the  late  SIR  JOSHUA  REYNOLDS,  as 
Witness  our  Hands, 


EDMOND  MALONE,  \Executors." 


Burke  states  that  Sir  Joshua's  immense  collec- 
tion of  pictures,  drawings,  and  prints,  "  stood  him 
in  more  than  twenty  thousand  pounds."  The  total 
amount  realized  by  the  pictures  was  ,£10,319,  to 
which  may  be  added  the  sketches,  etc.,  which  sold 


in  the  following  year  for  ,£4,536.  Very  many  of 
Sir  Joshua's  "  old  masters  "  were  unquestionably 
either  replicas  or  copies,  but  they  were  probably 
excellent  ones.  Mr.  Redford  summarizes  the 
collection  thus:  Correggio,  54;  A.  Caracci,  28; 
L.  Caracci,  1 8  ;  Vandyck,  70 ;  Fra  Bartolommeo, 
9 ;  Tintoretto,  32  ;  Giulio  Romano,  43  ;  Leonardo 
da  Vinci,  12  ;  Michaelangelo,  44  (!) ;  Rubens,  22  ; 
Raphael,  24  (!);  Rembrandt,  19;  and  Titian,  13. 
The  following  were  the  chief  pictures,  judged  by 
the  amounts  respectively  paid  for  them  :  Rubens, 
Child  Blowing  Bubbles,  175  guineas;  Vandyke, 
half-length  portrait  of  Rubens,  with  two  other 
artists,  140  guineas,  the  purchaser  being  Mr. 
Angerstein — the  picture  is  now  hung  in  the 
National  Gallery.  The  Christie  Catalogue  states 
that  "  it  is  well  authenticated  that  Vandyke  painted 
this  picture  at  the  age  of  eighteen  years,  which 
proves  him  to  have  been  a  prodigy  of  genius  and 
capacity."  Teniers,  A  Sorceress  entering  the 
Regions  of  Pandemonium  laden  with  her  Spoil, 
formerly  in  Dr.  Chauncey's  collection,  fetched  330 
guineas;  Wouverman,  Halt  of  the  Banditti,  103 
guineas ;  Claude  Lorraine,  a  "  view  near  the 
Castle  Gondolfo,  one  of  his  most  capital  and 
finished  pictures "  (Angerstein,  145  guineas,  now 
in  National  Gallery)  ;  Michaelangelo,  [?]  Jupiter 
and  Leda,  (Lord  Berwick,  71  guineas,) — a  very 
interesting  picture  (probably  painted  in  tempera), 
said  to  have  been  executed  for  Alfonso,  Duke  of 
Ferrara,  and  to  have  belonged  to  Francis  I ;  "it  was 
purchased  in  1746  by  the  Hon.  John  Spencer,  and 


came  into  the  possession  of  Sir  Joshua  by  the 
favour  of  the  present  Earl  Spencer ;  "  Rubens,  a 
Wild  Boar  Hunt,  165  guineas  ;  and  Hercules  and 
Omphale,  from  the  collection  of  the  late  Count 
Bruhl  of  Dresden,  (Angerstein)  160  guineas; 
N.  Poussin,  The  Nativity,  205  guineas;  and  The 
Wise  Men's  Offering,  formerly  in  the  possession 
of  Sir  Edward  Walpole,  525  guineas. 

The  sale  of  pictures,  the  property  of  Count 
Redeen,  "  lately  ambassador  for  the  Court  of 
Prussia,"  and  collections  from  other  sources,  may 
be  mentioned  as  having  been  sold  on  June  i/j-th, 
1 794  ;  the  collection  of  prints  and  pictures  which 
belonged  to  John  Hunter,  the  famous  anatomist, 
who  lived  next  door  to  Hogarth  in  Leicester 
Fields,  was  also  sold  in  this  year  (January  29th), 
but  neither  sale  was  an  important  one,  although 
Hunter's  pictures  included  a  Madonna  and  Child 
ascribed  to  Carlo  Dolci  (engraved  by  Sharp), 
which  brought  £m\  and  a  portrait  of  Nelly 
O'Brien,  by  Reynolds,  that  realized  20  guineas. 

A  few  interesting  pictures  were  sold  in  1795, 
notably  the  collection  of  Baron  Nagel,  March  2ist, 
comprising  fifty  works,  among  which  was  a  hawk- 
ing or  hunting  scene  by  Wouverman,  240  guineas ; 
on  May  ist  and  2nd,  the  pictures  of  the  late 
Admiral  Sir  Edward  Vernon,  of  John  Walsh  and 
others,  included  a  capital  and  noble  picture  of  the 
Assumption  of  the  Virgin  by  Murillo,  "  which  was 
purchased  in  Spain  by  a  nobleman  at  1,000  guineas 
about  60  years  ago,"  but  which  now  fetched  only 
46  guineas.  On  June  loth,  the  valuable  jewels, 

48        THE  BUTE  AND  OTHER  SALES. 

watches,  trinkets,  etc.,  of  the  late  Duchess  of 
Bedford,  came  under  the  hammer,  seventy-six  lots 
realizing  ,£2,068.  One  of  the  several  sales  of  the 
late  George  Coleman's  effects  was  held  in  this  year 
by  Mr.  Christie. 

A  number  of  interesting  and  important  collec- 
tions were  dispersed  at  Mr.  Christie's  in  1796. 
The  season  led  off  with  that  of  Benjamin  Vander 
Gucht,  deceased,  March  nth  and  i2th,  among 
which  were  many  good  pictures,  including  Van  der 
Werff's  Judgment  of  Paris,  which  was  purchased 
for  255  guineas  by  Sir  F.  Bourgeois  and  is  now  in 
the  Dulwich  Gallery.  Descamps  states  ("  La  vie 
des  Peintres,")  that  this  work  was  painted  in  1718 
for  the  Regent  Duke  of  Orleans  ;  and  is  said  that 
it  was  much  admired  by  Reynolds  ;  a  Correggio, 
Venus,  Cupid  and  Satyr,  for  which  Vander  Gucht 
paid  ,£1,500  to  Sir  William  Hamilton,  who  brought 
the  picture  to  England,  600  guineas  ( Lord  Radnor) ; 
Claude,  a  noble  landscape  with  the  Worship  of 
the  Golden  Calf,  500  guineas ;  and  a  landscape 
by  Cuyp,  420  guineas.  One  hundred  lots  realized 
a  total  of  ,£3,145.  The  Earl  of  Bute's  pictures, 
brought  after  his  death  from  High-Cliffe,  Hamp- 
shire, his  county  seat,  were  sold  on  March  iQth, 
but  the  prices  ruled  extremely  low  throughout, 
the  two  highest,  indeed,  being  a  view  on  the 
Schelt,  embarkation  of  the  Prince  of  Orange, 
by  Cuyp,  50  guineas  ;  and  a  harbour  scene  ascribed 
to  Vandevelde,  50  guineas.  The  miscellaneous 
sales  of  this  year  included  (May  5th,  1796,) 
fourteen  cases  containing  4,182  dozen  of  ladies' 

HOGARTH'S  MARRIAGE  A  LA  MODE.          49 

fans ;  and  Sir  Thomas  Henry  RumbolcTs  curious 
museum  (April  2Qth  to  May  2nd),  which  included 
watches,  jewels,  coins,  bronzes,  a  sedan  chair,  and 
so  forth.  Rumbold's  personality  is  hidden  in  the 
catalogue  under  the  title  of  "  A  Man  of  Fashion." 

On  February  loth,  1797,  the  celebrated  series 
of  pictures  by  Hogarth,  Marriage  a  la  Mode, 
appeared  at  Christie's,  the  name  of  the  owner, 
Colonel  Cawthorne,  not  appearing  in  connection 
with  them.  These  pictures  were  completed  in 
1744,  and  were  sold  by  Hogarth,  at  auction,  on 
June  6th,  1750,  the  purchaser,  who  was  also  the 
only  bidder,  being  Mr.  Lane  of  Hillingdon,  near 
Oxbridge,  who  obtained  them  for  120  guineas— 
the  frames  alone  had  cost  Hogarth  24  guineas — 
Mr.  Lane  bequeathed  them  to  Colonel  Cawthorne. 
At  Christie's  they  were  knocked  down  for  1,000 
guineas  to  Mr.  Angerstein,  and  are  now  in  the 
National  Gallery.  Another  important  sale  of  this 
year  was  that  of  Gainsborough  Dupont's  collection 
(April  loth  and  nth).  It  included  several  pic- 
tures by  Dupont's  uncle,  the  great  Gainsborough, 
many  of  which,  however,  were  unfinished.  The 
sale  was  a  complete  fiasco,  the  highest  price  being 
paid  for  a  Landscape,  with  cattle  watering,  a  sunset 
effect,  described  as  "  one  of  the  very  finest  pro- 
ductions of  this  great  artist,"  realizing  only  97 
guineas.  Another  fiasco  occurred  in  the  following 
month  (May  i3th  and  I4th),  when  the  "pictures 
of  a  gentleman,"  apparently  produced  a  total  of 
,£1,900  17^.  of  which  amount,  however,  ,£1,656  4^. 
represented  property  bought  in,  leaving  the  vendor 

I.  E 


a  total  of  £244  13^.  from  which  the  auctioneer's 
fees  still  had  to  be  deducted.  On  June  2nd  and 
3rd,  a  collection  of  modern  masters,  chiefly  the 
property  of  the  Right  Hon.  Lady  Rivers,  and 
comprising  pictures  by  Morland,  Wheatley,  and 
others,  sold  very  badly,  only  two  or  three  lots 
realizing  over  £10.  The  "  genuine  and  entire 
stock  of  prints,  etc.,  and  a  few  pleasing  cabinet 
pictures,  the  property  of  Mr.  G.  Bartolozzi,  retiring 
from  business,"  came  under  the  hammer ;  and  in 
the  same  year  (March  3Oth),  "a  choice  collection 
of  new  pearls,"  etc.,  etc.,  received  by  the  ships 
"  Henry  Dundas"  and  "Earl  of  Wycombe," 
lately  arrived  from  India,  was  also  sold  by 
Christie,  Sharpe,  and  Harper. 

The  most  important  sale  of  this  year,  1797, 
however,  was  that  of  the  collection  of  John 
Trumbull,  February  i7th  and  i8th.  This  collec- 
tion was  purchased  by  Trumbull,  who  was  attached 
to  the  American  legation  at  Paris  in  the  spring  of 
1 795>  by  which  time  the  most  illustrious  families 
of  France  had  arrived  at  the  most  acute  stage  of 
their  distress.  The  opportunity  was  an  exception- 
ally favourable  one  to  Mr.  Trumbull's  design,  and 
he  appears  to  have  brought  to  his  task  great 
knowledge  and  excellent  good  taste.  The  two 
days'  sale  resulted  in  a  total  of  ,£7,996  $s.  although 
many  of  the  lots  were  bought  in.  The  pictures  were 
for  the  most  part  of  the  Flemish  and  Dutch  schools, 
but  there  were  a  few  notable  Italian  examples. 
The  more  important  were :  Vandermeulen,  a 
Battle  Scene,  59  guineas ;  Teniers,  Portrait 


of  a  Lady  with  a  Negro  Servant,  50  guineas; 
Jordaens,  a  Holy  Family,  50  guineas  ;  Sebastian 
Bourdon,  The  Daughters  of  Jethro,  "  a  very  fine 
composition,  worthy  of  N.  Poussin,"  125  guineas; 
Rembrandt,  a  half-length  Portrait  of  a  Lady,  "one 
of  his  finest  and  most  extraordinary  works/'  100 
guineas;  Vanderwerff,  Children  with  a  Bird's  Nest, 
"  an  exquisite  little  picture  of  this  admired  master," 
84  guineas ;  Gerard  Dow,  The  Onion  Cutter,  67 
guineas;  Van  der  Heyden,  a  Landscape,  with  water 
and  boats  by  W.  Van  de  Velde,  and  figures  by  A. 
Van  de  Velde,  83  guineas  ;  Wouverman,  a  Return 
from  the  Chase,  98  guineas ;  Teniers,  Gamblers 
at  Trictrac,  no  guineas  (Lord  Suffolk);  and  a 
Chemist  in  his  Laboratory,  175  guineas  (Bryan) ; 
Bassano,  The  Magdalen  at  the  Feast  of  the 
Pharisee,  230  guineas  (Agar) ;  two  by  Vernet,  a 
storm  and  a  shipwreck,  140  guineas  (Lord  Temple), 
and  a  view  of  the  Castle  and  Bridge  of  St.  Angelo, 
in  Rome,  with  a  fete  on  the  Tiber — with  Vernet 
himself,  his  wife,  and  her  father,  among  the 
spectators — 125  guineas  ;  Bronzino,  the  Madonna, 
Child,  and  St.  Catherine,  170  guineas  ;  N.  Poussin, 
a  Holy  Family,  170  guineas,  and  Christ  on  the 
Mount  of  Olives,  260  guineas  ;  Murillo,  St.  John 
with  the  Lamb,  200  guineas  ;  Pordenone,  Dejanira 
and  the  Centaur  pursued  by  Hercules,  560  guineas  ; 
Guercino,  Angelica  and  Medora,  a  life-size  work, 
440  guineas  ;  Berghem,  Landscape,  with  figures 
and  cattle,  900  guineas  ;  Le  Brun,  The  Triumph 
of  Constantine,  150  guineas;  and  Raphael,  the 
Virgin,  Christ  and  St.  John,  known  as  the 


"  Madonna  du  Corset  Rouge,"  ^890.  This  picture 
was  brought  from  Rome  by  Cardinal  Mazarin, 
and,  notwithstanding  very  high  prices  were  offered 
for  it,  particularly  by  the  Prince  of  Conde,  was 
religiously  preserved  in  his  family  until  the  dis- 
tress of  the  Revolution,  in  which  M.  Primodan,  the 
late  possessor,  had  his  full  share,  when  he  deter- 
mined to  part  with  it  for  a  very7  extravagant  price ; 
it  was  originally  painted  on  wood,  but,  beginning  to 
decay,  was  transferred  upon  cloth  in  1767  by 
Hacquin.  It  was  the  altarpiece  of  the  private 
chapel  of  Mazarin,  and  at  his  death  he  bequeathed 
it  to  the  ancestor  of  M.  Primodan.  Trumbull 
gave  40,000  livres  for  it.  How  far  the  picture  itself 
is  genuine  cannot  be  dealt  with  here ;  there  is  (or 
was)  a  duplicate  of  it  in  the  Louvre.  This  very 
fine  collection  of  pictures  included  examples 
from  the  cabinets  of  such  connoisseurs  as  MM. 
Joubart,  Des  Touches,  Grandpre,  Le  Rouge,  the 
Due  de  Praslin,  the  Baron  D'Espagnac,  Due  de 
Tallard,  Donjoux,  Prince  Carignan,  Le  Brun,  De 
la  Regniere,  and  others. 

No  more  first-class  picture  sales  took  place  at 
Christie's  during  the  eighteenth  century,  but  a  few 
of  those  which  did  occur  are  not  without  a  certain 
amount  of  interest.  For  instance,  on  February  1 5th, 
1 799,  an  assemblage  of  Chinese  drawings,  paint- 
ings, natural  and  artificial  curiosities,  the  property 
of  A.  E.  Van  Braam,  Esq.,  chief  of  the  direction 
of  the  Dutch  East  India  Company  at  Canton,  and 
second  in  the  Dutch  Embassy  to  the  Court  of 
Pekin  in  the  years  1 794-5,  attracted  much  interest. 

THE   GAINSBOROUGH    AND    OTHER    SALES.          53 

Van  Braam's  "Authentic  Account  of  the  Embassy" 
was  published  in  1798.  The  only  item  of  import- 
ance in  the  sale  to  which  we  need  refer  is  a  collec- 
tion of  352  views  of  the  most  celebrated  and 
interesting  places,  gardens  and  courts  in  China,  by 
a  native,  which  brought  165  guineas.  In  May 
there  were  two  picture  sales.  First,  on  the  loth 
and  nth,  the  remaining  pictures,  sketch-books, 
etc.,  of  the  late  Thomas  Gainsborough  were  sold  ; 
on  the  3ist,  the  pictures  of  the  late  R.  Bayley  and 
others,  included  G.  Dow,  The  Tooth  Drawer,  "one 
of  his  finest,"  100  guineas;  and  Gainsborough, 
The  Milk  Girl,  145  guineas.  On  June  7th  and  8th 
was  sold  the  collection  of  pictures  of  the  late 
Thomas  Hankey,  "  collected  during  the  course  of 
a  number  of  years  by  John  Bernard,  Esq.,  univers- 
ally esteemed  for  his  correct  knowledge  of  the  fine 
arts  and  superior  taste."  There  were  a  few  good 
pictures,  including  a  landscape  by  Cuyp,  no 
guineas  ;  and  P.  Veronese,  Baptism  of  Christ  by 
St.  John,  (Bryan)  170  guineas.  The  sale  realized 
a  total  of  ,£2,295  4s'  6d. 

(Bernal  Sale,  p.  175.) 


1800 — 1810. 



HE  first  picture  sale  of  importance 
with  which  Mr.  Christie  commenced 
the  new  century  was  held  on  March 
28th,  2 Qth,  1800.  -Among  the  items 
were  three  formerly  in  the  cabinet 
of  the  great  Duke  of  Chandos — an  Interior  of  a 
Chamber,  with  an  old  woman  sewing,  by  Van  Toll, 
100  guineas  (Dormer);  F.  Mieris,  Ammon  putting 
away  Tamar,  200  guineas  (the  same) ;  and  an 
Interior  by  Gerard  Dow,  in  which  the  artist's  own 
portrait  appears,  340  guineas  (Bryan).  On  April 
25th  the  sale  included  twenty-two  pictures  from  the 
Colonna  Palace,  seventeen  from  the  Florentine 
Gallery  and  that  of  Capo  di  Monte,  belonging  to  the 
King  of  Naples.  They  were  described  as  "of 
the  highest  class,"  and  as  having  "  graced  some  of 
the  first  palaces  in  Florence,  Rome,  and  Naples." 


Further,  "the  many  judges  who  have  visited  Italy 
will  recognize  these  pictures,  which  are  in  the  same 
pure  and  perfect  state  as  when  they  were  trans- 
ferred from  the  easels  of  the  immortal  artists  who 
painted    them   to  the  apartments  in  the  several 
distinguished  palaces  they  adorned."     Although 
there  is  nothing  on  the  title-page  of  the  catalogue 
to  indicate  the  owner  of  this   collection,   it  was 
doubtless  an  open  secret  at  the  time.     Buchanan, 
in   his  "  Memoirs   of  Painting,"  describes   it  as 
having  been  formed  by  John  Udny,  Esq.  (whom 
Buchanan  calls   Udney).     The  sale  was  without 
the  least  reserve,  and  it  included  two  Raphaels,  A 
Virgin  and  Child,  480  guineas  ;  and  a  Holy  Family, 
which  had  been  in  the  possession  of  the  Colonna 
family  for  over  two  centuries,  650  guineas,  both 
bought   by    Mr.    Davidson,  who  also  purchased 
Guide's  celebrated  picture  of  St.  Cecilia,  painted  for 
Prince  Colonna  from  whose  family  it  was  purchased 
by  the  present  owner,  340  guineas ;  and  a  pair  of 
Landscapes    by    Claude,   morning    and    evening 
effects,  painted  for  the  Colonna  family,  "  in  which 
they   have  continued,    and  are  as  fresh  and   as 
pure    as    when    first     painted,"     670     guineas  ; 
Ludovico  Caracci,  a  Riposo,  on  thick  wood,  painted 
for  the  Parma  family,  and  with  their  seal  on  it, 
1,100  guineas  (Colonel  Murray);  Schidone,  Girl 
learning  the  Lord's  Prayer,  from  the  Parma  collec- 
tion, in  thick  panel,  with  the  seal  of  the  family,  200 
guineas  (Earl  of  Ashburnham) ;  two  Landscapes  of 
Annibal  Caracci,  companion  pictures,  both  painted 
for    the    Parma    gallery,    185    guineas   and    175 


guineas ;  and  a  life-size  Venus  and  Cupid  by  the 
same,  painted  in  1585  as  a  companion  to  the  Mag- 
dalen by  Titian  in  the  Tribune  at  Florence,  one  of 
this  artist's  most  highly  finished  works,  105  guineas  ; 
all  three  were  purchased  by  Colonel  Murray.  The 
only  other  picture  sale  of  importance  this  year, 
May  9th  and  loth,  included  a  Gerard  Dow,  Por- 
trait of  the  Painter,  who  is  depicted  touching  a 
violin  at  a  window,  with  men  grinding  his  colours 
in  the  background,  365  guineas,  from  the  Orleans 
collection,  in  which  it  realized  300  guineas.  It  was 
again  sold  in  1801  for  290  guineas,  and  two  years 
later  for  115  guineas. 

Three  interesting  picture  sales  occurred  in  1801. 
Lord  Bessborough  was  a  distinguished  connoisseur 
and  collector  of  various  works  of  art,  and  the  sale 
of  his  property  occupied  Mr.  Christie  three  days, 
February  5-7.  The  majority  of  the  pictures  were 
probably  good  old  copies,  as  very  few  realized  three 
figures ;  but  there  were  a  few  notable  ones,  for 
example  :  Cuyp,  Landscape  and  Cattle,  390  guineas 
(Duke  of  St.  Albans) ;  Le  Nain,  Group  of  Beggars, 
engraved  in  Boydell's  collection,  100  guineas  ; 
Raphael,  Madonna  with  Bambino,  from  Lord  Wal- 
degrave's  collection,  220  guineas;  Titian,  Chess- 
players, "a  very  singular  and  rare  picture,"  220 
guineas  ;  Claude,  A  Seaport,  "  a  brilliant  and  fas- 
cinating effect  of  the  sun  gilding  and  reflecting  on 
the  undulating  motion  of  the  water,"  280  guineas  ; 
Salvator  Rosa,  Jason  poisoning  the  Dragon, 
bought  at  the  sale  of  James,  Duke  of  Chandos,  in 
1 747  by  Lord  Bessborough,  and  engraved  in  Boy- 


dell's  collection,  310  guineas;  and  N.  Poussin, 
Venus  and  Adonis,  250  guineas.  The  total  of  the 
three  days'  sale  amounted  to  ,£9460  1 7s- 

Sir  William  Hamilton's  forms  the  second  in- 
teresting sale  of  1 80 1.  This  distinguished  per- 
sonage, best  known  perhaps  as  the  husband  of  the 
famous  Lady  Hamilton,  resided  for  thirty-seven 
years  as  Minister  Plenipotentiary  at  the  Court  of 
Naples,  and  fully  availed  himself  of  his  unique 
opportunities  for  collecting  works  of  art.  His 
extensive  collection  of  antique  fictile  vases,  for- 
merly the  property  of  the  Porcinari  family,  glass, 
bronze,  sculpture,  gems,  medals,  and  so  forth,  was 
purchased  in  1772  by  the  Government  of  the  day, 
and  is  now  in  the  British  Museum.  He  still 
went  on  collecting,  and  despatched  a  large  consign- 
ment to  England  for  sale,  most  of  which,  however, 
was  lost  in  a  storm.  Mr.  Christie's  sale  on 
March  27th  and  28th,  1801,  was  made  up  of  the 
articles  not  included  in  the  Museum  purchase  and 
those  which  were  saved  from  the  storm.  The 
only  important  picture  in  the  ninety-seven  sold 
was  the  Leonardo  da  Vinci,  The  Laughing  Boy, 
or  Boy  with  a  Horn-book,  of  which  two  studies 
of  the  same  boy  are  extant  in  the  drawing-book 
of  Leonardo  in  the  Ambrosian  Library,  Milan. 
This  exceedingly  interesting  picture  was  in  the 
Arundel  collection  inherited  by  Lady  Betty  Ger- 
maine,  who  left  it  in  her  will  to  Sir  William 
Hamilton.  It  was  now  purchased  for  1,300 
guineas  by  William  Beckford,  and  remained  at 
Fon thill  Abbey  until  1823,  when  it  was  sold  with 


the  other  things  at  Fonthill  by  order  of  Mr.  Far- 
quhar,  the  purchaser  of  the  estate,  and  again  Mr. 
Beckford  was  the  buyer.  It  was  afterwards  trans- 
ferred to  the  Hamilton  Palace  Collection,  in  which 
it  remained  until  1882. 

The  third  great  sale  of  1801  comprised  forty- 
nine  lots,  "  the  superb,  capital,  and  truly  valuable 
collection  of  celebrated  Italian  pictures  lately  pur- 
chased from  the  Colonna,  Borghese,  and  Corsini 
palaces,"  by  William  Young  Ottley,  and  "  forming 
an  unrivalled  assemblage  of  the  genuine  and 
finest  works  of  the  Italian  schools."  The  extra- 
ordinary preservation  of  these  pictures  is  attributed 
to  their  "  having  remained  under  the  pure  climate 
of  Italy,  unexposed  to  injudicious  experiments  of 
varnishes  and  other  methods  of  repair,  and  care- 
fully protected  from  the  rude  touch  of  daubers  and 
copyists."  The  appearance  of  the  pictures  in  the 
market  is  explained  thus  by  Mr.  Christie  :  "  It  is 
to  the  aera  of  fatal  revolution  in  Italy ;  it  is  to  the 
oppressive  spirit  of  its  invaders  ;  it  is  to  the  fallen 
grandeur  of  the  nobles  and  princes  of  Rome  ;  it  is 
to  their  extreme  need  and  distress,  that  is  to  be 
attributed  finally  their  parting  with  what  they  so 
long  possessed  and  so  highly  valued."  This  sale 
took  place  on  May  i6th,  but  Messrs.  Christie's 
copy  of  the  catalogue  has  been  stolen  from  their 
set.  The  British  Museum,  however,  possesses  a 
partly-priced  copy  of  it,  and  Buchanan  ("  Memoirs 
of  Painting,"  ii.  20-30)  reprints  it  in  full,  with  the 
prices.  The  collection  was  formed  by  Ottley  in 
Rome  about  the  end  of  1 798  or  in  the  beginning 


of  1799,  when  the  principal  families  were  in 
the  acutest  stage  of  their  misery.  It  was  brought 
to  this  country  in  1 800,  and  sold  on  May  1 6th  of  the 
following  year.  Its  importance  maybe  judged  by 
the  fact  that  the  sum  realized  by  its  sale  was  close 
on  22,000  guineas.  One  of  the  most  important 
pictures  in  the  collection  was  the  celebrated  Land- 
scape of  Salvator  Rosa,  in  which  are  introduced 
the  figures  of  Mercury  and  the  woodman,  6  feet 
7  inches  x  4  feet.  It  was  purchased  by  Sir  M.  M. 
Sykesfor  1,5  50  guineas,  and  became  subsequently, 
first  the  property  of  Lord  Durham,  then  of  Mr. 
Byng.  It  is  now  in  the  National  Gallery. 
Another  Landscape  by  the  same  artist,  a  rocky 
scene  with  a  distant  view  of  a  volcano,  with  figures 
in  the  foreground  representing  the  finding  of  Moses 
by  Pharaoh's  daughter,  79  x  49,  1,500  guineas, 
both  from  the  Colonna  Palace ;  Parmigiano,  The 
Marriage  of  St.  Catherine,  described  as  ranking 
"  the  highest  of  the  few  cabinet  pictures  of  this 
celebrated  painter,"and  selected  by  Gavin  Hamilton 
for  his  "Schola  Italica  Picturse,"  22  x  29,  1,550 
guineas  (W.  Morland) ;  the  same  artist's  Portrait 
of  Himself,  "always  so-called  when  in  the  cele- 
brated collection  of  the  King  of  Naples  at  Capo  di 
Monte,"  26  x  35,  650 guineas  ;  N.  Poussin,  Noah's 
Sacrifice  after  he  quitted  the  Ark,  one  of  the 
finest  of  this  artist's  Italian  pictures,  54  x  27,  1,000 
guineas  (Sykes)  ;  and  three  other  minor  land- 
scapes of  the  same  artist.  Of  Gaspar  Poussin 
there  were  three  landscapes,  the  most  important 
being  a  view  of  Nemi,  near  Rome,  from  the 


Colonna  Palace,  60  x  36,  700  guineas ;  Benvenuto 
Garofalo,  a  Holy  Family  with  Saints,  16  x  13, 
240  guineas ;  and  the  Vision  of  St.  Augustine, 
with  the  Madonna  and  Choir  of  Angels  in 
the  Clouds,  "  the  very  finest  production  of  this 
master,"  from  the  Corsini  Palace,  32  inches  x  25 
inches,  1,000  guineas  (Lord  Radstock) ;  Domeni- 
chino,  Repose  in  Egypt,  in  a  landscape — 
"this  artist  painted  so  few  landscapes  that  this 
may  be  considered  almost  unique  " — 21  inches 
x  16  inches,  320  guineas;  Mazzolino  di  Ferrara, 
Ecce  Homo,  a  chef  tfceuvre  of  the  master,  from 
the  Villa  Aldobrandini,  17  inches  x  21  inches,  429 
guineas  ;  Raffaelle,  Sleeping  Warrior  and  two  alle- 
gorical female  figures,  6  inches  square, from  the  Bor- 
ghese  Palace,  470  guineas  ;  Guido  Reni,  St.  Peter, 
head  and  hands,  33  inches  x  25  inches,  from  the 
Aldobrandini  apartments  of  the  Borghese  Palace, 
580  guineas  (Sykes) ;  and  "  Madonna  Dolorata," 
on  copper,  15  inches  x  19  inches,  formerly  the 
property  of  Pope  Paul  V.,  380  guineas  (Morland) ; 
Annibal  Caracci,  Susannah  and  the  Elders,  43 
inches  x  63  inches,  560  guineas  (Humble) ;  and 
the  Infant  Jesus  sleeping,  attended  by  Angels, 
20  inches  x  26  inches,  700  guineas  (Hibbert) ;  and 
an  important  picture  of  Christ  crowned  with 
Thorns,  catalogued  as  by  Caracci,  but  which  of 
the  three  or  four  of  that  name  is  not  stated, 
i,  100  guineas  (Earl  Fitzwilliam) ;  Sasso  Ferrato, 
Virgin  and  Child,  with  Cherubs,  from  the  Cor- 
sini Palace,  33  inches  x  31  inches,  750  guineas; 
Paul  Veronese,  Marriage  of  the  Virgin,  560 


guineas  (Wells  of  Redleaf) ;  and  Titian,  Madonna, 
Child,  and  St.  Catherine,  45  inches  x  65  inches, 
1,150  guineas;  and  the  Holy  Family,  with  the 
Shepherds'  Offering,  both  from  the  Borghese 
Palace,  700  guineas.  There  were  two  other 
Ottley  sales,  one  in  1811,  and  the  other  after  his 
death  in  1837  (see  pp.  88-90).  It  should  be  here 
mentioned  that  Ottley  sold  his  own  fine  collection 
of  drawings  by  old  Italian  masters  to  Sir  T. 
Lawrence  for  ,£8,000 ;  it  formed  the  principal  part 
of  the  magnificent  collection  of  that  artist. 

Two  other  sales  may  be  mentioned  as  having 
taken  place  in  1801 — "  the  genuine  pictures  of  that 
esteemed  artist,  Mr.  Joseph  Wright  of  Derby,"  on 
May  6th ;  and  the  collection  of  castes  from  the 
antique,  a  very  fine  skeleton,  and  other  artistic 
properties  of  George  Romney,  at  his  late  residence, 
Hollybush  Hill,  Hampstead,  on  March  i8th. 

Quite  a  number  of  important  sales  took  place 
during  1802.  The  earliest  of  these  is  in  some  re- 
spects the  most  interesting.  No  name  appeared  on 
the  title  page  of  the  catalogue,  but  "  a  gentleman 
highly  distinguished  for  his  fine  taste  in  the  arts," 
and  the  further  statement  that  the  collection  was 
"  now  brought  from  his  seat  at  Fonthill,  Wiltshire," 
sufficiently  reveals  the  identity  of  the  collector. 
Alderman  Beckford,  the  father  of  that  more 
distinguished  celebrity,  the  author  of  "  Vathek," 
was  the  proprietor  on  this  occasion ;  but  this 
sale  must  not  be  confounded  with  the  dispersal 
of  the  far  more  important  collection  of  William 
Beckfordyf/y.  Indeed,  the  present  transaction  was 


not  an  important  one,  the  only  first-rate  lot  which 
it  comprised  was  the  set  of  eight  pictures  of 
"  The  Rake's  Progress,"  1  "  ever  celebrated/'  (said 
Mr.  Christie)  "  as  chefs-d'oeuvre  of  Hogarth,  who, 
well  acquainted  with  all  the  vicissitudes  of  life,  and 
perfectly  master  of  the  passions,  has  immortalized 
himself  by  correcting  the  failings  of  his  country- 
men." This  set  was  purchased  for  570  guineas, 
by  Sir  John  Soane,  and  may  now  be  seen  in  the 
Soane  Museum,  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields.  A  few 
other  pictures  may  be  mentioned,  notably  a  Salva- 
tor  Rosa,  Banditti  on  the  Banks  of  a  River — "  a 
noble  picture  purchased  from  the  Colonna  Palace," 
190  guineas,  and  its  companion,  St.  Francis  preach- 
ing, 100  guineas,  both  purchased  by  Lord  G. 
Cavendish ;  a  work  catalogued  as  Paduanino 
(which  name  is  struck  through  in  Mr.  Christie's 
catalogue),  Deianira  and  the  Centaur  pursued  by 
Hercules — "equal  in  colour  to  Titian  and  in  com- 
position worthy  of  A.  Caracci,"  270  guineas  ;  and 
a  pair,  The  Presentation  of  the  Virgin,  by  A. 
Dlirer;  "  this  chef-d'oeuvre  of  the  German  Raphael 
and  its  companion  [the  Circumcision]  were  for- 
merly brought  to  Italy  by  Christina,  Queen  of 
Sweden,  but  were  not  long  since  purchased  from 
out  of  the  Bracciano  Palace  at  Rome,"  140 
guineas  (Walsh  Porter).  The  eighty-eight  lots 
realized  ,£2,960  3^.  6d. 

1  Alderman  Beckford  possessed  also  Hogarth's  "Harlot's 
Progress,"  of  which  five  were  unfortunately  burnt  in  the  fire  at 
Fonthill  in  1755,  an<l  the  sixth,  which  once  belonged  to  Lord 
Oharlemont,  now  belongs  to  the  Earl  of  Wemyss. 


The  pictures  of  the  late  Countess  of  Holderness, 
derived  from  such  patrons  of  art  as  Greffier  Fagel l 
and  his  son,  were  sold  at  Christie's  on  March  6th, 
1 802.  I  n  a  brief  preface  to  the  catalogue  we  read  : 
"  As  every  accession  of  virtue  becomes  fair  subject 
for  congratulation  to  the  British  public,  inasmuch 
as  it  tends  to  improve  the  taste,  correct  the  judg- 
ment, and  enlarge  the  ideas,  both  of  artists  and 
collectors,  in  like  manner  may  the  present  cabinet 
of  pictures  be  commended,  and  those  whose  spirit 
and  affection  for  the  arts  have  been  warmed  by 
the  recent  importations  from  Italy  and  France, 
will,  we  conceive,  have  fresh  pleasure  in  being  per- 
mitted to  participate  in  the  public  distribution  of  so 
exquisite  an  assemblage  as  the  Holderness  collec- 
tion." The  more  important  of  the  eighty-one  pic- 
tures, which  realized  a  total  of  ,£5,954  2s.  6d.,  were 
Hobbema,  a  Landscape  with  figures  by  A.  Van  de 
Velde,  280  guineas ;  Rubens,  Judgment  of  Paris, 
"  a  rich  and  beautiful  picture,  in  perfect  preserva- 
tion,'* 305  guineas ;  Berghem,  landscape  with  a 
shepherdess  and  cattle,  280  guineas  ;  Wouver- 
man,  Horses  Watering,  1 70  guineas  ;  Jan  Steen, 
The  Pancake  Girl,  115  guineas;  W.  Mieris, 
The  Raree  Showman,  a  group  of  eight  figures, 
210  guineas  ;  and  A  lady  with  a  child  in  a  cradle, 
195  guineas;  several  by  Adrian  Van  de  Velde, 
notably  a  Landscape  with  a  group  of  cows  and 
sheep,  210  guineas;  Teniers,  An  Interior  of  a 

1  The  Greffier  Fagel  cabinet  was  sold  by  Coxe,  Burrell  and 
Foster,  May  22nd,  1801,  and  a  full-priced  list  is  given  by 


Gardener's  House,  310  guineas;  A.  Ostade,  In- 
terior of  a  Dutch  Cabaret,  305  guineas ;  Jan  de 
Mabuse,  Portraits  of  a  Gentleman  and  a  Lady  at 
Devotion,  ^138. 

On  March  I3th,  in  the  following  week  the  re- 
markable series  of  copies  by  Guy  Head  came  up 
for  sale.  Head  was  a  great  friend  of  Sir  Joshua 
Reynolds,  who  took  him  under  his  special  protec- 
tion and  sent  him  to  the  Continent,  where  he 
resided  for  sixteen  years,  all  the  time  making  copies 
of  the  great  masters  in  Holland,  Flanders,  Ger- 
many and  Italy.  Some  of  these  copies  realized 
high  amounts  at  this  sale,  for  instance,  a  set  of  three 
after  Rubens,  The  Taking  Down  from  the  Cross, 
St.  Simeon  in  the  Temple,  and  The  Visitation, 
brought  400  guineas ;  and  another,  The  Raising 
of  the  Christ,  200  guineas.  The  no  lots  realized 
a  total  of  ^"2,195  us.  At  the  sale,  April  3rd,  of 
the  original  pictures  collected  by  Guy  Head,  a 
Titian,  The  Stratagem  of  Pharaoh's  Daughter, 
formerly  in  the  gallery  of  the  Soranza  family,  sold 
for  735  guineas.  On  May  6th,  William  Gilpin's 
collections  of  Prints,  Drawings,  Sketches,  the 
greater  part  accompanied  with  valuable  remarks 
in  MS.,  and  several  unpublished  works  were  sold; 
and  two  days  afterwards  a  picture  sale  included  five 
Claudes,  a  fine  Landscape  the  subject  in  No.  5, 
"Liber  Veritatis,"  210  guineas;  another  with  a 
view  of  the  Colosseum,  No.  i,  "  Liber  Veritatis," 
200  guineas ;  and  A  Landscape  with  a  Repose  in 
the  foreground,  from  Lord  Londonderry's  collec- 
tion, 260  guineas;  and  Ruysdael,  Landscape 

SIR    SIMON   CLARKE    AND   G.    HIBBERT.  65 

with  a  view  of  the  Castle  of  Bentheim,  300  guineas. 
On  May  i4th  and  i5th  the  united  cabinets  of  Sir 
Simon  Clarke  and  George  Hibbert,  Esq.,  selected 
by  them  out  of  the  collections  of  the  Duke  of 
Orleans,  Mr.  Gildemester  of  Amsterdam,  M. 
Colonne,  Mr.  Woodhouse,  etc.,  came  under  the 
hammer,  141  pictures  totalling  up  to  ,£18,454  i6s. 
The  principal  pictures  were — Raphael,  Virgin  and 
Child  from  the  Orleans  collection,  280  guineas; 
Rubens,  Assumption  of  the  Virgin,  from  the  Purl- 
ing collection,  400  guineas ;  and  Diana  returning 
from  the  chase,  from  the  Walkenier  collection 
(engraved  by  Sharp),  1,050  guineas ;  Salvator 
Rosa,  Pythagoras  discovered  by  his  fellow  citizens, 
460  guineas ;  Wouverman,  Coach  and  Six  Gray 
Horses  from  the  Gildemester  collection,  and  de- 
scribed by  Descamp  in  his  "Life"  of  the  artist, 
340  guineas ;  and  a  Landscape  with  figures,  from  the 
same  source,  240  guineas ;  Titian,  A  Holy  Family, 
from  the  Aldobrandini  collection,  400  guineas; 
Guido,  a  Sibyl,  from  the  Orleans  collection,  330 
guineas  ;  P.  Da  Cortona,  Flight  of  Jacob,  from  the 
same,  320  guineas;  and  Cuyp,  a  Landscape  with 
Peasants  going  to  market,  from  the  Brun  collec- 
tion, 295  guineas. 

Lord  Mendip's  collection  of  Antique  Marbles, 
Statues,  and  Busts  was  dispersed  by  Mr.  Christie, 
on  May  i  ;th  ;  and  on  the  two  following  days  the 
household  furniture,  etc.,  at  York  House,  Piccadilly, 
late  the  property  of  H.R.H.  the  Duke  of  York, 
was  sold,  the  313  lots  realizing  ,£2,544  ;  and  finally, 
in  June,  "the  superb  and  costly  oriental  museum, 

I.  F 

66       THE    WALKER    AND    WALSH    PORTER    SALES. 

the  property  of  Mr.  Findley,  who  paid  ,£10,000 
for  it,"  including  statuary,  the  most  perfect  speci- 
mens of  pellucid  gems,  coloured  diamonds,  rubies, 
emeralds,  sapphires,  topazes,  and  a  diamond  of 
uncommon  lustre  and  size.  This  sale  occupied 
four  days  from  June  Hth. 

The  first  important  picture  sale  of  1803,  March 
4th  and  5th,  included  eight  pictures,  the  property 
of  the  late  Richard  Walker,  Esq.,  of  Liverpool, 
and  of  these  we  may  mention  Gerard  Dow,  His 
own  Portrait,  touching  the  violin,  "  the  very  cele- 
brated and  highly  finished  picture"  (see  page  55), 
from  the  Orleans  collection,  1 1 5  guineas ;  Teniers,  a 
Flemish  Farm-yard  with  the  white  horse,  290 
guineas  ;  N.  Poussin,  a  Bacchanalian  scene,  painted 
for  the  artist's  patron,  the  Prime  Minister  of  Louis 
XIII.,  was  knocked  down  at  800  guineas, — but  as 
no  name  of  purchaser  is  given^,  the  picture  may  not 
have  been  sold. 

Unquestionably  the  great  picture  sale  of  1803 
was  that  of  Mr.  Walsh  Porter,  which  took  place 
on  March  22nd  and  23rd,  103  pictures  showing  a 
total  of  ,£8,553  8s.  Porter,  says  Mr.  Redford, 
was  "  one  of  the  most  intelligent  and  enterprising 
of  those  who  went  to  the  Continent  to  collect 
during  these  troublous  times,  and  who  were  also 
on  the  look  out  for  good  pictures  coming  to 
England  through  various  hands  to  be  sold,  and 
often  placed  in  the  possession  of  bankers  as 
security  for  loans,  or  as  a  place  of  safety."  Porter, 
at  the  time  of  this  sale,  was  advertised  as  "  going 
abroad."  The  principal  pictures  were  Gains- 

THE    WALSH    PORTER    SALE.  67 

borough,  Female  Domestic  bestowing  Alms,  from 
Lord  Robert  Spencer's  collection,  73  guineas;  G. 
Poussin,  Landscape  with  Pyramus  and  Thisbe, 
120  guineas;  Murillo,  The  Seven  Acts  of  Mercy, 
from  the  collection  of  the  Chanoine  Clynps  at 
Antwerp,  370  guineas  ;  William  Van  de  Velde,  the 
Naval  Battle  in  which  Van  Tromp  was  killed, 
410  guineas;  A.  Ostade,  an  Interior  with  Boors, 
1 70  guineas  ;  Dusart,  Dutch  Family  at  a  Repast  in 
an  Arbour,  with  hurdy-gurdy  player,  1 20  guineas  ; 
R.  Wilson,  Landscape  with  phaeton,  formerly  in 
the  possession  of  the  late  Duke  of  Bridgwater, 
engraved  by  Woollett,  185  guineas  ;  A.  del  Sarto, 
Madonna,  Christ  and  infant  Saints,  190  guineas  ; 
Cuyp,  Three  cows  in  a  sunny  landscape,  300 
guineas  ;  Claude,  An  Italian  Landscape,  with  the 
Civita  Castellana  in  the  distance,  and  figures,  from 
the  collection  of  the  Due  de  Choiseul,  700  guineas  ; 
and  the  companion  Landscape  with  the  story  of 
Mercury  and  Bacchus,  from  the  same  collection, 
650  guineas  ;  David  Teniers,  Le  Tambour  bat- 
tant,  the  celebrated  picture  from  the  collection  of 
the  Due  de  Praslin,  280  guineas  ;  G.  Schalken, 
Le  Roi  Depouille,  "  worthy  of  the  collection  it 
once  graced  of  the  late  unfortunate  monarch  of 
France,"  390  guineas  ;  Correggio,  the  Madonna 
with  the  rabbit,  200  guineas  ;  Le  Nain  (catalogued 
as  Caravaggio),  Infant  Card  Players,  "  an  exquisite 
jewel  "  from  the  Aldobrandini  Palace,  370  guineas  ; 
and  the  most  important  lot  of  all,  Leonardo  da 
Vinci,  Virgin  and  Child,  "  an  inestimable  perform- 
ance," 800  guineas.  The  second  and  consider- 

68  SALES    IN    1803. 

ably  more  important  picture  sale  of  Mr.  Walsh 
Porter  took  place  in  1810  (see  pp.  83-86). 

On  May  nth,  1803,  Mr.  Christie  held  a  picture 
sale  which  comprised  a  single  work,  namely  "a 
grand  historical  picture  representing  the  reception 
of  the  hostage  sons  of  Tippoo  Saib  by  the  Marquis 
of  Cornwallis,"  painted  in  India  by  A.  W.  Devis, 
Esq.,  and  containing  nearly  70  portraits  painted 
from  life :  the  picture  realized  ^400.  A  few 
interesting  canvases  occurred  among  the  pictures 
purchased  by  the  late  Francis,  Earl  of  Godolphin, 
"  distinguished  for  his  knowledge  and  taste  for  the 
fine  arts,"  sold  on  June  6th  and  7th,  notably 
Murillo,  Spanish  beggar  boys,  250  guineas,  and  its 
companion,  270  guineas;1  P.  Veronese,  a  Female 
Saint  in  a  vision,  and  angels  descending  with  the 
holy  cross,  1 30  guineas  ;  and  Vandyck,  Portrait  of 
Rubens,  when  the  latter  was.  in  advanced  years, 
150  guineas.  In  September  (i7th)  Mr.  Christie 
was  selling  the  greenhouse  plants,  orange,  lemon, 
and  citron  trees  of  unparalleled  growth,  of  Robert 
Udny  (to  whom  we  shall  refer  again  presently), 
at  his  Villa,  Teddington,  Middlesex;  and  a  month 
later  (October  I5th),  fifty  orange,  lemon  and  citron 
trees,  many  of  them  of  the  unusual  height  of  ten 

1  See  Curtis,  page  291 ;  Evelyn  writes  under  date  June  2ist, 
1693  : — "  I  saw  a  great  auction  of  pictures  in  the  Banqueting 
House,  Whitehall.  They  had  been  my  Lord  Melfort's,  now 
ambassador  from  King  James  at  Rome,  and  engag'd  to  his 
creditors  here.  Lord  Godolphin  bought  the  picture  of  the 
Boys  by  Morillo,  the  Spaniard,  for  80  guineas,  deare  enough." 
This  picture  is  now  the  property  of  Mr.  H.  M.  Leathes,  of 
Herringfleet  Hall,  Lowestoft. 


teet,  at  Weybridge,  Surrey;  it  is  interesting  to 
note  that  these  trees  sold  at  prices  varying  from 
5  to  1 2  guineas,  according  to  size. 

The  1804  season  opened  on  March  2nd,  with  a 
"  superb  collection  "  of  Italian  pictures  recently  con- 
signed from  Rome,  composed  of  the  chefs-d'oeuvre 
selected  from  the  treasures  of  the  Borghese, 
Colonna,  Doria,  Aldobrandini,  Gighi,  Cavalieri, 
Rospigliosi  and  Bolognetti  Palaces,  most  of 
them  actually  painted  for  these  several  families, 
"  as  shall  be  made  appear  to  the  purchasers  by 
the  original  documents  and  papers."  This  sale 
was  undoubtedly  an  important  one,  and  it  included 
Jordaens,  the  Infant  Saviour,  Amatheae  and  Satyr, 
the  celebrated  picture  formerly  in  the  collection  of 
Sir  Gregory  Page,  105  guineas;  Salvator  Rosa, 
Christ  in  the  Wilderness,  purchased  from  the  Church 
of  the  Jesuits  at  Rome,  for  which  church  it  was 
painted,  500  guineas  ;  Diirer,  portrait  of  Leo  X. 
in  the  character  of  St.  Jerome  in  his  study,  162 
guineas;  Titian,  Virgin,  Child,  St.  John,  St. 
Catherine  and  a  Bishop,  from  the  Borghese  gallery, 
395  guineas ;  and  a  portrait  of  Cardinal  Caraffa, 
nephew  of  Paul  IV.  (afterwards  strangled  in  the 
castle  of  St.  Angelo),  100  guineas  ;  Bramante,  The 
Deposition,  "  a  surprising  picture  of  this  master, 
the  architect  of  the  basilica  of  St.  Peter  at  Rome, 
whose  works  are  unknown  in  England,"  from  the 
Borghese  gallery,  390  guineas;  Guido,  Magdalen, 
from  the  Palazzo  Ghigi,  230  guineas  ;  Andrea  del 
Sarto,  The  Virgin  and  the  young  Christ  and  St. 
Joseph,  440  guineas ;  Palma  il  Goven,  ("  im- 


properly  so  called,  perhaps  Jul.  Romano,")  Assump- 
tion of  the  Virgin,  a  female  (probably  the  patroness 
of  the  artist)  in  the  corner  below  offering  up 
her  evening  prayer  to  the  Virgin,  790  guineas ; 
and  Michel  Angelo,  The  Crucifixion  of  the  Virgin 
and  St.  John  the  Evangelist,  "this  most  inestimable 
jewel "  was  painted  for  the  Oratory  of  the  Cava- 
lieri  Palace,  690  guineas. 

The  day  after  the  sale  of  the  foregoing  collec- 
tion, Mr.  Christie  offered  a  collection  "  being  the 
greater  part  of  the  well-known  collection  of  No- 
vellara,  a  ducal  villa  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Modena."  The  principal  pictures  were— Correggio, 
The  Passion  of  our  Saviour,  with  a  letter  explaining 
the  manner  in  which  it  was  purchased  from  the  Duke 
of  Salviati,  and  the  seal  of  the  Academy  of  Parma, 
710  guineas;  Leonardo  da  Vinci,  Christ  Washing 
the  Apostles'  Feet,  280  guineas;  Schidone,  Vir- 
gin and  Infant  Christ,  St.  John  and  St.  Joseph, 
680  guineas  ;  and  Correggio,  The  Flight  into  Egypt, 
St.  Joseph  in  the  foreground  drawing  water  from 
a  pool,  and  the  Virgin  and  Child  accompanied  by 
angels,  1,500  guineas.  Concerning  this  sale,  it  may 
be  mentioned  that  of  the  total  sum  ,£5,565  19^.  no 
less  than  ^5, 247  6s.  represents  property  bought  in. 
On  May  i2th  a  Vandyck  portrait  of  Charles  I. 
was  apparently  bought  in  at  490  guineas. 

The  celebrated  collection  of  pictures  of  Robert 
Udny,  "  formed  during  a  long  series  of  years  with- 
out regard  to  expense,  out  of  the  principal  cabinets 
of  Italy  and  elsewhere,"  came  up  for  sale  at  Chris- 
tie's on  May  i8th  and  igth,  1804,  the  2^7  lots  realiz- 


ing  ,£6,548  i^s.  6d.  There  were  two  Udnys,  John, 
British  Consul  at  Leghorn,  who  was  an  extensive 
buyer  of  pictures,  and  his  brother  Robert,  who 
lived  at  Teddington,  to  whom  he  transferred  and 
whose  collection  of  pictures  was  sold  in  1800 
(see  p.  55).  When  Robert  Udny  died,  in  or 
before  1802,  his  executors  drew  up  a  catalogue 
of  his  collection  of  pictures  at  Teddington,  and 
expressed  themselves  as  "  willing  to  treat  with  any 
gentleman  or  company  for  the  purchase  of  the  col- 
lection entire."  No  offer  being  forthcoming,  the 
pictures  were  sent  to  Mr.  Christie  and  sold  in 
May,  1804,  as  above.  One  of  the  most  important 
was  a  Correggio,  Danae,  which  measured  60  x  78, 
and  realized  200  guineas  (see  also  p.  86).  The 
adventures  of  this  picture  read  like  a  romance. 
It  was  painted  by  order  of  the  Duke  of  Mantua 
as  a  present  for  the  emperor  Charles  V.,  and  was 
in  his  collection  at  Prague,  on  the  capture  of  which 
by  Gustavus  Adolphus,  King  of  Sweden,  it  was 
sent  (with  other  pictures)  to  Stockholm ;  the  Queen 
Christina  bought  the  whole  of  the  collection,  and  at 
her  death  it  was  purchased  by  the  Pope's  nephew, 
Odescalchi ;  on  his  death  the  collection  was  bought 
by  the  Regent  of  France,  the  Duke  of  Orleans, 
and  placed  in  the  Palais  Royal ;  about  the  year 
1728,  during  a  dangerous  illness  of  the  then  Duke 
of  Orleans,  son  to  the  Regent,  a  bigoted  friar,  his 
confessor,  made  it  the  condition  of  his  absolution 
that  he  should  order  all  the  pictures  with  naked 
figures  in  the  Gallery  to  be  destroyed ;  an  order 
which  was  executed  in  the  presence  of  Charles 


Coypel,  painter  to  the  Court ;  but  Coypel  contrived 
to  cut  the  Danae  in  two  places  without  injuring 
the  figures  ;  four  months  after  the  picture,  restored, 
was  sold  to  the  Venetian  noble,  Lobbia  ;  in  1 776  the 
Danae  was  stolen  from  the  family ;  in  1 780  Consul 
Udny  at  Leybon  purchased  it,  and  sent  it  to  Eng- 
land in  1793.  Another  important  picture  in  this 
sale  was  a  second  Correggio,  Ecce  Homo,  the 
Virgin  fallen  in  a  swoon,  152  guineas,  to  which 
there  is  a  long  and  somewhat  conflicting  history 
attached,  which  may  possibly  be  the  picture  now  in 
the  National  Gallery.  Other  pictures  in  this  sale 
were — Fra  Bartolommeo,  Virgin  and  Child,  St. 
John,  and  angels,  and  portrait  of  Corsini,  life  size, 
50  x  38,  ^"128,  and  Madonna  della  Seggiola, 
a  circle,  63  guineas;  Domenichino,  The  Magdalen, 
to  the  knees,  5  30  guineas  ;  Garofalo,  Christ  and  the 
Woman  of  Samaria,  102  guineas,;  Primaticcio,  Her- 
cules teaching  Achilles,  from  Dr.  Mead's  collection, 
60  guineas  ;  and  Andrea  del  Sarto,  Virgin,  Child, 
St.  John,  Elizabeth,  and  two  angels,  100  guineas. 
This  collection  was  composed  almost  entirely  of 
works  by  Italian  masters,  the  few  Dutch  and  other 
pictures  selling  at  very  small  sums.  It  may  be 
further  mentioned  that  Mr.  Christie  sold  Robert 
Udny's  furniture  on  the  premises  at  Teddington  on 
July  Qth,  loth,  and  nth. 

The  pictures  from  the  Barberini  Palace  formed 
the  first  important  sale  of  1805  (March  3Oth), 
and  among  these  were — Guido,  Magdalen  in  the 
Desert,  490  guineas  ;  Leonardo  da  Vinci,  The 
Daughter  of  Herodias  receiving  the  Head  of  John 


the  Baptist,  "deemed  one  of  the  most  precious 
jewels  of  the  Barberini  Palace,"  960  guineas  ;  Gior- 
gione,  A  Female  at  her  Toilet,  560  guineas ; 
Luini,  Portrait  of  Calvin  in  his  Study,  135 
guineas ;  Baroccio,  an  unfinished  work,  Madonna 
and  Infant  sleeping  on  her  bosom,  240  guineas; 
Vandyck,  Portrait  of  an  Abbess,  230  guineas; 
Titian,  Holy  Family  and  St.  Elizabeth  under  a 
Tree,  130  guineas;  and  The  Flagellation,  230 
guineas.  In  April  (6th)  of  this  year  Mr.  Christie 
offered  his  patrons  something  in  the  manner  of  a 
change — a  valuable  and  highly  curious  collection 
of  rare  birds,  natives  of  Cayenne,  being  an  actual 
consignment  to  the  French  National  Museum,  in- 
cluding various  presents  to  M.  Talleyrand  and 
others,  taken  by  a  ship  of  war  on  their  passage  to 

The  only  other  important  picture  sale  of  this 
year  took  place  May  I7th,  i8th,  and  2Oth,  and 
comprised  "the  productions  of  the  great  artists  of 
the  British  school,"  and  known  as  the  collection  of 
the  Shakespeare  Gallery  of  Alderman  Boydell. 
This  collection  of  about  1 70  pictures  with  engrav- 
ings were  disposed  of  by  a  lottery  of  22,000  tickets, 
and  on  January  28th,  1805,  the  lottery  was  drawn, 
the  winner  being  Tassie,  the  gem  modeller,  who 
transferred  the  collection  to  Christie's,  realizing  a 
total  of  rather  over  £6, 1 5  7.  The  principal  pictures 
were  Northcote,  Prince  Arthur  and  Hubert  in 
Prison,  101  guineas;  Richard  II.  and  Boling- 
broke,  108  guineas  ;  The  Princes  smothered  in 
the  Tower,  100  guineas;  and  Romeo,  Juliet  and 


Paris  at  the  Tomb  of  the  Capulets,  200  guineas  ; 
Sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  Death  of  Cardinal  Beau- 
fort, "the  celebrated  chef-d'oeuvre''  505  guineas; 
and  Puck,  ^215  (Samuel  Rogers);  and  Macbeth 
and  the  Witches,  360  guineas  ;  B.  West,  King  Lear 
in  the  Storm,  205  guineas — this  picture,  with  two 
others  by  West  purchased  at  the  same  time,  are 
now  in  the  Philadelphia  Museum  ;  and  "  those 
matchless  set  of  pictures  "  by  R.  Smirke,  Shake- 
speare's Seven  Ages  of  Man,  240  guineas. 

Several  important  pictures  were  included  in  the 
collection  of  the  late  Richard  Hulse,  Esq.,  of 
Blackheath,  sold  on  March  2ist  and  22nd,  1806, 
particularly  a  pair  of  Cuyps,  Cattle  and  Pigs  on 
the  banks  of  a  river,  225  guineas,  and  a  Landscape 
with  cattle  and  a  farmer  on  a  grey  horse  convers- 
ing with  a  herdsman,  430  guineas  ;  Salvator  Rosa, 
the  Lycian  Peasants  transformed  into  Frogs, — "an 
extraordinary  effort,"  275  guineas;  Rembrandt, 
Abraham  and  Sarah  with  Isaac,  150  guineas; 
Claude,  landscape  and  figures,  140  guineas;  and 
"a  chef-d'oeuvre  that  does  infinite  honour  to  the 
British  School," — a  view  of  Windermere  Lake,  with 
a  man  driving  sheep  and  cattle,  the  joint  produc- 
tion of  G.  Barrett,  R.A.,  and  S.  Gilpin,  R.A.,  80 
guineas.  A  small  but  very  choice  assemblage  of 
thirty-two  valuable  pictures,  consigned  from  abroad, 
came  under  the  hammer  at  Christie's  on  April  26th. 
Among  these  were  Berghem,  a  "  broken  "  Land- 
scape, with  peasants  and  cattle  passing  a  ford,  345 
guineas  ;  Hobbema,  A  woody  Landscape  with  cot- 
tages and  figures,  210  guineas;  Terburg,  an  In- 


terior,  a  cavalier  taking  a  lady  by  the  hand,  and 
other  figures  (Marquis  of  Stafford),  240  guineas; 
Both,  A  Mountainous  Pass  on  the  brink  of  a  river, 
300  guineas ;  Ruysdael,  A  Woody  scene,  with 
torrent  rushing  over  a  rocky  bed,  190  guineas; 
G.  Metzu,  a  Woman  selling  fish  and  vegetables, 
and  a  house-door,  on  the  lintel  of  which  is  in- 
scribed the  name  of  the  artist  (Eglinton),  240 
guineas  ;  Teniers,  an  Interior,  with  Boors  smoking 
and  others  regaling  in  an  inner  apartment  (Lord 
Kinnaird),  380  guineas ;  Wouverman,  Halt  of  the 
hawking  party,  345  guineas;  A.Ostade,An  Interior, 
with  many  figures,  dancing  and  regaling,  an  open 
door  in  the  distance  admits  a  view  of  a  beautiful 
landscape,  490  guineas ;  Cuyp,  A  Landscape  on  a 
road  at  the  foot  of  a  mountainous  pass,  peasants 
driving  cattle,  376  guineas;  and  a  Paul  Potter,  A 
Farmyard  with  cattle  and  figures,  "  acknowledged 
by  the  artist  to  have  been  his  masterpiece,"  origin- 
ally painted  for  the  family  of  Slingleant,  1,450 
guineas  (Campbell).  The  thirty- two  pictures 
realized  ,£7,099  13^.  The  sale  which,  above  all 
others,  was  to  have  rendered  the  year  1806  cele- 
brated in  the  annals  of  picture  sales,  did  not  take 
place.  The  collection  formed  by  Mr.  Welbore 
Ellis  Agar,  chiefly  through  Gavin  Hamilton,  who 
(see  p.  59)  brought  a  large  number  of  pictures  to 
this  country  from  Rome  and  other  cities  in  Italy, 
was  announced  by  Mr.  Christie  for  May  2nd,  1806. 
There  were  in  all  sixty-five  pictures,  the  sizes  of 
which  are  given  in  the  catalogue,  printed  in  French ; 
but  the  entire  collection  was  privately  purchased 

7  6  PICTURE    SALES,    1 807. 

by  Lord  Grosvenor  for  30,000  guineas.  Deprived 
of  the  privilege  of  selling  the  Agar  collection,  Mr. 
Christie  offered  to  his  clients,  on  May  i  ;th,  a  small 
selection  of  twenty-four  pictures,  the  property  of 
H .  R.  H .  the  Duke  of  Gloucester,  the  most  important 
works  being  R.  Wilson,  The  Death  of  Niobe, — 
"  the  celebrated  chef-d'oeuvre  of  the  immortal 
Wilson,  engraved  by  Woollett,"  800  guineas  ;  and 
Andrea  del  Sarto,  a  Holy  Family  known  as  the 
"  Madonna  del  Sacco,"  and  purchased  at  Rome 
by  the  duke,  600  guineas. 

An  anonymous  collection,  sold  on  February 
7th,  1807,  calls  for  special  examination,  inasmuch 
as  it  contained  three  good  pictures,  Schalken,  Le 
Concert  de  Famille,  an  interior  with  five  persons, 
230  guineas — this  work  has  been  engraved  by 
Wille ;  C.  du  Jardin,  A  Cavalier  watering  his 
horse  at  a  brook  during  a  halt  from  the  chace, 
250  guineas;  and  a  highly  important  work  of 
Rubens,  The  Return  of  Peace  to  the  City  of  Ant- 
werp, the  latter  allegorically  represented  as  a 
beautiful  female  embraced  by  Pallas,  who  has  put 
sedition  under  her  feet,  in  the  distance  a  storm 
dispersing,  950  guineas.  During  the  next  week 
(February  i4th)  the  capital  and  valuable  finished 
and  unfinished  original  works  of  the  distinguished 
artist  John  Russell,  Esq.,  R.A.,  crayon  painter  to 
His  Majesty,  the  Prince  of  Wales  and  Duke  of 
York,  came  up  for  sale  (and  a  still  further  consign- 
ment on  March  25th)  ;  and  on  the  26th,  27th,  and 
28th  the  pictures  of  "  one  of  the  principal  pro- 
prietors of  the  European  Museum,  retiring  from 


the  concern,"  came  under  the  hammer,  but  neither 
sale  calls  for  details. 

The  remaining  works  of  "  that  great  genius  and 
distinguished  artist,  James  Barry,  Esq.,  deceased," 
occupied  Mr.  Christie  on  April  loth  and  nth, 
1807,  but  very  few  of  the  141  lots  need  detain  us. 
We  may  mention,  however,  the  justly  celebrated 
chef-d'ceuvrey  Pandora  receiving  her  Presents  from 
the  Gods,  230  guineas,  the  finished  study  of 
his  great  picture  on  the  walls  of  the  Society  of 
Arts  in  the  Adelphi  ;  an  unfinished  Portrait  of  Dr. 
Johnson,  30  guineas ;  and  A  Temptation  of  Adam, 
100  guineas.  Quite  an  epidemic  of  sales  of  "the 
remaining  works  "  of  recently  deceased  artists  ap- 
pears to  have  broken  out  in  this  year ;  for  in  addi- 
tion to  the  two  already  mentioned,  on  April  27th, 
"  the  select  and  reserved  collection  of  portraits  of 
the  eminent  and  very  celebrated  artist,"  George 
Romney,  was  offered  for  sale,  but  very  few  of  the 
articles  were  actually  sold  ;  they  were  reserved,  in 
fact,  until  May,  1894,  when  they  came  up  at 
Christie's  once  more. 

The  principal  picture  sale  of  1807  was  the  earlier 
of  the  two  of  M.  Lafontaine,  a  very  successful 
dealer  of  Paris,  and  through  whose  hands  a  large 
number  of  highly  important  works  passed.  For 
convenience  we  bracket  the  two  sales  together. 
The  earlier  of  the  two,  that  of  June  I3th,  1807, 
included  the  celebrated  Rembrandt,  now  in  the 
National  Gallery,  the  Woman  taken  in  Adultery, 
5,000  guineas ;  the  equally  famous  Claude,  A  Land- 
scape, with  figures  representing  the  marriage  fes- 


tival  of  Isaac  and  Rebecca,  known  also  as  "II 
Molino,  or  Claude's  Mill,"  from  the  composition  in- 
cluding a  picturesque  water-mill,  800  guineas  ;  this 
picture  is  also  in  the  National  Gallery.  There 
were  several  other  Claudes,  notably  The  Grotto  of 
Neptune,  410  guineas ;  and  Landscape  and  seaport, 
1,900  guineas;  Rembrandt,  a  Sea  piece,  with  numer- 
ous vessels  and  a  yacht  from  which  the  Statholder 
and  suite  have  put  off  in  a  barge  of  State,  470 
guineas  ;  Rubens,  Portrait  of  Helena  Forman  and 
child,  in  a  landscape  by  Breughel,  ,£290 ;  Leonardo 
da  Vinci,  St.  Jerome  seated  under  a  Tree,  440 
guineas  ;  and  Correggio,  Virgin  and  Child  with  St. 
John,  from  the  Modena  collection,  3,000  guineas. 
The  second  of  the  two  sales,  June  i2th,  1811, 
was,  like  the  first,  anonymous,  although  the  ven- 
dor's identity  was  in  each  case  well  known.  The 
great  picture  on  this  occasion  was  the  celebrated 
Rembrandt,  The  Master  Ship-builder,  "  known 
throughout  Europe  as  the  finest  performance  in  his 
second  manner,"  and  purchased  for  5,000  guineas 
by  Lord  Yarmouth  for  the  Prince  of  Wales  (George 
IV.) ;  this  picture  is  now  in  the  Royal  Collection, 
Buckingham  Palace.  Lord  Yarmouth  also  purchased 
Adrian  Van  de  Velde,  Peasants  and  cattle  reposing 
beneath  a  woody  bank,  1,800  guineas;  Wouver- 
man,  Hay  Harvest,  "a  perfect  chef-d'oeuvre,  in 
which  all  the  excellencies  of  this  master  are  beauti- 
fully combined,"  i, 700 guineas  ;  A.  Ostade,  Flemish 
Family's  Repast,  one  of  this  artist's  very  finest 
interiors,  i  ,000  guineas ;  and  Teniers,  A  Flemish 
Village  Fete,  a  composition  of  nearly  200  figures, 


comprising  a  religious  procession,  a  brawl,  a  group 
of  dancers,  tables  spread  with  viands,  and  peasants 
regaling,  1,650  guineas.  The  other  pictures  in- 
cluded—  F.  Mieris,  Lady  Stringing  Pearls,  seated 
at  a  table  covered  with  a  rich  Turkey  carpet,  on 
which  is  a  silver  vase  and  salver,  280  guineas— 
this  is  the  celebrated  "  1'Enfileuse  de  perles," 
afterwards  in  the  Talleyrand  Collection ;  Vandyck, 
Christ  Healing  the  Lame  Man,1  a  composition 
chiefly  of  three  figures,  engraved  by  De  Jode  as 
"  Tolle  Crabbatum,"^346;  Salvator  Rosa,  A  Grand 
Landscape  with  broken  hilly  grounds  and  detached 
rocks,  290  guineas  ;  G.  Poussin,  A  Grand  Land- 
scape, 290  guineas  ;  Guercino,  The  Woman 
taken  in  Adultery,  from  the  palace  of  Cambiaso, 
Genoa,  240  guineas  ;  J.  Both,  A  Grand  Landscape, 
with  figures,  the  Baptism  of  the  Eunuch,  1,550 
guineas  ;  and  W.  Van  de  Velde,  A  Calm,  with  a 
fleet  at  anchor,  and  a  vessel  and  yachts  in  motion, 
950  guineas.  Although  all  these  prices  are  duly 
copied  from  Mr.  Christie's  catalogue,  it  is  highly 
probable  that  several  of  them  are  fictitious.  The 
Wouverman,  as  well  as  the  Rembrandt  and  Van  de 
Velde  passed  into  the  Prince  of  Wales's  possession, 
and,  after  adorning  the  walls  of  Carlton  House,  were 
subsequently  removed  to  Buckingham  Palace  ;  but 
the  Prince  is  understood  to  have  acquired  them  at 
much  lower  than  the  published  amounts.  Several 
pictures,  moreover,  were  admittedly  bought  in. 
On  Saturday,  June  2oth,  1807,  "  a  most  capital 

1  By  some  extraordinary  blunder  Redford  quotes  this  picture 
as  having  realized  ,£3,800  at  this  sale. 

80  SALES    IN    1807. 

and  valuable  collection  of  pictures,  the  property  of 
an  eminent  collector,  purchased  by  him  chiefly  in 
the  course  of  several  tours  on  the  Continent,"  came 
under  the  hammer,  and  appears  to  have  included 
a  few  good  things,  notably  a  chef-d'oeuvre  of 
Rubens,  A  Holy  Family,  formerly  the  altarpiece 
of  the  Theatine  Convent  at  Munich  (and  possibly 
the  picture  referred  to  by  Van  Hassett  as  "pro- 
venait  de  la  collection  de  Lord  Scarborough"), 
800  guineas ;  and  another  by  the  same  artist, 
Fathers  of  the  Church,  195  guineas.  A  few 
other  sales  of  this  year  may  be  here  dealt  with 
collectively.  On  June  2nd,  3rd  and  5th,  Mr. 
Christie  sold  the  Museum  and  entire  stock  of  Mr. 
Innocent,  "  retiring  from  the  business  and  removed 
from  his  house  at  the  corner  of  Little  Newport 
Street "  ;  the  stock  comprised  a  great  assortment 
of  stones,  agates,  crystals,  miniatures,  shells, 
minerals,  carvings  in  ivory,  eight  small  stained 
glass  gothic  windows,  and,  last  but  not  least, 
"  the  cap  in  which  King  Charles  I.  was  beheaded," 
and  which,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  it  was 
"well  authenticated,"  only  realized  £2  i$s.  On 
October  2nd  "a  vast  assemblage  of  curious  and 
singularly  fine  Hyacinths  and  other  bulbous  roots 
of  the  rarest  kinds  and  in  every  variety,"  came  up 
for  sale  at  Christie's,  and  this  was  probably  the 
first  consignment  of  the  kind  sold  by  auction  in 
England ;  the  experiment  was  apparently  a  suc- 
cess, for  on  November  3rd  another  importation 
came  under  Christie's  hammer. 

Only  one  sale  in  1808  calls  for  special  notice. 

By  T.  ROWLANDSON.     From  l'The  Microcosm  of  London,"  plate  8. 

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of  the   Church,    195  few 

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On  June    2m  Mr. 

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A  dozen  pictures,  "the  property  of  John  Lenthall, 
Esq.,  being  a  choice  part  of  the  collection  formed 
by  William  Lenthall,  Speaker  of  the  Long  Parlia- 
ment, who  died  in  1662,  since  which  time  the 
paintings  have  never  been  out  of  the  family  man- 
sion at  Burford  (Oxfordshire),  from  which  they 
have  recently  been  brought."  The  only  work  in 
this  small  collection  which  calls  for  special  notice 
was  a  group  of  seven  life-size  pictures  by  Holbein, 
the  arms  of  the  principal  figures  emblazoned  over 
the  heads  of  each  ;  the  picture  measured  1 5  feet  x 
10  feet,  and  was  bought  in  at  1,000  guineas. 
Wornum  states  that  this  picture  is  considered  to 
be  made  up  from  Holbein's  drawing  at  Basel,  and 
other  figures  introduced  by  a  later  hand  in  1593, 
fifty  years  after  the  death  of  Holbein  ;  it  is  now 
in  possession  of  Mrs.  Strickland,  of  Cokethorpe 
Park,  Witney. 

The  year  1809,  like  its  predecessor,  was  barren 
in  good  picture  sales.  Only  one  (February  24th) 
may  be  mentioned,  that  of  the  late  Sir  H.  T.  Gott, 
of  Newland  Park,  near  Chalfont  St.  Peter's,  Bucks, 
but  only  two  or  three  realized  over  ioo  guineas, 
e-g">  J»  and  A.  Both,  An  Italian  Landscape,  with 
cattle  and  figures,  155  guineas,  and  a  Wouver- 
man,  Romantic  Landscape,  with  a  halt  of  sports- 
men, 1 20  guineas.  The  most  attractive  sale  of 
the  year  took  place  on  June  3rd,  and  comprised 
"  a  very  rare  and  exceedingly  curious  assemblage 
of  valuable  articles  actually  designed  as  presents 
to  Bonaparte  when  first  Consul  of  France,  inter- 
cepted by  English  cruisers  at  the  Rio  de  la  Plata 

i.  G 

82        THE    HON.    C.    F.   GREVILLE*S    COLLECTION. 

and  elsewhere  on  their  passage  to  Europe."  These 
articles  included  a  Chinese  pleasure  yacht  chiefly 
composed  of  ivory,  6  feet  long  x  6  feet  high,  ^  of 
the  most  surprising  and  elaborate  workmanship," 
240  guineas ;  and  a  fan  of  the  very  finest  Japan 
lacquer  on  the  talipat  leaf,  "  probably  the  only 
article  of  the  kind  ever  seen  in  the  western  world," 
30  guineas. 

A  number  of  important  sales  took  place  during 
1 8 10.     The  earliest  of  these,    March    i6th  and 
1 7th,  comprised  "  original   pictures   from   Spain, 
the  actual  property  of  a  noble  family,  expedited  to 
this  country  on  their  late  removal  from  Seville  "  ; 
but  the  two  days'  sale  only  produced  ^871,  and 
only  one  picture  need  be  specified,  a  Murillo,  An 
Old  Woman  eating  porridge,  71  guineas.     During 
the  last  few  days  of  March  and  the  first  few  days 
in  April,   Mr.  Christie  was  busy  dispersing  the 
extensive  collections  of  pictures,  furniture,  wines, 
books,  snuff  boxes,  jewellery,  prints,  and  so  forth, 
of  the  late  Hon.  C.  F.  Greville,  F.R.S.,  F.A.S., 
etc.     The  collection  of  99  pictures  was  sold  on 
March    3ist,  producing  a  total   of  ,£4,144    us. 
The  majority  were  probably  good  old  copies  after 
the  great   Italian  masters  ;    but  a  few  first-class 
works  occurred   in   this  sale,  notably  R.  Wilson, 
Apollo  and  Diana  slaying  the  children  of  Niobe, 
apparently  one  of  the  two  duplicates  of  the  picture 
in  the   National  Gallery,  205    guineas;    Rubens, 
Loves  of  the  Centaurs,  in  a  landscape,  6 10  guineas, 
purchased  by  the  Marquis  of  Douglas,  and  again 
sold  with  the  Hamilton  Palace  Collection  in  1882. 


But  the  great  sale  of  the  year  was  the  second 
Walsh  Porter  collection,  on  Saturday,  April  I4th, 
when  52  lots  realized  the  total  of  ,£30,074  195.,  the 
record  amount  of  a  day's  sale  at  Christie's,  up  to 
and  for  long  after  the  year  1810.  We  have  already 
seen  that  Mr.  Walsh  Porter  had  sold  one  collection 
seven  years  previously,  and  that  collection  was,  at 
the  time,  regarded  as  an  excellent  one.  This 
second  collection,  which  comprised  specimens  of 
nearly  all  the  great  masters  of  every  foreign 
school,  is  described  by  the  auctioneer  as  "a 
superb  assemblage,  well  known  to  the  more  dis- 
tinguished cognoscenti,  but  which  has  never  been 
generally  exhibited,"  and  further  as  "  scarcely  to 
be  equalled  by  even  the  finest  that  has  been  con- 
signed to  this  country  within  the  last  ten  years." 
The  sale  was  without  the  least  reserve,  and 
the  catalogues,  without  which  no  person  was 
admitted  on  the  day  of  the  sale,  were  sold  at 
half-a-crown  each.  The  more  important  of  the 
pictures  were  the  following  : — Jan  Steen,  Exterior 
of  a  Cabaret,  with  skittle-ground,  near  a  fortified 
town,  several  groups,  from  the  Neuilly  collection, 
194  guineas ;  Van  der  Heyden,  A  view  of  the  Stadt- 
house,  Amsterdam,  220  guineas;  Ruysdael,  The 
Mill,  now  at  Buckingham  Palace,  290  guineas  ; 
Carlo  Dolci,  Virgin  and  child,  with  flowers,  300 
guineas ;  Guido,  St.  Apollonia  and  the  Executioner, 
with  cherub,  from  the  Orleans  collection,  330 
guineas  ;  Metzu,  Lady  with  a  harpsichord,  and 
cavalier,  from  the  Choiseul  collection,  250  guineas  ; 
A.  Ostade,  Boors  smoking,  260  guineas  ;  Wynants 


and  Wouverman,  Forest  scene,  with  figures  hawk- 
ing, 320  guineas,  purchased  by  Lord  Yarmouth 
for  the  Prince  of  Wales ;  Wouverman,  Camp 
scene  with  a  beggar,  300  guineas  ;  Leonardo  da 
Vinci,  Virgin  and  child  with  cherries,  sculptured 
pedestal  and  landscape,  810  guineas;  Giorgione, 
Venus  and  Cupid  stung  by  a  bee,  in  landscape, 
from  the  Orleans  collection,  320  guineas  ;  Vandyck, 
St.  Sebastian  and  soldiers,  850  guineas,  and  Virgin, 
with  Infant  standing  on  her  knee,  with  Magdalen, 
David,  and  the  good  Thief,  750  guineas  ;  Teniers, 
Group  of  fishermen  on  beach,  610  guineas,  and 
Village  Surgeon,  from  the  Chevalier  De  Venee's 
collection,  engraved,  240  guineas;  Gerard  Dow,  Old 
Woman  with  a  candle,  200  guineas ;  Rembrandt, 
Head  of  a  Rabbi,  194  guineas  ;  P.  Veronese,  Mar- 
riage of  the  Virgin,  with  many  figures,  from  the 
Corsini  Palace,  350  guineas  ;-  N.  Poussin,  Holy 
Family,  610  guineas  ;  G.  Poussin,  Woody  valley, 
with  goatherd  and  figures,  from  the  Corsini 
Palace,  600  guineas ;  A.  Carracci,  Silenus  and 
Apollo,  designed  for  a  harpsichord,  from  the 
Lanzelotti  Palace,  engraved,  300  guineas,  pur- 
chased by  Mr.  Angerstein  and  now  in  the  National 
Gallery;  Murillo,  a  pair  from  the  Capuchin  Con- 
vent, Genoa,  Magdalen  in  prayer,  choir  of  angels, 
420  guineas;  and  a  Riposo  with  angels,  1,000 
guineas ;  Titian,  Adoration  of  the  Kings,  with 
one  of  the  kings  alighted  from  a  white  horse, 
presented  to  Charles  V.  by  the  Spanish  Court, 
520  guineas;  Titian,  Ariadne  in  Naxos,  known 
as  "the  Bacchanalian  Scene,"  one  of  the  four 


pictures  painted  for  Duke  Alfonso  of  Ferrara, 
1,500  guineas, — the  catalogue  contains  a  long 
description  of  this  work,  "  which  agrees  with  the 
picture  No.  450  in  the  Museo  del  Prado,  Madrid, 
of  which  this  was  either  a  fine  copy  or  a  replica,  as 
it  brought  this  high  price  "  (Redford) — the  present 
whereabouts  of  this  picture  is  not  known ;  Guido, 
St.  Jerome  and  Angel,  from  the  Balbi  Palace,  610 
guineas  ;  Bassano,  Conversion  of  a  Princess,  with 
a  bishop,  and  cherubs,  from  Corsini  Palace,  310 
guineas  ;  Andrea  del  Sarto,  Virgin  with  the  young 
Christ  and  St.  John,  1,150  guineas  (Buchanan); 
Domenichino,  St.  Cecilia,  holding  palm  in  right 
hand,  and  scroll  of  music  in  the  left,  group  of 
angels  near,  and  before  her  the  organ,  a  wreath  of 
roses  round  her  head,  formerly  in  the  Pallavicini 
collection,  1,750  guineas  (the  same)  ;  three  highly 
important  Claudes,  The  Enchanted  Castle,  a  bay, 
with  castle  on  the  shore  in  middle  ground,  and 
fine  trees,  female  figure  in  a  pensive  attitude 
seated  in  foreground,  figures  in  a  boat  in  the  bay, 
some  deer  near,  900  guineas  (the  same) — sketched 
by  Claude,  No.  162,  "  Liber  Veritatis,"  and 
the  picture  painted  for  the  Conestabile  collection 
in  1664,  subsequently  passing  into  the  possession 
of  Mr.  Davenant,  Mr.  Chauncy,  M.  de  Calonne, 
Mr.  Froward,  Mr.  Walsh  Porter,  Mr.  Wells,  of 
Redleaf,  and  finally  into  the  Overstone  collection, 
where  it  now  is ;  Sinon  before  Priam  and  his 
suite,  with  guards  to  the  right,  Troy  on  the  left  on 
a  hill,  and  the  Trojan  camp,  from  the  Ghigi 
Palace,  No.  145,  "  Liber  Veritatis  "  2,750  guineas  ; 

86  MINOR    SALES,    l8lO. 

and  ^Eneas  shooting  deer  on  the  coast  of  Lybia, 
Achates  and  followers,  woody  landscape,  with 
several  temples  and  ancient  buildings,  from  the 
Colonna  Palace,  600  guineas  ;  two  by  Rubens, 
Pan  and  Syrinx,  from  the  collection  of  the  Due 
de  Montesquieu,  cabinet  size,  engraved,  1,000 
guineas,  and  The  Painter  as  St.  George,  preceded 
by  his  three  wives,  one  as  Mary  Magdalen, 
standing  in  front  before  the  Virgin  seated  with 
the  Infant,  St.  Jerome  kneeling,  with  winged  boy 
holding  book,  group  of  angels  in  sky,  formerly  in 
the  Balbi  Palace  at  Genoa,  2,050  guineas  ;  P. 
Veronese,  Venus  and  Cupid,  from  the  Colonna 
Palace,  770  guineas ;  Correggio,  Danae  receiving 
the  shower  of  gold,  rather  smaller  than  life — this 
picture  is  referred  to  at  length  in  Mengs'  "  Life  " 
of  the  Artist  (see  also  p.  71),  2,050  guineas. 

Subsequent  sales  held  during  the  year  1810 
suffer  much  by  comparison  with  the  Walsh  Porter 
sensation.  The  collection  of  Sir  Philip  Stephens 
was  sold  on  May  i7th,  on  the  premises,  2,  Great 
Cumberland  Crescent,  Oxford  Street,  by  order  of 
Viscount  Ranelagh,  but  of  the  hundred  pictures 
we  need  only  refer  to  Teniers,  The  Gazette,  four 
men  and  the  newsman,  from  the  Orleans  collection, 
^450  ;  A.  Cuyp,  A  Grand  Landscape,  morning 
scene,  a  river,  a  horseman  in  the  middle  of  the 
foreground,  and  other  figures,  with  cows,  48  x  63!-, 
i, 600  guineas,  and  an  Evening  Scene,  bank  of  river 
with  cows  and  herdsman,  fisherman's  basket  in 
front  and  a  heron  hiding  in  the  rushes,  1,000 
guineas.  Caleb  Whitefoord's  collection  was  sold  by 

MINOR    SALES,    iSlO.  87 

Mr.  Christie  on  May  4th  and  5th,  but  it  contained 
no  pictures  of  importance — Whitefoord  is  painted 
by  Wilkie  as  the  hero  in  the  well-known  picture 
of  The  Letter  of  Introduction.  On  May  25th  and 
26th,  Mr.  Christie  sold  the  pictures  and  works 
of  art  in  marble  and  bronze  of  the  late  Marquis  of 
Lansdowne,  removed  from  Lansdowne  House,  and 
including  a  pair  by  Salvator  Rosa,  Diogenes  casting 
away  his  Golden  Cup,  980  guineas ;  and  Heraclitus 
contemplating,  surrounded  with  decaying  pyramids, 
obelisks,  spoils  of  war,  skeletons,  etc.,  950  guineas, 
both  from  Sir  George  Yonge's  collection,  and  both 
bought  in ;  also  38  pictures  by  order  of  the 
assignees  of  Michael  Bryan,  author  of  the  "  Dic- 
tionary of  Painters " ;  and  also  of  a  number  of 
pictures  the  property  of  "  a  collector  distinguished 
for  his  refined  taste,"  which  included  Murillo, 
Madonna  and  child,  650  guineas  ;  and  the  Assump- 
tion of  the  Virgin,  "a  beautiful  little  gem,"  140 
guineas ;  and  several  examples  of  Teniers,  Wouver- 
man,  A.  del  Sarto,  N.  Poussin,  and  Sir  Antonio 
More's  Portrait  of  Queen  Mary,  1 80  guineas. 


1811 — 1847. 







HE  first  important  sale  of  181 1  (May 
25th)  comprised  the  "  capital  and 
highly  valuable  assemblage,  chiefly 
of  distinguished  Italian,  and  a  few 
Spanish,  French,  Flemish  and  Dutch 
pictures  of  the  finest  class,  the  genuine  and  entire 
collection  "  of  William  Young  Ottley,  the  distin- 
guished collector  and  connoisseur,  whose  first  col- 
lection, as  we  have  seen,  was  sold  at  Christie's  in 
1 80 1.  The  present  portion  comprised  ninety- two 
lots,  and  of  these,  the  most  important  were  Barto- 
lommeo  di  San  Marco,  Mary  Magdalen  carried  to 
Heaven  by  Angels,  an  unfinished  work  on  panel, 


From  a  print  by  JAMES  GILLRAY,  published  May  9,  1808. 

This  print  exhibits  the  portico  of  Christie's  old  rooms  in  Pall  Mall  ; 
attached  to  the  door-post  is  the  usual  catalogue,  advertising  in  this 
instance,  "  800  Capital  Pictures  to  be  Sold  by  Mr.  Christie,  February 
ist,  1808."  The  snow  is  lying  on  the  railings.  A  brisk,  stooping 
tigure,  clapping  hi^  hand.-  l«»r  \\uniiih,  and  wearing  a  spencer  and 
gaiter>,  and  1.1  LI  k--,  luprr-ent-  Maecenas,  the  Marquis  of 

Staffoi  first  Duke-  of  Sutherland,),  as  he  actually  appeared 

(1  in  fanning  the  celebrated  Stafford  Collection. 

OF  THO.VtOtfP-    JOH.V  LAMV;   -M  .'• 
—  G.    WATSON    TAYLOfc—  DAVU*     < 
MADAME  MURAT—Slft    M.  W.  S\ 

^i^'AiH^  ^O  THJeifliJ'H    tfl 


.  .  '  "  . 

IUS  ni  20100.  . 

i  "&aiiitivti>.&  ,  .          ,  ,-  taoq-1; 

.  -  .  ••  '     •    • 

-••(IT      :'.8oo. 

.   .'fmru;1//  ii  .id   ^''^l*' 

lc/  .^W^*^- 



v£   highly.  Valuable  assembl  iefly 

of  distinguished   Italian,  and  a 
Spanish,  French,  Flemish  and  Dutch 
t:s  ol  tht  finest  cla^s,  the  genuine  and  entire 
iction"  of  William  Young  the  distin- 

^islied  coll^ctp^and  co:-n-  first  col- 

s  we  have  seen,  wa  tie's  in 

1801.     The  present  portir 
lot*,  and  of  these,  the  n  e  Barto- 

n  panel, 

THE    OTTLEY    SALES.  89 

supposed  to  have  been  painted  for  Leo  X.,  when 
Cardinal,  whose  portrait  is  introduced  in  the  lower 
part  of  the  picture,  1 20  guineas  ;  Bassano,  Jacob's 
Journey,  220  guineas ;  Guercino,  A  Man  in 
Armour,  supposed  to  be  intended  to  represent 
the  famous  Scanderberg,  "  one  of  the  finest  of  this 
artist,"  from  the  Albani  Palace  at  Rome,  240 
guineas  ;  Raphael,  Vision  of  a  Christian  Knight, 
from  the  Borghese  Palace,  380  guineas, — purchased 
probably,  according  to  Redfprd,  for  Sir  Thomas 
Lawrence,  from  whose  possession  it  passed  into 
Lady  Sykes's  collection,  whence  it  passed  into  the 
Rev.  Thomas  Egerton's  hands,  and  was  purchased 
for  the  National  Gallery,  in  1847,  f°r  100 guineas; 
G.  Poussin,  Landscape  and  figures,  from  the 
Colonna  Palace,  650  guineas ;  Murillo,  Virgin 
and  Child,  apparently  cut  from  its  straining-frame 
with  a  sabre  and  rolled  up,  was  brought  to  this 
country  by  a  gentleman  in  the  British  Service, 
soon  after  the  English  had  possession  of  Cadiz,  and 
"  was  probably  a  part  of  the  pillage  which  the 
French  troops  found  inconvenient  to  carry  with 
them ;  "  and  has  "  evidently  been  the  altarpiece 
of  a  chapel,"  380  guineas  ;  Andrea  del  Sarto, 
Charity,  brought  from  France  to  Dublin,  many 
years  ago,  by  the  Attorney-General  Tyndale— 
there  is  a  fresco  of  the  same  subject  in  a  Cloister 
at  Florence — 480  guineas  ;  and  Titian,  Europa, 
a  study,  270  guineas.  In  several  instances,  the 
pictures  in  this  sale  did  not  reach  the  reserve  put 
upon  them,  as  they  came  up  for  sale  again  (after 
Ottley's  death,)  on  March  4th,  1837,  when  the 


Titian  sketch  (of  which  the  catalogue  contained 
an  engraving)  fell  to  148  guineas  ;  Rembrandt's 
Bathsheba  declined  from  /i8o  to  105  guineas; 
Bassano's  Jacob's  Journey,  from  220  guineas  to  41 
guineas  ;  and  the  companion  picture  of  Dives  and 
Lazarus,  from  ^79  to  30  guineas. 

The  principal  sale  of  the  year,  however,  was  an 
anonymous  one,  which  took  place  on  June  22nd, 
and  comprised  pictures  from  the  collection  of  the 
Duca  di  San  Pietro.  The  examples  of  the  work 
of  Rubens,  Rembrandt,  Leonardo,  Spagnoletto, 
and  Alessandro  Veronese,  were  of  a  highly  impor- 
tant character,  judging  by  the  prices  at  which  they 
were  knocked  down.  One  of  the  two  Rembrandts, 
The  Calling  of  St.  Matthew,  is  described  as  "  a  very 
capital  and  beautiful  easel  picture,  painted  with 
great  spirit  of  outline,  and  a  most  brilliant  and 
harmonious  display  of  colour  ;- "  it  was  apparently 
bought  in  at  1,450  guineas;  the  Leonardo  was 
a  Portrait  of  a  female  in  white  bodice,  and  low 
embroidered  turban  cap,  "a  brunette  with  the 
most  pleasing  regularity  of  feature,"  "the  figure 
simply  relieved  by  a  curtain  of  emerald  green," 
3,000  guineas.  The  Spagnoletto,  St.  Sebastien,  a 
female  drawing  an  arrow  from  a  wound  and 
another  bearing  the  ointment,  3,000  guineas ;  and 
Alessandro  Veronese,  Murder  of  the  Innocents, 
2,900  guineas ;  these  three,  like  the  Rembrandt, 
were  almost  certainly  bought  in,  and  to  a  number 
of  the  other  pictures  no  prices  are  attached.  It  is 
interesting  to  note  in  connection  with  this  sale 
that,  after  the  death  of  the  Duke,  some  of  the 

SALES    FROM    I  8  IO-  I  8  19.  9  1 

pictures  which  had  been  offered  in  this  sale,  came 
again  under  the  hammer  on  July  loth,  1813,  not, 
however,  at  Christie's,  but  at  Squibb's,  when  ex- 
ceedingly small  prices  were  realized  —  the  best 
were  Murillo,  A  Boy  Sleeping,  36  x  27,  500 
guineas  ;  and  Rembrandt,  Semiramis  at  her  Toilet 
hearing  of  the  revolt  of  Babylon,  which  introduces 
in  the  foreground  portraits  of  the  wife  of  the 
artist  in  profile,  his  mother  and  himself,  66  x  48, 
800  guineas.  Mr.  Redford  quotes  a  number  of 
the  eighty-three  pictures  which  realized  less  than 

Although  Christie's  annual  volumes  of  catalogues 
show  a  progressive  growth  in  size,  and  the  sales  a 
constant  increase  in  number,  the  picture  sales  from 
1810  to  1819  included  very  few  of  importance. 
We  may  mention,  however,  the  sale  of  William  Nor- 
ton Pitt's  pictures,  June  ist,  1811,  which  realized 
;£i,934  5^.;  and  also  that  some  of  the  effects  of 
the  Duke  of  Queensberry  ("old  Q  "  )  were  sold 
on  August  3Oth,  1812.  During  1812  the  sales  in- 
cluded the  pictures  collected  by  Bishop  Hoadley 
and  Dr.  Hoadley,  January  2ist  (total  £934  i6s.)  ; 
some  Italian  pictures,  the  property  of  Edmund 
Burke,  on  June  5th  (total  ,£2,018  12s.  bd.)  ;  the 
late  Duke  of  Roxburghe's  "  fashionable  plate," 
June  nth,  realized  the  very  high  amount  of 
.£33,646  Ss.  The  late  Bishop  of  Ely's  extensive 
collection  of  engraved  British  and  foreign  por- 
traits occupied  12  days  in  selling,  from  March  ist, 
1813,  with  the  apparently  poor  result  of  ^"1,759  2s. 
The  most  important  sale  during  the  nine  years  was 


that  of  Henry  Hope's  collection,  which  occupied 
three  days  from  June  27th,  1816,  and  included  286 
pictures,  which  showed  a  total  of  ,£14,466.  Four 
of  the  most  interesting  works  were  purchased  by 
Lord  Yarmouth  for  the  Prince  Regent,  and  are 
now  in  the  Royal  Collections,  namely,  two  por- 
traits by  Vandyck,  the  artist  himself  as  Paris,  360 
guineas;  and  Gaston,  Due  d'Orleans,  390  guineas ; 
Rubens,  Assumption  of  the  Virgin,  240  guineas, 
at  Windsor  ;  and  a  Rembrandt,  portrait  of  Burgo- 
master Pancras  and  wife,  ,£300,  now  at  Bucking- 
ham Palace  ;  Vandyck's  portraits  of  De  Vos  and 
his  Wife,  80  guineas  and  100  guineas  respectively  ; 
Rubens,  Woman  taken  in  Adultery,  2,000  guineas 
—the  highest  price  in  the  sale  ;  and  the  Assump- 
tion of  the  Virgin,  250  guineas ;  Murillo,  Holy 
Family,  from  the  Calonne  collection,  ^320 ; 
Guido,  Magdalen,  210  guineas,  and  Salvator 
Mundi,  ^215,  and  two  other  pictures  attributed 
to  this  master,  and  a  pair  by  Albano,  the  Bath  of 
Diana,  and  Apollo  recalled  to  Heaven,  {purchased 
by  Lord  Yarmouth)  for  147  guineas.  [_The  Due 
d'Alberg's  pictures  were  sold  at  Christie's  on  June 
1 3th  of  the  following  year,  the  sixty-seven  lots 
realizing  a  nominal  total  of  ,£2,162,  but  most  of 
them  were  bought  in  ;  the  chief  prices  were,  Do- 
menichino,  Landscape,  1,000  guineas;  Correggio, 
Christ's  Agony  in  the  Garden,  ^367  ;  Albano,  St. 
Teresa  in  Prayer,  200  guineas  ;  G.  Poussin,  Mount 
Parnassus,  with  figures  by  P.  da  Cortona,  200 
guineas ;  and  the  companion  picture,  240  guineas, 
—both  these  latter  were  painted  for  the  Palavicini 

J.    F.    TUFFEN  S    SALE.  93 

Palace,  Rome  ;  Metzu,  Woman  cleaning  Fish,  160 
guineas — this  picture  passed  into  the  Beckford 
collection,  and  from  thence  into  that  of  Mr. 
Higginson,  and  was  again  sold  at  Christie's  in 
1846  ;  and  Jan  Steen,  The  Artist  and  his  family  at 
dinner,  £462! 

On  Friday,  May  9th,  1817,  and  three  following 
week  days,  the  pictures  and  so  forth,  of  William 
Beckford  of  Fonthill,  realized  ,£4,339  gs.  6d.  Mr. 
J.  F.  Tuffen's  collection  of  ninety-four  pictures 
was  sold  on  April  nth,  1818,  and  produced,  with 
the  bronzes,  Etruscan  vases,  sculpture,  etc.,  sold  on 
the  same  day,  the  total  of  ,£4,253  5^.  ;  it  included, 
Jan  Steen,  a  Cabaret  scene,  the  hostess  presenting 
wine  to  a  man  seated  on  a  barrel  under  a  trellis, 
I2i  x  9i>  from  the  collection  of  the  Due  de 
Valentinois,  245  guineas  ;  Wouverman,  A  Fair, 
from  the  same  collection,  13  x  14,  120  guineas; 
A.  Van  de  Velde,  Cattle  feeding,  with  boy  and 
girl,  n^  x  1 6,  from  the  Heathcote  collection, 
1 80  guineas;  A.  Ostade,  Interior,  with  Boors 
playing  Trie  Trac,  from  the  Orleans  Gallery,  340 
guineas;  Isaac  Ostade,  Door  of  a  Cabaret,  with 
Boors  drinking,  and  a  white  horse,  14  x  13,  from 
the  collection  of  the  Comte  de  Vaudreuil,  20  x  14, 
200  guineas;  W.  Mieris,  Interior,  with  a  Show- 
man and  a  Dutch  family,  from  the  collection  of 
Lady  Holderness,  23  x  19^-,  330  guineas ; 
and  Teniers,  an  Open-air  Concert  before  the  artist's 
house,  Teniers  playing  a  violoncello,  with  his 
wife  and  family,  16  x  13,  ^173. 

In  1819,  March  26th,  and  two  following  days, 


the  collection  of  350  pictures,  by  the  old  masters, 
of  Ph.  Panne,  of  Great  George  Street,  Hanover 
Square,  came    under   the  hammer   at    Christie's. 
There  were  many  good  things  in  this  collection  of 
350  pictures,  although  there  were  no  sensational 
prices.     Special    mention   may   be    made   of  the 
following  : — P.   de  Hooghe,  The  Cradle,  mother 
suckling  infant,  with  spaniel  and  servant,  32  x  36, 
,£174  ;  Leonardo,  Virgin,  Child  in  her  lap,  stretch- 
ing oat  his  arms,  foliage  background,    41  x  32, 
280  guineas ;  Giorgione,  Concert  of  four  figures, 
said  to  be  portraits  of  two  Italian  poets  and  their 
mistresses,    from  the    Udny   collection,    32  x  40 
(Lord  Yarmouth),  277  guineas.     This  collection  is 
especially  noticeable  on  account  of  the  several  first- 
class  examples  of  Correggio  which  it  contained, 
viz.,  Danae,  60  x  76,  from  the  Udny  collection,  309 
guineas  (see  p.  86) ;  Virgin,  with  child  in  her  lap, 
34  x  27,  250  guineas  ;  The  Virgin  with  the  Infant 
Christ   on   her   knee,    with   workbasket,  and   St. 
Joseph  at  his  carpenter's  bench,  "  La  Vierge  au 
Panier,"   14^x1 1^,240  guineas,  "  apparently  the 
beautiful  picture  in  the  National  Gallery,  No.  23, 
which  was  purchased  of  Mr.  C.  J.  Nieuwenhuys 
for  ,£3,800  in  1825"  (Redford).     No  total  of  this 
sale  is  given,  but  the  second  day  realized  ,£3,397, 
and  the  third  day,   £"6,125.     A  notable  sale  of 
1819  comprised  the  painted  Greek  vases  of  the  late 
Sir  John  Coghill,  Bart,  June  i8th  and  igth,  realiz- 
ing the  then  high  amount  of  £"2,557  45-.  6d. 

The   two  principal  sales  of  1820   were  those 
of  Arthur  Champernowne   and  Benjamin  West, 


P.R.A.  West,  who  succeeded  Sir  Joshua  Rey- 
nolds in  the  Presidency  of  the  Royal  Academy, 
was,  like  his  distinguished  predecessor,  not  only 
an  artist,  but  an  eminent  collector  of  objects  of 
art.  There  were  two  sales,  the  earlier  and  more 
important  taking  place  at  the  artist's  late  residence 
in  Newman  Street,  on  June  23rd  and  24th,  1820, 
and  the  second  on  May  28th,  1824.  Mr.  Christie 
was  the  auctioneer  on  both  occasions.  Mr.  Red- 
ford  gives  a  fairly  exhaustive  list  of  the  articles 
included  in  the  earlier  sale,  and  places  the  total  at 
about  ,£15,000.  The  principal  pictures  were  the 
following : — Metzu,  Lady  playing  Viol  di  Gamba, 
gentleman  with  a  flute,  and  two  others  in  the  back- 
ground, i8|-  x  15!-,  150  guineas;  Rembrandt, 
Abraham  and  the  Angels,  dated  1646,  6J  x  8J, 
290  guineas ;  and  a  forest  scene,  with  figures, 
1 6  x  14  (S.  Rogers),  200  guineas  ;  A.  Carracci, 
Death  of  St.  Francis,  and  a  choir  of  Angels, 
27ix  J9i»  1 94 guineas;  P.  Veronese,  The  Offering 
of  the  Wise  Men,  39x53,  120  guineas;  four 
examples  of  Titian,  the  Magdalen  in  landscape, 
47  x  37>  !5O  guineas  ;  the  Bath  of  Diana,  27  x  36, 
study  for  the  picture  in  the  Stafford  Gallery,  610 
guineas  ;  the  Last  Supper,  study  for  the  picture  in 
the  Escurial,  29^-  x  40,  435  guineas — apparently 
bought  in,  as  it  was  again  sold  in  the  West  Sale  of 
1824,  this  time  realizing  only  250  guineas  (it  is 
now  in  the  Overstone  Collection  of  Lord  Wantage) 
— and  the  most  important  work  in  the  sale,  The 
Death  of  Actaeon,  49  x  71,  formerly  in  the  collec- 
tion of  Charles  I.,  to  whom  it  was  presented  by  the 

96  THE   WEST    SALES. 

King  of  Spain,  1,700  guineas  ;  Pynacker,  A  glow- 
ing Landscape  with  arched  gateway,  38!  x  50^, 
^"299  ;  N.  Poussin,  Landscape,  with  Cephalus  and 
Procris,  25^x32,  205  guineas,  and  a  Moonlight 
Landscape  with  Pyramus  and  Thisbe,  25^x37, 
1 80  guineas;  Giorgione,  Knight  in  armour,  the 
head  bare,  a  whole  length  portrait,  said  to  be  of 
Gaston  de  Foix,  was  purchased  for  140  guineas 
by  Samuel  Rogers,  and  bequeathed  by  him  to  the 
National  Gallery  in  1855  ;  Parmigiano,  Virgin  and 
Child,  St.  John  and  Magdalen,  26  x  21,  from  Sir  G. 
Page's  collection,  360  guineas ;  Wouverman,  The 
Watering  place,  with  the  red  cap,  from  the  Choiseul 
collection,  18  x  25,  500  guineas  ;  Hobbema,  River 
Scene,  with  fisherman,  18  x  25!-,  290  guineas; 
Rubens,  Minerva  repelling  War  from  the  Throne  of 
James  I.,  155  guineas;  Guido,  Ecce  Homo,  oval 
on  panel,  22  x  16  (S.  Rogers),  700  guineas;  and 
Berghem,  peasants  at  door  of  a  stable,  and  girl 
milking,  44x39,  450  guineas.  The  1824  sale 
comprised  "  the  remaining  pictures  of  the  late 
Benjamin  West,"  and  produced  the  insignificant 
total  of  ^829  IQS.  6d.  There  was  yet  a  third  West 
sale,  and  this  consisted  of  pictures,  mostly  studies 
for  his  large  works,  which  Mr.  West  exhibited  in 
the  gallery  where  he  received  visitors  at  his  house  ; 
this  sale  was  conducted  by  George  Robins,  on  May 
22nd,  23rd,  and  25th,  1829. 

The  second  important  sale  of  1820  comprised 
the  collection  of  pictures  formed  with  excellent 
judgment  by  the  late  Arthur  Champernowne, 
"  purchased  from  several  distinguished  Palaces  in 


Italy."  The  sale  took  place  on  June  3Oth,  and 
produced  a  total  of  ,£5,688.  The  principal  lots 
were  Rubens,  the  Horrors  of  War,  19^x30^,  a 
sketch  of  the  large  picture  painted  in  1637,  and 
now  in  the  Pitti  Palace  at  Florence,  155  guineas, 
purchased  by  Samuel  Rogers,  and  now  in  the 
National  Gallery ;  a  good  copy  of  Andrea  Man- 
tegna's  Triumph,  335  guineas  ;  Titian,  Noli  me 
Tangere,  from  the  cabinet  of  the  Muselli  family  at 
Verona,  and  subsequently  in  the  Orleans  col- 
lection, 315  guineas,  purchased  by  Samuel  Rogers 
and  bequeathed  by  him  to  the  National  Gallery  in 
1855;  Domenichino,  landscape  with  St.  George 
and  Dragon,  from  Lucien  Buonaparte's  collection, 
purchased  by  the  Rev.  H.  Carr  (against  S.  Rogers), 
for  410  guineas,  and  bequeathed  by  him  to  the 
National  Gallery  in  1831  ;  N.  Poussin,  landscape, 
and  figures  (S.  Rogers),  ,£212  ;  G.  Poussin,  land- 
scape, "TheCampagna"/£22o;  Murillo,  Adoration 
of  the  Shepherds,  from  a  [?  the  Capuchin]  Convent 
at  Genoa,  2*43°  ;  Andrea  del  Sarto,  Holy  Family, 
from  the  Mari  Palace,  Genoa,  ^410  guineas  ;  and 
Fra  Bartolommeo,  Virgin,  Christ  and  St.  John, 
from  the  Aldobrandini  Palace,  Rome,  290  guineas. 

The  only  important  sale  of  1821  was  one  of  the 
greatest  interest.     It  comprised  many  works   of 
the   old   masters,  and  a  number   of  Sir   Joshua 
Reynolds's  own   pictures,  which   Sir  Joshua  had 
bequeathed,  with  the  bulk  of  his  property,  to  his 
favourite  niece,  Mary  Palmer,  who  married  the 
Marquis  of  Thomond.     The  sale  took  place  on 
May  1 8th  and  ic,th,  the  pictures  and  a  few  bronzes 

i.  H 

98  THE    THOMOND    REYNOLDs's. 

producing  a  total  of  ,£15,040  13*;  whilst  the 
collection  of  Sir  Joshua's  sketches  and  drawings  by 
the  old  masters,  sold  on  the  26th,  fetched  ^962 
1 2 s.  The  sale  attracted  all  the  6lite  of  the  day,  and 
among  those  present  were  the  Dukes  of  Devon- 
shire and  Northumberland;  Lords  Egremont, 
Grosvenor,  Bridgwater,  Fitzwilliam,  Dudley,  and 
Harewood;  Sir  Charles  Long  for  George  IV., 
and  Mr.  Alexander  Baring.  The  following  list 
includes  the  chief  works  : 

Portrait  of  the  Artist  with  a  Book  .  234  gs.  Lord  Normanton. 

Hope  Nursing  Love 215  gs.      ...    Morris. 

Mrs.  Hartley  as  a  Bacchante  with  a 

Child  on  her  Shoulders      .     .     .  290  gs.      Lord  Carysfoot. 

Young  Girl  with  Scarlet  Muff    .     .  265  gs.  Lord  Landsdowne. 

Gipsy  Fortune  Teller,  44  x  55 \     .  240  gs.      .     .     .  Gosling. 

Piping  Shepherd  Boy  with  Dog      .  410  gs.      .  Sir  G.  Philips. 

Young  Shepherdess  with  Lambs     .  210  gs. 
[?  Mrs.  Stanhope  as]  Contemplation, 

55i  x  44 145  gs.      ...    Pinney- 

Dido  on  the  Funeral  Pile,  56  x  94  700  gs.      ...    Pinney. 

Snake  in  the  Grass 510  gs.      Sir  John  Soane. 

Resignation,  elderly  man  in  chair  .  125  gs.      ...    Pinney. 

Lady  Hamilton 202  gs.      .     .     Lambton. 

Sir  Joshua  in  Spectacles  .     .     .     .  100  gs. 

View  from  Richmond  Hill    .     .     .  155  gs. 

Girl  with  Kitten 295  gs.  Lord  Normanton. 

Mrs.  Stanhope ^1,105       .     .     .    Pinney. 

Earl  of  Dunmore,  whole  length .     .114  gs. 

Admiral  Rodney 115  gs. 

The  sale  included  also  Sir  Joshua's  large  paint- 
ings, designed  for  the  New  College,  Oxford,  and 
which  were  copied  on  glass  by  Jarvis.  These 
pictures,  all  of  which  measured  about  72x33,  were : 


Adoration  of  the  Shepherds  (por- 
traits of  Sir  Joshua  and  Jarvis)    1,500  gs.  Lord  Normanton. 
Girl,  and  Children  with  a  Torch     .  400  gs.  „ 

Shepherd  Boy  and  Dog    ....  650  gs.  „ 

Young  St.  John  and  Lamb    .     .     .  600  gs. 

Charity 1,100  gs.  „ 

Faith 700  gs.  „ 

Hope 350  gs.  „ 

Temperance 600  gs. 

Justice 175  gs. 

Fortitude 400  gs. 

Prudence 410  gs. 

Of  the  foregoing  pictures,  it  may  be  mentioned 
that  the  Snake  in  the  Grass1  has  found  a  permanent 
home  in  the  Soane  Museum,  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields ; 
Hope  nursing  Love  is  at  Stafford  House ;  the 
fancy  portrait  of  Mrs.  Hartley  appeared  at  Lord 
Carysfoot's  sale  in  1828,  at  the  Bentley  sale  in 
1863,  when  it  was  bought  in,  and  again  in  1874, 
when  it  was  purchased  by  Messrs.  Agnew,  and  is 
now  the  property  of  Lord  Rothschild  ;  the  Piping 
Shepherd  Boy  is  still  in  possession  of  Sir  George 
Philips's  descendant;  the  portrait  of  Mrs.  Stanhope 
as  Contemplation  appeared  in  the  Munro  sale  of 
1878,  and  was  purchased  for  the  Baroness  Alphonse 
de  Rothschild  ;  the  Girl  with  a  muff  is  owned  by 

'  This  is  one  of  the  two  genuine  duplicates.  The  original 
picture,  now  in  the  National  Gallery  (see  p.  121),  was  painted 
by  Sir  Joshua  for  Lord  Carysfoot  in  June,  1 788,  the  price  being 
100  guineas.  The  second  duplicate  is  in  Baron  Rothschild's 
collection.  This  picture  has  always  been  a  prime  favourite 
with  copyists,  and  no  season's  picture  sales  is  complete  without 
several  of  these  copies. 

100  EARLY    SALE    OF    ARMOUR. 

the  Marquis  of  Lansdowne ;  whilst  some  of  the 
New  College  pictures  are  in  possession  of  the 
present  Lord  Normanton,  and  at  least  two  of  these, 
the  Adoration  of  the  Shepherds,  and  the  Shepherd 
Boy,  belong  to  the  Earl  Fitzwilliam. 

In  March  and  April  of  1821  Mr.  Christie  was 
selling  the  contents  of  the  Gothic  Hall,  near  the 
Opera  Colonnade,  Pall  Mall.  This  sale  is  interest- 
ing to  us  chiefly  from  the  fact  that  it  was  one 
of  the  first  in  which  armour  is  made  a  special 
feature.  One  of  the  lots  was  "a  most  excellent 
suit  of  the  early  part  of  Elizabeth's  reign,"  and  of 
about  six  feet  in  height ;  it  was  discovered  about 
three  years  previously  in  an  old  convent  near 
Norwich,  and  now  realized  thirty  guineas.  The 
same  sale  included  what  was  described  as  Oliver 
Cromwell's  helmet,  which  went  for  a  couple  of 
guineas.  The  most  curious  lot  of  all  was  No.  221, 
catalogued  as  the  armour  of  a  crusader,  and  de- 
scribed as  follows  :  "  This  ancient  Suit  of  Chain 
mail  is  of  the  utmost  rarity,  being  the  only  perfect 
specimen  extant :  it  remained  for  centuries  in  Tong 
Castle  in  Shropshire,  from  whence  it  was  obtained 
by  the  late  Dr.  Green,  of  Litchfield  :  it  is  near 
700  years  old,  being  of  the  time  of  King  Stephen 
as  set  up,  including  the  horse  and  the  highly 
curious  and  elaborate  armour  which  covers  it  (of 
which  we  have  no  memorandum  except  in  ancient 
illuminations,  tapestry,  etc.],  together  with  a  Nor- 
man spear  and  ditto  mace,  both  of  which  are  per- 
fectly unique."  Apparently  this  valuable  relic  was 
not  sold ;  at  all  events  it  subsequently  found  its 

SALES    OF    l822.  101 

way  to  the  Tower  of  London,  where  it  now  is, 
and  where  it  was  revered  for  many  years  as 
having  been  worn  by  a  Crusader.  It  is,  how- 
ever, of  comparatively  modern  manufacture,  and  is 
certainly  not  older  than  the  sixteenth  century  ;  the 
horse  is  Persian  work  and  the  man  is  Indian  of 
the  same  period.  The  suit  of  armour  of  Henri  IV. 
of  France  was  offered  at  the  same  time,  as  was 
also  a  curious  carved  stock  of  an  Arcubalista,  found 
about  the  year  1773  by  some  labourers  working 
in  Bosworth  Field  (Gentleman's  Magazine,  Feb- 
ruary, 1785),  but  apparently  neither  lot  was  sold. 
The  year,  1822,  which  promised  to  be  one  of  the 
most  successful  for  Mr.  Christie,  turned  out  to  be  a 
singularly  uninteresting  and  unprofitable  one.  On 
May  1 4th  and  i5th,  the  small  collection  of  pictures, 
the  genuine  property  of  John  Lamb,  Esq.,  late  of 
the.  South  Sea  House,  deceased,  well  known  for 
his  love  of  the  fine  arts — who  may  possibly  have 
been  related  to  Charles  Lamb,  who  was  also  of  the 
South  Sea  House — realized  ,£1,317  6^.  Some 
pictures  from  the  very  noble  and  extensive  collec- 
tion "  of  the  Marquis  of  Bute,  were  sold  June  7th 
and  8th,  of  the  same  year,  and  realized  a  total  of 
,£3,628  75.  6d.  During  the  early  summer  of  this 
year,  the  rumours  of  the  sale  of  the  magnificent 
art  collections  at  Fonthill  Abbey  disturbed  the 
sleeping  hours  of  collectors  all  over  the  country,  and 
the  newspapers  of  the  period  to  some  extent  reflect 
the  excitement  which  this  rumour  was  causing. 
During  August  the  following  advertisement  ap- 
peared in  the  Musettm  and  other  newspapers  : 


"  Fonthill  Abbey.  (Now  on  view.)  Mr.  Christie 
has  the  honour  very  respectfully  to  inform  the 
Nobility,  Connoisseurs,  and  the  Public,  that  on 
Tuesday,  October  Qth,  he  will  sell  by  Auction,  the 
very  select  and  valuable  collection  of  Italian, 
French,  Flemish,  and  Dutch  pictures,  in  the  above 
highly-celebrated  mansion,  which  has  been  formed 
under  the  peculiar  advantages  of  correct  judgment 
and  acknowledged  taste,  by  purchases  abroad  and 
in  this  country. 

11  Among  them  will  be  found,  of  the  Italian 
School,  the  Laughing  Boy,  by  L.  da  Vinci,  which 
was  long  preserved  and  admired  in  the  cabinet  of 
the  famous  Earl  of  Arundel ;  the  Sibylla  Lybica, 
by  L.  Carracci,  of  gallery  size,  formerly  in  the 
Lansdown  Collection ;  and  Job  and  his  Friends, 
the  celebrated  Santa  Croce,  master-piece  of  S. 
Rosa  ;  and  others  of  the  first  class,  by  L.  da  Vinci, 
Solario,  Perugino,  Garofalo,  Mazzolino,  M.  Venusti, 
Bronzino,  Bellini,  Bonifaccio,  P.  Veronese,  Bassano, 
and  Domenichino ;  of  the  early  painters,  A.  Man- 
tegna,  V.  Eyck,  Quintin,  Matsys,  and  A.  Durer. 

"Also,  the  Poulterer's  Shop,  by  G.  Dow; 
1'Embarquement  des  Vivres,  by  Berghem  ;  and  a 
small  Landscape,  by  ditto,  of  exquisite  beauty  ; 
two  by  Teniers ;  one  by  Mieris ;  one  by  Poelemborg ; 
and  a  Flower  Piece,  by  Van  Huysum,  all  from  the 
Choiseuil  and  Praslin  Cabinets  :  and  various  by — 
Holbein,  Sir  A.  More,  Velasquez,  Murillo,  A. 
Cano,  G.  Poussin,  Stella,  Vernet,  Fragonard,  Brill, 
Breughel,  Neefs,  Rembrandt,  Peters,  Steenwyck, 
Wilson,  West,  Stothard,  Decort. 


"N.B.— The  View  will  close  on  the  2Qth  of 
September,  previous  to  the  Sale. 

"  Catalogues  may  be  had  of  Mr.  Hitchcock,  on 
the  Single,  at  Amsterdam  ;  of  Mr.  Nieuwenhuys, 
Brussels  ;  at  Mr.  Gaglinani's  office,  Paris  ;  of  Mr. 
Clarke,  Bookseller,  Bond  Street,  London  ;  and  of 
Mr.  Christie,  Pall  Mall." 

We  make  no  apology  for  quoting  the  advertise- 
ment in  its  entirety,  as  although  Mr.  Christie  drew 
up  the  catalogue,  of  which  1,500  were  sold  at  a 
guinea  each,  the  entire  collection  was  disposed  of 
en  bloc,  prior  to  the  above  date,  to  a  Mr.  Farquhar  for 
,£350,000.  The  sale  of  the  works  of  art,  furniture, 
etc.,  actually  took  place  in  September  and  October 
of  the  following  year,  not,  however,  under  Mr. 
Christie's  hammer,  but  under  that  of  Mr.  Phillips, 
and  consequently  does  not  come  within  the  scope 
of  the  present  work. 

One  of  the  earliest  sales  of  the  year  1823 
consisted  of  the  choice  collection  of  painted  Greek 
vases,  formed  by  the  late  Sir  Henry  Englefield, 
which  came  under  the  hammer  March  6th,  7th  and 
8th,  and  realized  ,£2,732  15^.  Two  very  important 
sales  took  place  in  the  following  June.  The  earlier 
one  comprised  the  "  town  collection  "  of  pictures  of 
Mr.  G.  Watson  Taylor.1  Mr.  Christie's  announce- 

1  There  is  a  portrait  of  G.  Watson  Taylor,  M.P.  (who  died 
in  1841),  in  one  of  the  set  of  four  pictures  of  patrons  of  art 
during  the  reign  of  George  IV.,  by  Pieter  Christoph  Wonder, 
in  the  National  Portrait  Gallery.  He  is  represented  kneeling 
in  front  of  the  famous  Titian,  Bacchus  and  Ariadne,  with  his 
pale  face  looking  up  to  Sir  John  Murray. 


ment  intimated  in  the  advertisements  that  "  on 
Friday,  the  13*  of  June,  and  following  Day,  he 
will  sell  by  Auction,  at  his  Great  Room,  Pall  Mall, 
precisely  at  One  o'clock,  the  very  distinguished 
collection  of  Italian,  French,  Flemish,  Dutch,  and 
English  pictures,  of  the  first  class,  of  George 
Watson  Taylor,  Esq.,  being  the  collection  from  his 
town  mansion  in  Cavendish  Square.  The  superb 
assemblage  comprises  chefs-dceuvre  which  have 
contributed  importance  to  many  foreign  cabinets, 
and  have  been  further  celebrated  by  engravings 
made  from  them."  Among  them  were  "  that 
grand  masterpiece  "  of  Parmigiano,  the  Vision  of 
St.  Jerome,  originally  brought  to  England  by  the 
Marquis  of  Abercorn  about  1 780  from  the  church  of 
San  Salvatore  di  Lauro,  at  Citta  di  Castello,  and 
was  purchased  at  this  sale  by  the  Rev.  H.  Carr  for 
the  British  Institution  for  3,050  guineas,  and  is  now 
in  the  National  Gallery ;  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds, 
Mrs.  Siddons  as  the  Tragic  Muse,1  the  celebrated 

1  The  original  picture  was  bought  by  M.  de  Calonne  for  800 
guineas.  At  the  sale  of  his  pictures  in  1795  tne  "  Tragic  Muse" 
passed  into  the  hands  of  W.  Smith,  Esq.,  M.P.  for  Norwich,  for 
^700.  From  him  Mr.  Watson  Taylor  purchased  it  for  ^900, 
and  at  his  sale  in  1822  it  was  bought  by  the  first  Marquis  of 
Westminster  for  1,760  guineas.  [The  correct  amount  is  1,750 
guineas.]  There  is  an  exquisite  replica  of  the  picture  at  Langley 
Park,  Stowe,  the  seat  of  Mr.  Harvey,  M.P.,  given  by  Sir  Joshua 
to  Mr.  Harvey's  grandfather  in  exchange  for  a  large  boar-hunt 
by  Snynders,  which  Sir  Joshua  admired,  and  which  used  to  hang 
in  the  place  now  filled  by  the  "  Tragic  Muse."  This  is  certainly 
the  finest  example  of  the  picture  after  the  original  in  the 
Grosvenor  Gallery.  The  Dulwich  replica  (which  is  the  one 
marked  in  Sir  Joshua's  account  as  sold  to  M.  Desenfans  in 


picture,  1,750  guineas  (Earl  Grosvenor).  These 
were  the  two  great  pictures  of  the  sale ;  but  there 
were  also  the  following: — J.  Steen,  An  Interior, 
with  women  stealing  a  watch  from  a  youth  over- 
powered with  wine  and  sleep,  200  guineas ;  Ruys- 
dael,  a  small  Landscape,  with  woody  bank,  a  road, 
and  a  pool  of  water,  with  traveller  and  dog,  97 
guineas  ;  and  a  Heath  Scene,  with  a  clump  of  trees 
on  a  winding  road,  the  companion,  200  guineas ; 
David  Teniers,  the  Four  Seasons,  "  exemplified  in 
four  beautiful,  small,  cabinet  pictures,"  from  the 
Talleyrand  collection,  180  guineas  (Peel,  now  in 
National  Gallery) ;  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  the 
celebrated  original  portrait  of  Dr.  Samuel  John- 
son, painted  for  Mrs.  Thrale,  470  guineas  (Major 
Thwaites),  subsequently  in  the  Peel  collection, 
and  now  in  the  National  Gallery  ;  Portrait  of 
Baretti,  reading,  100  guineas,  and  of  Arthur 
Murphy,  90  guineas — both  painted  for  Mrs. 
Thrale ;  Jan  Steen,  Portraits  of  the  artist  and 
his  wife  taking  an  afternoon  nap,  their  children 
playing  tricks,  from  the  D'Alberg  collection,  220 
guineas  (Mr.  Hume)  ;  Vandyck,  Portrait  of  Simon 
Vos,  the  celebrated  animal  painter,  182  guineas, 
and  of  the  wife  of  De  Vos,  340  guineas — the  latter 
was  bought  by  Wells  of  Redleaf  (see  also  p.  92) ; 

June,  1789,  for  .£735,)  is  inferior,  and  according  to  Northcote, 
was  painted  by  Score,  then  one  of  Sir  Joshua's  assistants.  There 
is  a  replica  (including  only  the  upper  part  of  the  figure)  in  the 
possession  of  Mrs.  Combe,  of  Edinburgh ;  and  another,  a  full- 
length,  in  Lord  Normanton's  gallery,  of  the  history  of  which  I 
am  not  informed. — LESLIE  AND  TAYLOR'S  Life,  ii.  p.  424. 


Rubens,  Lions  at  Play,  315  guineas;  Wouverman, 
Bank  of  River,  figures  landing  goods  from  a 
shallop,  from  the  Le  Perier  collection,  685  guineas 
(Hume) ;  A.  Carracci,  Christ  and  the  Woman  of 
Samaria  at  the  Well,  the  Disciples  and  other 
figures  approaching  them,  310  guineas;  Guido, 
Magdalen  accosted  by  an  Infant  Angel,  310 
guineas ;  D.  Teniers,  Exterior  of  a  Farmhouse, 
with  many  Villagers  and  four  Strolling  Players, 
395  guineas;  William  Van  de  Velde,  A  Calm, 
Dutch  frigate  at  anchor,  a  shallop  approaching  her, 
with  other  vessels,  390  guineas  (Peel,  now  in  the 
National  Gallery) ;  Ruysdael,  a  cool  fresh  Land- 
scape, stream  of  water  between  the  ruins  of  an 
abbey  mill,  300  guineas  (Thwaites) ;  G.  Poussin, 
Landscape  with  rich  broken  scenery,  buildings  in 
foreground,  360 guineas  (Beckford) ;  Murillo,  Por- 
trait of  Don  Justino  Neve  y  Yevennes,  a  Canon  of 
Seville,  seated,  with  favourite  Dog  at  his  feet,1  910 
guineas  (Thwaites) ;  Guido,  Martyrdom  of  St. 
Apollonia,  on  copper,  400  guineas ;  Hobbema,  a 
Grand  Landscape,  with  watermill,  cottages  and  a 
transparent  sheet  of  water,  figures  in  a  woody  scene, 
950  guineas  (Sequire),  and  the  companion  picture, 
Forest  Scene,  with  road  through  a  village,  peasant 
family  reposing  near  a  pool  in  foreground,  800 
guineas  (the  same)  ;  Paul  Potter,  Landscape,  with 
a  bull  and  two  cows,  signed  on  a  paling  beneath 
a  willow  tree  on  the  right,  "  Paulus  Potter,  f. 

1  This  portrait  was  brought  from  Spain  about  1804,  by 
M.  Delahante,  and  sold  to  Taylor  for  ^"1,020;  it  is  now  in 
the  possession  of  the  Marquis  of  Lansdowne. 


1647,"  1,210  guineas  (Thwaites)  ;  Wouverman, 
Interior  of  a  Stable,  with  mounted  cavalier  and 
two  others,  lady  mounted  and  an  attendant 
leading  a  horse  are  arriving,  530  guineas 
(Emmerson)  ;  and  Rubens,  the  Grand  Landscape 
with  a  Rainbow,  from  the  Balbi  Palace  at  Genoa, 
2,600  guineas  (Lord  Orford).  The  total  of  the  sale 
amounted  to  ,£18,567  igs.,  but  of  this  amount 
,£6,385  worth  of  pictures  were  bought  in. 

Within  ten  days  of  the  Watson  Taylor  sensation, 
Mr.  Christie  was  called  upon  to  sell  the  collection 
of  pictures  formed  by  his  late  friend  David  Garrick. 
Although  the  sale  produced  ,£3,504  13^.  6d.,  "the 
magic  of  a  name "  unquestionably  gave  it  an 
unusual  impetus  and  interest.  Garrick  possessed 
a  number  of  portraits  of  actors  in  character  by 
Zoffany  ;  a  few  landscapes  by  Loutherbourg ;  and 
some  views  by  Lambton.  The  great  attraction  of 
the  sale  was  centred  in  the  set  of  four  election 
subjects  by  Hogarth,  Canvass,  Poll,  Chairing,  and 
Feast,  which  lot  "was  purchased  by  Mr.  Soane, 
with  a  spirit  worthy  of  his  genius  and  taste  "  for 
1,650  guineas,  and  is  now  in  the  Soane  Museum, 
Lincoln's  Inn  Fields  ;  Hogarth's  portrait  of  David 
Garrick,  seated  at  his  writing  table,  composing  his 
"  Prologue  to  Taste,"  with  Mrs.  Garrick  behind, 
was  purchased  for  71  guineas  by  Mr.  E.  H. 
Locker,  of  Greenwich  Hospital,  who  subsequently 
sold  it  to  George  IV.,  and  the  portrait  is  now 
at  Windsor  Castle  ;  and  an  example  of  Andrea 
del  Sarto,  Madonna,  Child,  and  St.  John,  attended 
by  three  Infant  Angels,  presented  to  Garrick  by 


Lord  Baltimore  at  Rome,  255  guineas  (Prince 
Leopold).  The  sale  included  a  number  of 
Shakespearian  relics  more  or  less— probably  less 
—authentic,  and  among  these  we  may  mention  a 
salt  cellar  of  Delf  ware,  two  guineas,  and  a  pair  of 
gloves  and  a  dagger,  £$  5*.  In  Mrs.  Garrick's 
will  she  bequeathed  a  pair  of  gloves,  worn  by 
Shakespeare,  to  Mrs.  Siddons,  so  that  Garrick 
was  passing  rich  in  Shakespeare  gloves. 

Early  in  July  (3rd,  4th  and  5th)  of  this  year 
the  collection  of  yet  another  celebrity — Joseph 
Nollekens,  the  sculptor,  to  wit — came  under  the 
hammer  at  Mr.  Christie's.  A  writer,  probably  T. 
F.  Dibdin,  the  bibliographer,  in  the  Museum  of 
July  1 2th,  says  :  "  If  ever  there  was  a  genuine 
1  turn  out '  this  was  one.  You  would  swear,  not 
only  that  the  property  could  belong  to  only  one 
man,  but  that  that  man  had  not  been  accustomed 
to  live  in  drawing  rooms,  where  "silk-damask  hang- 
ings were  seen,  and  where  Axminster  carpets  were 
felt.  Such  a  dingy  and  sombre  farrago,  it  is  true, 
could  not  have  graced  a  gallery  in  which  ladies 
with  long  trains  were  accustomed  to  promenade  ; 
nor  could  they  have  exactly  been  the  furniture  of 
any  room  but  a  studio  ;  in  other  words,  a  sculptor's 
workshop."  Very  few  articles  reached  three  figures, 
the  more  notable  exceptions  were  :  Venus  pouring 
Ambrosia  on  her  Hair,  described  as  "  a  beauti- 
ful statue"  by  Nollekens,  220  guineas  (Russel 
Palmer),  an  antique  statue  of  Minerva  with  the 
Helmet,  the  arms  replaced  by  Nollekens,  155 
guineas  (Duke  of  Newcastle)  ;  an  antique  bust  of 


Commodus,  320  guineas  (the  same)  ;  another  of 
Mercury,  140  guineas  (the  same)  ;  and  a  bust  of 
Charles  James  Fox,  by  Nollekens,  145  guineas 
("  Mr.  Christie  modestly  recommended  this  bust  to 
be  placed  between  Trajan  and  Marcus  Aurelius"). 
The  total  of  the  sale  on  the  second  and  third  days 
was  ^3, 1 82  i6s.  6d. 

The  year  1823  ought  not  to  be  allowed  to  pass 
without  a  brief  reference  to  the  pictures  of  Madame 
Murat,  Ex-Queen  of  Naples.  This  unfortunate 
woman,  after  the  murder  of  her  husband,  rescued 
fifteen  Italian  pictures  of  the  very  first  class,  from 
the  spoils  of  Austria.  They  were  subsequently 
transferred  to  a  distinguished  nobleman,  "  recently 
our  Ambassador  at  the  Court  of  Vienna,"  who  con- 
signed thirteen  of  them  to  the  hammer  of  Mr. 
Christie,  by  whom  they  were  sold  on  Saturday^ 
July  i2th,  1823.  The  remaining  two,  "  one  of 
them  the  far-famed  Ecce  Homo,  by  Correggio, 
are  reserved,  and  for  the  present  remain  in  the 
possession  of  the  Noble  Marquis."  The  principal 
prices  in  the  sale  were  :  Perugino,  Holy  Family, 
and  three  Angels  kneeling  in  prayer  over  the 
Infant,  shepherds  and  figures  engaged  in  the  chase 
are  seen  in  the  distant  landscape,  Bethlehem  crowns 
a  precipice,  280  guineas  ;  Luca  Cambiaso,  Mar- 
riage of  St.  Catherine,  "  an  extraordinary  picture 
of  the  master,"  260  guineas  ;  Albano,  Apollo  and 
Daphne,  in  a  landscape,  Cupid  with  torch  is 
urging  Apollo  forward,  140  guineas  (these  three 
were  bought  by  Woodburn) ;  A.  Del  Sarto,  St. 
John  writing  the  Revelations  on  the  Island  of 

IIO  SALES   OF    1824-5. 

Patmos,  pen  in  one  hand  and  book  in  the  other, 
450  guineas  (Woodburn)  ;  Raphael,  Holy  Family, 
from  the  Monte  Casino,  near  Ponte  Corvo,  490 
guineas  (Solly)  ;  Titian,  the  Enamoured  Physi- 
cian, female  on  couch,  attended  by  a  doctor,  700 
guineas  (the  same) ;  and  Annibale  Carracci,  Cupid 
asleep,  on  a  bed  of  clouds,  900  guineas  (Peacock). 
The  sale  realized  close  on  £^ooo.  As  regards 
the  two  Correggios,  not  included  in  this  sale, 
Mercury  instructing  Cupid  in  the  Presence  of 
Venus,  and  the  celebrated  Ecce  Homo,  these  were 
sold  privately  by  "the  noble  Marquis  "(London- 
derry), to  the  National  Gallery  in  1834,  the  price 
paid  for  the  pair  being  ,£11,500.  The  former 
was  at  one  time  in  the  collection  of  Charles  I.,  and 
the  latter  was  purchased  of  the  Colonna  family,  by 
Sir  Simon  Clarke,  who,  being  unable  to  remove  it 
from  Italy,  sold  it  to  Murat. 

The  sales  of  1824,  included  the  Italian  pictures 
and  bronzes  of  the  late  Sir  Masterman  Sykes,  May 
2ist  and  22nd,  the  total  being  ,£5,901 ;  the  cabinet 
and  collection  of  pictures,  chiefly  of  the  Bolognese 
School,  of  Count  Cesare  Bianchetti,  of  Bologna, 
produced  a  total  of  ,£2,653  14S>  6d*>  on  May  28th, 
1824;  the  collection  of  Sir  G.  Osborne  Page 
Turner,  of  Battlesden  Park,  near  Woburn,  Bedford- 
shire, was  sold  on  June  7th  and  8th,  showing  a 
total  of  ,£3,232  2s.t  whilst  this  baronet's  "  valuable 
and  curious  selection  of  articles  of  vertu  "  was  sold 
on  July  29th,  and  three  following  days. 

The  1825  sales  included  some  of  considerable 
interest ;  and  among  them  we  may  mention  a 

LEONARDO    DA    VINCl's    LEDA.  I  I  I 

small  collection  of  pictures  and  of  fine  old  Dresden 
china,  the  property  of  the  late  Henry  Fauntleroy 
—the  banker- forger  who  was  hung  in  October, 
1824, — came  up  for  sale  on  March  25th,  and 
fetched  ,£2,277  5^  IO^-  The  original  cup  from 
Shakespeare's  mulberry  tree,  which  was  presented 
to  David  Garrick  by  the  Mayor  and  Corporation, 
at  the  time  of  the  Jubilee  at  Stratford,  realized 
121  guineas  on  April  3Oth. 

Old  French  decorative  furniture  had,  by  the 
end  of  the  first  quarter  of  the  present  century, 
become  an  object  of  keen  competition  at  sales ; 
on  May  28th,  1825,  "some  sumptuous  articles  of 
Parisian  and  other  furniture,  in  the  finest  style 
of  magnificence ;  including  many  that  formerly 
adorned  the  palace  at  Versailles,  some  noble 
groups  and  busts  of  bronze,"  and  various  sculpture 
from  the  late  very  distinguished  town  mansion 
of  G.  Watson  Taylor,  Esq.,  in  Cavendish  Square, 
realized  a  total  of  ,£6,866  los.  On  June  i6th,  the 
table  and  dessert  service  and  sideboard  plate, 
altogether  about  10,700  ounces,  the  property  of 
the  Marquis  of  Waterford,  brought  £3,651  iSs. 

In  June,  1825,  Mr.  Christie  had  on  view  at  his 
rooms,  but  for  sale  by  private  contract,  one  of  the 
several  Ledas  attributed  to  Leonardo  da  Vinci. 
As  the  amount  asked  for  it,  ,£7,000,  was  large,  a 
good  deal  of  importance  was  apparently  attached 
to  it.  From  The  Parthenon  of  June  18,  we  gather 
that  the  subject  is  Leda  and  her  twins,  Castor 
and  Helena,  Pollux  and  Clytemnestra.  The  figure 
of  Leda  is  full-length,  about  the  size  of  life,  and 

I  1 2  LEONARDO    DA    VINCl's    LEDA. 

almost  entirely  naked  ;  in  the  background  some 
horsemen  are  seen,  and  one  of  these  is  said  to  be 
intended  for  Francis  I.,  in  whose  arms  Leonardo 
expired.  Vasari  does  not  mention  this  picture, 
nor  indeed  any  of  the  works  which  Leonardo 
executed  in  France  (of  which  this  is  said  to  have 
been  one),  except  a  cartoon  of  St.  Anne,  and  even 
that  he  describes  as  having  been  rather  con- 
templated than  completed.  ''Considered  as  a 
work  of  art,  the  Leda  of  Leonardo  da  Vinci  is 
rather  curious  than  fine.  For  the  period  at  which 
it  was  executed,  it  must  certainly  be  viewed  in 
common  with  all  other  productions  of  that  master, 
as  a  very  extraordinary  effort,  that  is,  to  say  the 
least  of  it,  an  interesting  specimen  of  the  state  of 
art  at  the  beginning  of  the  sixteenth  century." 
There  is  no  doubt  about  Leonardo's  having  exe- 
cuted a  picture  of  Leda  during  his  sojourn  in 
France,  and  it  is  perhaps  equally  certain  that  this 
picture  has  disappeared.  The  example  at  the 
Hague  is  undoubtedly  the  finest  of  a  long  list  of 
replicas  and  copies,  but  some  prudish  possessor  con- 
verted it  into  Charity  by  clothing  the  naked  figures. 
This  example  was  at  one  time  in  the  Gallery  at 
Hesse-Cassel,  subsequently  at  Malmaison,  and 
finally  in  that  of  William  II.  of  Holland,  at  whose 
sale  in  1850  it  was  purchased  for  24,500  florins, 
or  about  ,£2,041.  It  measures  126  x  104  centi- 
metres. As  regards  the  Leda  which  appeared  at 
Christie's  in  182 5,  we  believe  that  it  is  identical  with 
the  picture  in  Mr.  Alexander  Barker's  collection, 
which  measured  94  x  36,  and  was  bought  in  in  1874, 

THE    DUKE    OF   YOKKS    SILVER    PLATE.          113 

for  170  guineas,  and  subsequently  sold  in  1879  for 
80  guineas.  Waagen  saw  this  picture  in  Mr. 
Barker's  collection  in  1857  ("Galleries  and  Cabinets 
of  Great  Britain,"  p.  75),  and  then  pronounced  it 
to  be  the  careful  work  of  an  excellent  master  of 
the  Cologne  School ;  he  also  mentions  that  Mr. 
Barker  believed  it  to  be  the  original  of  Leonardo. 
There  can,  we  think,  be  very  little  doubt  about 
the  theory  that  the  Leda  at  Christie's  in  1825  is 
identical  with  that  in  the  Barker  collection  ;  if  so, 
the  transaction  is  one  of  the  most  remarkable  in 
the  history  of  picture  sales. 

The  sales  of  the  year  1827  included  the  mag- 
nificent collection  of  silver  and  silver-gilt  plate  of 
H.R.H.  the  Duke  of  York,  deceased,  and  the 
total  of  the  four  days'  sale  from  Monday,  March 
iQth,  amounted  to  £2 2, 438  los. ;  the  Duke's  collec- 
tion of  fire-arms  and  costly  Oriental  and  European 
weapons,  occupied  another  four  days  from  March 
27th,  and  produced  ,£8,838  12s.  lod.  ;  and  his 
furniture  realized  close  on  ^7,000.  As  the  sale 
of  the  Duke  of  York's  collection  of  plate  was  the 
most  important  of  its  kind  which  had  been  held 
at  Christie's,  we  may  be  excused  for  quoting  a 
newspaper  report  of  the  first  day's  proceedings. 
The  report  runs  as  follows  : 

"  Before  the  sale  commenced,  a  short  speech 
was  made  by  Mr.  Christie  relative  to  the  property 
which  he  was  about  to  offer,  and  the  terms  upon 
which  it  was  to  be  sold.  The  executors  of  his  late 
Royal  Highness,  he  said,  had  not  a  single  reserve, 
and  the  object  of  the  sale  was  a  highly  honourable 

i.  i 

114         THE    DUKE    OF    YORK'S    SILVER    PLATE. 

one.  The  illustrious  possessor,  whose  magnificent 
plate  was  now  to  be  sold,  was  characterized  by  a 
most  happy  singleness  of  heart,  urbanity  of  man- 
ners, and  kind  condescension  to  all  who  approached 
him.  The  purchasers  of  the  articles  which  the 
catalogue  set  forth,  would  have  a  memento  which 
would  keep  alive  and  cherish  the  recollection  of 
the  Duke  of  York,  whose  sweetness  of  temper,  and 
goodness  of  disposition,  endeared  him  to  all  by 
whom  he  was  personally  known  ;  and  he  had  left 
behind  a  name  that  would  be  handed  down  to 
posterity  and  cherished.  The  eulogium  made  by 
Mr.  Christie  on  his  Royal  Highness  was  warmly 
applauded  by  the  company.  In  the  room  were 
several  ladies  elegantly  attired,  attending  with  not 
a  little  eagerness  to  the  biddings  of  some  of  the 
most  beautiful  articles.  The  chief  purchasers,  we 
understand,  were  chiefly  silversmiths,  and  persons 
commissioned  by  gentlemen.  The  general  opinion 
was,  that  the  articles  did  not  bring  near  so  much 
as  they  were  worth  intrinsically,  and  certainly  not 
so  much  as  they  cost,  especially  the  splendid 
massive  silver-gilt  plate.  A  magnificent  cistern, 
1 8  \  inches  in  diameter,  the  neck  and  lip  enwreathed 
with  vines  in  fruit,  and  with  two  figures  of  Tritons 
bending  over  the  rim,  and  looking  in.  On  the 
outside  of  the  bowl  were  represented  combats 
of  Roman  galleys,  with  numerous  figures  very 
spiritedly  designed.  The  bowl  was  burnished, 
with  the  figures  and  relief  executed  in  gold 
mat.  The  whole  weighed  811  oz.  10  dwt.  This 
bowl  was  said  by  Mr.  Christie  to  have  cost  his 

THE    DUKE   OF   YORK  S    SILVER    PLATE.         115 

Royal  Highness  ,£1,500.     It  sold  for  only  i  is.  an 

"  A  magnificent  Candelabrum  (made  by  Lewis, 
of  St.  James's  Street),  for  the  centre  of  a  table, 
representing  Hercules  attacking  the  Hydra,  and 
surrounded  by  its  nine  heads,  which  bore  as  many 
nosles  for  lights.  Hylas,  the  companion  of  Hercules, 
is  represented  in  the  act  of  searing  a  neck  of  the 
monster  below.  The  Candelabrum  was  supported 
on  a  mass  of  rock-work,  about  the  base  of  which 
are  various  reptiles.  Weight  1,144  oz-  5  dwt. 
This  was  knocked  down  for  6s.  an  oz.  after  Mr. 
Christie  had  dwelt  a  considerable  time  at  that 
bidding.  There  was  a  murmur  ran  round  the  room 
of  '  How  cheap!'  when  the  hammer  fell.  Mr. 
Christie  said  that  the  candelabrum  was  purchased 
by  the  late  illustrious  owner  for  the  new  Palace, 
which  it  pleased  Providence  that  he  was  never  to 
inhabit.  '  Notwithstanding  I  feel  sorry  for  the 
sacrifice  which  has  been  made  in  this  article,'  said 
Mr.  Christie,  '  I  feel  greater  grief  that  the  work- 
manship of  the  artist  is  valued  so  low.  The 
design,'  he  added,  '  is  most  beautiful,  and  there 
exists  only  another  like  it  in  England.'  A  grand 
praefericulum,  with  scalloped  neck  and  lip,  sup- 
ported by  two  satyrs  seated  upon  the  shoulder, 
the  handle  formed  of  a  satyr  rescuing  two  infant 
satyrs  entwined  from  the  folds  of  a  dragon.  The 
oviform  body  of  the  vase  covered  with  a  spirited 
relief,  representing  one  of  the  battles  of  Alexander. 
A  griffin  supports  the  bowl  of  the  vase,  and  upon 
the  scalloped  foot  the  arms  of  France  are  thrice 

Il6         THE    DUKE    OF    YORK'S    SILVER    PLATE. 

repeated.  This  noble  piece  of  plate  is  23  inches 
high  to  the  top  of  the  handle  ;  the  weight 
220  oz.  13  dwt.  This  was  likewise  made  by 
Mr.  Lewis,  and  was  purchased  by  a  gentleman 
named  Thomas,  as  well  as  the  companion  praeferi- 
culum,  at  i2s.  $d.  per  oz.  A  large  .silver-gilt 
dish,  for  the  side-board,  25  inches  long.  In  the 
centre  is  a  Roman  triumph,  setting  out  from  a 
ruined  city,  composed  of  multitudes  of  figures, 
some  of  them  wholly  detached  from  the  ground  of 
the  dish ;  the  border  is  embellished  with  pastoral 
figures,  after  Jordaens,  which  are  very  richly  and 
beautifully  chased  ;  weight  1 30  oz.  1 5  dwt.  Great 
competition  was  manifested  for  this  and  the  follow- 
ing lot,  a  similar  dish,  the  one  of  which  brought 
one  guinea  an  ounce,  and  the  other  a  guinea  and 
sixpence.  Some  knives,  with  richly  chased  handles, 
of  Coburg  pattern,  four-pronged  silver  forks,  etc. 
in  lots  of  one  dozen  each,  fetched  about  8s.  per 
ounce.  Some  soup  ladles  and  gravy  spoons,  Co- 
burg  pattern  handles,  were  sold  in  lots  about  the 
same  price.  A  fish  plate,  the  piercing  of  elegant 
design,  twenty  inches  long,  weighing  69  oz.  1 5  dwt. 
sold  for  only  $s.  Scl.  an  ounce.  Mr.  Christie 
alluded  to  the  Candelabrum  above  described, 
some  time  after  it  was  sold,  remarking  that  he 
hoped  the  executors  would  not  lament  having 
placed  their  cause  in  the  hands  of  the  purchasers, 
but  in  that  instance  he  much  feared  it.  The 
sacrifice  on  that  article,  he  repeated,  was  indeed 
great.  A  pair  of  plated  covers  fetched  ^14  ios.  ; 
another  ditto,  made  £16  $s.  ;  and  a  third  £10  ios. 


A  superb  tureen,  of  rich  and  massive  manufacture, 
the  surface  chased  with  vegetables  in  high  relief, 
weighing  209  oz.  10  dwt,  brought  6^.  6d.  an  ounce. 
A  very  curious  and  interesting  assemblage  of 
Egyptian  antiquities,  from  the  Levant,  was  sold 
by  Mr.  Christie  in  June,  1827.  It  consisted  of 
a  number  of  sepulchral  monuments,  presenting  a 
great  variety  of  mythological  figures,  and  of  in- 
scriptions in  hieroglyphic  characters  ;  also  various 
figures  of  deities  and  animals  in  terra-cotta, 
wood,  basalt,  and  other  materials.  There  were 
likewise  several  articles  of  an  interesting  nature, 
as  affording  means  of  experiments  on  the  nature 
of  the  process  of  embalming  as  practised  by  the 
ancient  Egyptians.  A  large  sepulchral  tablet,  or 
stele,  of  white  stone,  in  high  preservation,  with 
various  figures  of  divinities,  and  hieroglyphic  in- 
scriptions, was  sold  for  ^5  los.  There  were  twenty- 
five  other  sepulchral  monuments,  of  various  sizes, 
ornamented  with  figures  and  hieroglyphics,  which 
were  sold  in  lots,  and  produced  altogether  about 
30  guineas.  A  mummy  of  a  female  was  sold  for 
£9  i  is.  6d.  The  apex  of  an  Egyptian  obelisk, 
etc.,  sculptured  with  hieroglyphics,  £2  IDS.  The 
top  of  an  altar,  containing  a  representation  of 
different  objects  of  sacrifice,  several  lines  of  hiero- 
glyphics, and  a  receptacle  for  libations,  145.  A 
slab  of  basalt,  sculptured  with  figures  and  hiero- 
glyphics, £$  IQS.  An  embalmed  cat,  £i.  An 
embalmed  hawk,  55.  An  arm  of  a  mummy,  etc., 
one  guinea.  A  draped  figure  of  I  sis,  in  bronze, 
about  1 2  inches  high ;  and  a  bronze  wing,  or  feather 

IlS          THE    DUKE    OF    BEDFORD'S    PICTURES. 

about  10  inches  long,  £2  3*  The  sepulchral  monu- 
ments had  been  viewed  by  some  celebrated  anti- 
quarians, who  consider  them  to  have  "derived 
considerable  importance  from  the  then  recent  dis- 
coveries of  Dr.  Young  and  M.  Champollion,  by 
whose  successful  labours  a  key  has  been  furnished 
to  many  of  the  hieroglyphic  inscriptions,  which  were 
formerly  considered  merely  as  objects  of  curiosity, 
but  are  now  satisfactorily  explained ;  and  it  may 
be  reasonably  expected  that  by  the  study  of  such 
objects,  much  information  relative  to  the  history, 
mythology,  laws,  and  manners,  of  the  ancient 
Egyptians,  may  be  obtained." 

A  select  assemblage  of  forty-four  chiefly  highly- 
finished,  Flemish  and  Dutch  cabinet  pictures,  the 
property  of  the  Duke  of  Bedford,  and  removed  to 
town  from  his  Grace's  mansion,  Woburn  Abbey, 
were  sold  by  Mr.  Christie,  on  June  3Oth.  Mr. 
Christie  stated  that  his  Grace's  reason  for  disposing 
of  these  pictures  is  to  make  room  in  his  mansion  for 
works  by  living  artists — "  a  noble  example  every 
way  worthy  of  imitation."  Among  the  Duke's  col- 
lection were  specimens  of  Teniers,  Schidone,  Cuyp, 
Salvator  Rosa,  Hans  Holbein,  Both,  Rubens, 
Titian,  the  Poussins,  Claude,  Rembrandt,  and 
Ruysdael.  A  Landscape,  by  Cuyp,  describing  an 
extensive  scene,  interspersed  with  villages,  which 
was  so  much  admired  in  the  collection  of  M. 
Rigby — Cuyp  has  represented  himself  drawing 
this  delightful  scene — brought  570  guineas.  A 
Burgomaster  and  his  Family  going  out  Hawking, 
by  Paul  Potter,  sold  for  400  guineas,  and  an 


Evening  Landscape,  with  a  Group  of  Peasants,  by 
J.  Both,  159  guineas.  A  portrait  of  Sir  Thomas 
More,  invested  with  the  Collar  of  the  Garter,  by 
Holbein  ;  upon  a  pedestal  is  inscribed  the  date, 
MDXXVII.,  sold  for  70  guineas. 

The  sale  by  Mr.  Christie  of  Lord  de  Tabley's 
pictures  on  July  7th,  1827,  took  place  at  his  house, 
24,  Hill  Street,  Berkeley  Square,  and  it  may  be 
mentioned  here  that,  according  to  J.  T.  Smith,  in 
his  "  Life  of  Nollekens,"  his  lordship's  collection  of 
pictures  by  modern  English  artists  produced 
twenty-five  per  cent,  more  than  they  cost,  "though 
they  were  purchased  of  the  artists  at  what  they 
considered  most  liberal  prices."  Lord  de  Tabley, 
then  Sir  John  Fleming  Leicester,  began  to  form 
his  collection  of  the  works  of  British  artists  about 
the  period  of  the  Peace  of  Amiens,  and  the 
Examiner  of  April  26th,  1818,  contains  a  very 
interesting  description  of  this  gallery.  Sir  John 
Fleming  Leicester  is  there  alluded  to  in  very  high 
terms  as  among  the  first,  if  not  the  first,  "  to  foster 
the  early  genius  of  England  in  the  fine  arts,"  and 
his  name  is  said  to  be  one  that  will  "ever  rever- 
berate in  the  hearts  of  the  genuine  lovers  of  art,  as 
that  of  the  first  individual  who  has  done  it  in  the 
most  effectual  way,  by  appropriating  a  noble 
gallery  exclusively  to  its  honour,  and  opening  it 
for  a  time  to  the  community  of  taste.  This  is  the 
true  spirit  of  Greek  patronage.  It  has  all  its  cor- 
diality and  greatness.  .  .  .  It  is  at  once  a  satire 
on  government  and  its  example — that  government 
which  unconsciously  creates  sinecures  of  thousands 


a-year  for  lazy,  worthless  courtiers  and  constitution- 
killers,  but  never  expends  a  guinea  in  furtherance 
of  British  genius  in  painting."  In  1819,  William 
Carey  published  "  A  Descriptive  Catalogue "  of 
this  collection.  Lord  de  Tabley  died  on  June  1 8th, 
1827,  aged  sixty-five.  A  few  of  the  best  prices 
were  Sir  A.  W.  Callcott,  The  River  Arno,  124 
guineas,  and  The  Pier  at  Little  Hampton,  155 
guineas  ;  W.  Collins,  Landscape,  women  washing, 
1 80  guineas,  and  Sunrise,  seashore,  200  guineas  ; 
T.  Gainsborough,  a  Cottage,  women  with  chil- 
dren, 500  guineas  (Lord  Grosvenor) ;  W.  Hilton, 
the  Rape  of  Europa,  315  guineas  (Lord  Egre- 
mont);  John  Hoppner,  a  Sleeping  Nymph, 
450  guineas  (the  same) ;  H.  Howard,  the 
Pleiades,  a  replica  of  the  picture  at  Stafford 
House,  210  guineas;  Sir  J.  Reynolds,  Girl 
holding  a  Kitten,  260  guineas,  and  three  others  by 
the  same.  Of  Turner  there  were  six  first-class  ex- 
amples, notably  a  View  of  the  Thames  at  Tedding- 
ton,  205  guineas  ;  a  View  of  Kilgarran  Castle,  1 10 
guineas ;  a  Lighter  and  a  Lock  at  Teddington, 
135  guineas  (Sir  T.  Lawrence);  and  a  View  of 
Dutch  Fishing  Boats,  Sun  rising  through  the 
Mist,  490  guineas,  purchased  by  Turner  himself, 
and  bequeathed  by  him  to  the  National  Gallery ; 
James  Ward,  View  of  the  Lake  and  Tower, 
Tabley  Park,  190  guineas ;  Benjamin  West,  P.R.A., 
a  Bacchante  with  Symbols,  1 1 5  guineas ;  and  R. 
Wilson,  a  View  on  the  Arno,  470  guineas. 

Lord    Carysfoot's   pictures,    brought   from    his 
country  seat  at  Elton,  Huntingdonshire,  and  from 

11  IK    SALE    OK   THE   "SNAKK    IN    THE 

From  the  original  picture  by  J.  GKBAUD,  no\v  in  possession  of 
Messrs.  Christie  (p.  12 1\ 

'.less  £f;> if* if*-    I 

n  pa!-1 

...I  -A    I>  '     °l 

Lord  de  TabU-y  < 
,ve.     A  fcv 
Callcolt,  1 

:id  The  Pier  at  ^t*b   H  \/55 

<•  W  Collins,  Uajf  washu 

us  ; 


>c  ',>f  315  guineas  (Lord  Egre- 

,    a    Sleeping     Nymph, 
,);     H.     Howard      the 
-.1   n|sika   of    the   picture   at    Staffbi 
aivr  xi  -uBa-i:-' 

__, others 

tf'-      • 

^y^les  ii*''^'    :   a  Vi-'-1-'  ••'•i*'1 

HM^QS  guineas  ;  a  View  of  Kilgar  t*C,  i  10 

guinea*;  a  Lighter  and  a   Lock  ;ton, 

ilfieas  (Sir  T.  Lawrence)  ,  View  of 

IViich    I;ishin^    Bouts,  Sun  :lgh  the 



^'U'-at.Kt -i  -v  bin    :•.    '.  ^  !lery ; 

?,H-    ;  Tower, 

Wilson,  a  Vw    ^  ^        -> 

Lord    l.irt^V. 



his  town  house  in  Grosvenor  Street,  came  up  for 
sale  on  June  i4th,  1828,  when  sixty-five  lots  pro- 
duced a  total  of  ,£3,604.  The  most  important  work 
was  the  original  work  by  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds, 
known  as  The  Snake  in  the  Grass,  1,200  guineas, 
purchased  for  Sir  Robert  Peel,  and  now  in  the 
National  Gallery  (see  p.  99) ;  one  of  several  repeti- 
tionsof  a  Strawberry  Girl,  169  guineas  (Lord  Lans- 
downe) ;  Sir  G.  Hayter,  Tartars  and  Circassians, 
220  guineas.  This  sale  has  an  unusual  interest 
for  us,  inasmuch  as  an  excellent  painting  was  made 
of  it  by  J.  Gebaud,  and  was  purchased  by  Messrs. 
Christie  at  their  own  rooms  in  1875.  The  lot  was 
catalogued  as  "  The  sale  of  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds' 
picture  of  '  The  Snake  in  the  Grass.'  A  scene  at 
Christie's  during  the  sale  of  the  late  Earl  of  Carys- 
foot's  pictures,  June  i4th,  1828,  with  portraits  of 
the  late  Sir  Robert  Peel,  the  late  Marquis  of 
Stafford,  Prince  Pane  Esterhazy,  Lady  Morgan, 
the  late  John  Allnutt,  Esq.,  Mr.  Smith  of  Bond 
Street,  Mr.  Emmerson,  and  other  well-known  per- 
sonages." Concerning  this  picture  Mr.  Humphry 
Ward,  the  eminent  connoisseur,  writes :  "  Mr. 
Christie  himself  is  in  the  box,  eagerly  looking 
towards  the  bidder  in  the  left-hand  corner,  and  on 
the  easel  is  Sir  Joshua's  celebrated  '  Snake  in  the 
Grass,'  which  now  hangs  in  the  National  Gallery. 
The  nation  bought  it  with  the  rest  of  the  Peel 
collection,  for  Sir  Robert  Peel  purchased  the 
picture  at  this  sale,  and  there  he  is  standing  to  the 
right,  his  hands  behind  him,  his  frock-coat  tightly 
buttoned  across  his  small  waist.  .  .  .  Lady  Mor- 

122         GEORGE  CANNINGS  SALE. 

gan,  the  bright  Irishwoman,  with  many  friends 
and 'not  a  few  enemies,  is  in  the  centre  of  the 
picture ;  and  the  bidder  with  his  hand  and  pencil 
raised  is  the  '  Mr.  Smith  of  Bond  Street,'  and  the 
author  of  the  most  famous  of  all  catalogues,  the 
'  Catalogue  Raisonne  of  Dutch,  French,  and 
Flemish  Pictures/  which  is  still  regarded  by  dealers 
and  amateurs  as  the  principal  authority  on  the 
pictures  which  it  describes." 

This  year  (1828)  also  included  several  important 
jewel  sales.  On  June  29th,  a  large  brilliant,  of 
pure  water,  fetched  5 1 5  guineas,  and  another,  yet 
finer,  1,5 50 guineas — at  the  time  the  record  prices; 
five  days  previously  some  valuable  jewels,  the 
genuine  property  of  an  officer  in  the  Honourable 
East  India  Company's  service,  lately  deceased, 
brought  ,£3,758.  On  June  25th,  the  elegant  articles 
of  furniture,  china,  and  ormolu  of  the  Right  Hon. 
George  Canning  sold  for  ^8 1 8  8*.~;  and  a  selection 
of  his  books,  ^462.  As  an  historic  interest  is 
attached  to  this  sale  of  George  Canning's  effects,  the 
following  list,  with  the  prices  at  which  the  prin- 
cipal articles  were  sold,  will  be  found  very  interest- 
ing : — A  very  handsome  circular  soup  tureen,  the 
bowl  convexly  ribbed,  with  lions'  masks  at  the 
handles,  shell  feet;  a  lion  rampant  forms  the  handle 
of  the  lid ;  112  oz.  2  dwt,  6s.  per  oz.  A  superb 
vase,  serving  as  an  ice-pail,  the  handles  with  satyrs' 
masks,  the  surface  with  the  triumph  of  Bacchus 
and  Ariadne  in  relief,  the  bowl  is  embossed  with 
foliage  and  fluted  feet,  weighing  about  168  oz., 
135-.  per  oz.  The  silver-gilt  plate,  which  consisted 

GEORGE  CANNINGS  SALE.          123 

of  a  variety  of  articles,  produced  rather  high  prices. 
The  principal  articles  were  a  pair  of  very  magni- 
ficent Athenian  owls  for  sugar  and  pepper,  weigh- 
ing about  17^  oz.,  sold  for  iSs.  6d.  per  oz.  A 
magnificent  centre  for  a  dessert,  of  ormolu,  sup- 
ported upon  twelve  lions,  and  surmounted  by  three 
female  figures  or  sphinxes,  and  bearing  cornucopiae, 
festoons  of  vines  in  fruit,  and  branches  for  six  or 
nine  lights,  and  an  extra  plinth  to  be  used  occa- 
sionally ;  also,  a  cut  glass  vessel  for  artificial 
flowers,  were  sold  for  50  guineas.  A  pair  of  beau- 
tiful high  vases  of  Florentine  alabaster,  orna- 
mented with  festoons  of  flowers,  and  glass  shades, 
sold  for  2  guineas.  A  centre  for  a  dessert,  of 
Florentine  alabaster,  with  a  basket  of  flowers  sup- 
ported by  three  female  figures  on  a  pedestal,  orna- 
mented with  festoons,  in  relief,  ^4  5^.  A  dessert 
service  with  green  border,  painted  with  fruit  and 
flowers,  consisting  of  thirty-six  plates,  a  pair  of 
wine-coolers,  eight  tazzas  for  fruit,  a  pair  of  sugar 
tureens,  and  a  cream  ewer,  ^15.  Two  glazed 
cases  containing  very  beautiful  specimens  of  exotic 
birds  from  the  Indies,  obtained  by  the  deceased 
when  Ambassador  at  Portugal,  £%  los.  6d.  A  set 
of  eight  kneeling  figures  of  Cupids,  of  ormolu,  on 
pedestals,  16  guineas.  A  superb  plateau,  in  seven 
divisions,  of  plate  glass,  the  border  chased  with 
Bacchanalian  figures,  and  devices  and  festoons  of 
vines,  very  richly  gilt,  3  feet  6  inches  long  x  22 
inches  wide,  and  two  dial  cases  to  contain  it. 
This  superb  article,  which  cost  the  late  Premier 
nearly  ,£100,  was  bought  for  39  guineas.  An  ink- 


stand  of  ormolu,  surmounted  by  a  small  kneeling 
bronze  figure,  bearing  a  bowl  of  real  opalized  glass, 
and  a  Cupid  of  ormolu,  playing  on  the  harp,  with 
a  drawer  and  musical  movement  concealed  within 
the  plinth,  7  guineas.  A  sarcophagus  and  cover 
of  antique  ornamental  alabaster,  very  rare,  small 
model  from  the  antique,  and  a  small  lion  of  Rosso 
—those  articles  cost  the  deceased  fifty  guineas  in 
Rome— sold  for  ioj-  guineas.  A  fine  bronze  bust 
of  the  Right  Hon.  W.  Pitt,  from  the  marble  by 
Nollekens,  ^7  15*.  A  pair  of  noble  bell-shaped 
vases,  of  Swedish  porphyry,  £16  5*.  6d.  A  mag- 
nificent suite  of  state  hangings,  of  crimson  velvet, 
richly  embroidered  with  the  arms  and  crest  of  the 
United  Kingdom,  and  four  cushions,  ^25  IQS.  A 
circular  table  of  cedar  wood,  the  top  composed  of 
beautiful  specimens  of  variegated  marbles,  the 
centre  a  circular  slab  of  fine  lapis  lazuli,  the  whole 
bordered  with  verd  antique,  supported  by  a  pillar 
and  plinth  ornamented  with  ormolu,  £iS  js.  6ct. 

In  1829  the  death  of  Lord  Gwydyr  was  followed 
by  several  sales  of  his  objects  of  art,  pictures, 
furniture  and  so  forth,  partly  from  the  family  seat, 
Grimsthorpe  Castle,  Lincolnshire,  and  partly  from 
the  London  mansion  in  Whitehall.  The  pictures 
were  sold  on  May  8th  and  9th,  1829,  and  pro- 
duced a  total  of  ;£  14,636  js.  6d.  The  more 
notable  were  William  Van  de  Velde,  Harbour,  with 
a  Fleet  of  Ships  of  War  at  Anchor,  dressed  to 
receive  the  Prince  of  Orange,  who  is  putting  off  in 
his  yacht,  365  guineas  ;  G.  Romano,  Virgin  and 
the  Infant  Christ  and  St.  John,  St.  Joseph  with  a 


lantern  in  a  doorway,  320  guineas  ;  Paul  Potter, 
Group  of  Cows  and  a  Horse,  several  Sheep  behind 
them,  with  a  grove  of  fine  Trees,  1,205  guineas; 
Wouverman,  Return  from  the  Chase,  group  of 
figures  dismounting  at  the  steps  of  a  palace,  from  the 
celebrated  Poulain  cabinet,  680  guineas;  Claude, 
Rape  of  Europa,  2,000  guineas  (bought  by  George 
IV.) ;  Both,  a  rich  and  romantic  Landscape,  with 
group  of  figures  by  Polemberg,  Paris  awarding 
the  Prize  of  Beauty,  460  guineas ;  Reynolds,  the 
celebrated  Riposo  of  the  Holy  Family,  77  x  69^, 
painted  for  Macklin,  the  printseller,  who,  in  his  turn, 
disposed  of  it  to  Lord  Gwydyr ;  it  was  now  pur- 
chased at  1,900  guineas  for  the  directors  of  the 
British  Institution,  and  by  them  presented  to  the 
National  Gallery  ;  and  Gainsborough,  the  Market 
Cart,  72^  x  6oJ,  1,050  guineas,  also  purchased  for 
the  British  Institution,  and  afterwards  presented 
to  the  National  Gallery.  In  1829  Lord  Gwydyr's 
ornamental  furniture  and  collection  of  rare  old 
Sevres  and  oriental  porcelain  came  under  the 
hammer  on  May  2Oth  and  2ist,  realizing  ,£3,445 
145. ;  and  the  "  very  elegant  effects  "  of  the  same 
nobleman,  removed  from  Grimsthorpe  Castle  in 
March  (1829),  and  another  portion  in  June. 

It  is  not  necessary  for  us  to  enter  into  an  ex- 
haustive history  of  the  highly  important  collection 
of  drawings  of  the  old  masters,  of  the  pictures, 
books  of  prints,  and  so  forth  formed  by  Sir  Thomas 
Lawrence,  P.R.A.,  and  sold  after  his  death  at 
Christie's.  Lawrence  is  said  to  have  spent  ,£40,000 
upon  his  "  collection  of  genuine  drawings  by  the 


old  masters,  which  in  number  and  value  I  know  to 
be  unequalled  in  Europe."  As  we  have  already 
seen,  he  purchased  Ottley's  fine  collection  for 
,£8,000.  He  directed  in  his  will  that  his  collec- 
tion should  be  offered  at  the  modest  price  of 
,£20,000  to  the  King,  and,  if  not  accepted,  then 
to  the  British  Museum,  to  Sir  Robert  Peel,  or 
the  Earl  of  Dudley;  but  in  the  event  of  non- 
acceptance  of  the  offer  by  either  of  these,  the  col- 
lection was  to  be  advertised  for  public  sale,  and  if 
within  two  years  a  purchaser  was  not  forthcoming, 
then  the  whole  was  to  be  submitted  to  sale  at 
auction.  In  the  end  the  collection  was  purchased 
by  Sir  Thomas  Lawrence's  principal  creditors, 
Messrs.  Woodburn,  for  ;£  16,000.  After  a  number 
of  efforts  of  various  kinds,  one  portion  passing 
into  the  possession  of  the  Prince  of  Orange, 
afterwards  William  II.  of  Holland,  another  into 
the  University  galleries,  Oxford,  of  which  a  valu- 
able catalogue  has  been  drawn  up  by  Sir  J.  C. 
Robinson ;  a  few  became  the  property  of  the 
Rev.  Dr.  Wellesley,  of  Oxford ;  and  finally  the 
unsold  portion  of  the  collection  was  sold  at  Christie's 
by  Mr.  Woodburn  in  1860.  It  will  be  understood, 
therefore,  that  the  1830  sale  of  Sir  Thomas  Law- 
rence was  a  very  ordinary  one,  and  an  altogether 
inadequate  reflection  of  this  distinguished  artist's 
fine  discrimination  and  excellent  judgment.  The 
first  sale  began  on  May  loth,  1830,  and  the  five 
days'  dispersal  of  prints  and  books  of  prints  brought 
a  total  of  ,£1,761  i$s. ;  the  pictures  were  sold  on 
May  1 5th,  and  realized  a  total  of  ,£5,283  2s.  6ct. 


Among  them  the  more  notable  were  Rembrandt, 
Potiphar's  Wife,  44  x  34^-,  570  guineas  ;  Gior- 
gione,  Bacchanalian  Scene,  66  x  56,  no  guineas; 
Marcello  Venusti,  Christ  driving  out  the  Money- 
changers, 23  x  15^,  from  the  Borghese  Palace, 
after  the  design  of  Michael  Angelo,  210  guineas; 
Raphael,  Charity,  i  if  x  7^,  also  from  the  Borghese 
Palace,  223  guineas  ;  two  works  attributed  to 
Rubens ;  J.  M.  W.  Turner,  a  Canal  Scene,  Barges, 
120  guineas  ;  and  W.  Etty,  Pandora,  44  x  35,  105 
guineas.  On  May  2Oth  and  2ist,  some  drawings 
by  himself  and  other  artists  were  sold,  the  total 
being  ,£589  6s.  6d.  On  June  I7th  and  following 
two  days,  "  the  remaining  part  of  the  valuable 
collection  of  modern  drawings,  a  few  paintings,  a 
set  of  cartoons  of  L.  da  Vinci,  consisting  of  the 
original  designs  of  that  great  master  for  the  heads 
in  his  picture  of  the  Last  Supper,  as  also  numerous 
rare  and  very  precious  cinque  cento  models  in  wax 
and  terra-cotta,"  a  few  bronzes  and  antique  marble 
busts,  and  an  unpublished  engraved  copperplate 
of  the  young  Duke  of  Reichstadt.  The  eight  car- 
toons, in  black  chalk  and  crayons,  of  Leonardo, 
produced  a  total  of  524  guineas;  the  finished 
drawing  made  from  life  by  Lawrence  of  the  Duke 
of  Reichstadt,  and  engraved  by  Bromley,  fetched 
2 50  guineas;  and  the  total  of  the  sale  amounted 
to  ,£3,856  12^.  The  Lawrence  collection  of  casts 
from  the  antique,  some  medals  in  gold,  silver,  and 
copper,  sold  on  the  premises,  65,  Russell  Square, 
July  6th,  and  produced  ,£732  ios.\  the  final 
dispersal  of  his  extensive  collections  took  place 

128         THE    EARL    OF    MULGRAVE's   PICTURES. 

on  June  i8th,  1831,  and  comprised  his  unfinished 
pictures,  portraits,  and  sketches,  the  total  being 
,£3,191  55.  6d.,  and  among  these  were  his  Portrait 
of  himself,  ''exquisitely  finished,"  470  guineas 
(Lord  Chesterfield),  and  the  picture  of  Satan  Sum- 
moning his  Legions  was  bought  in  at  480  guineas. 
The  total  of  the  Lawrence  sales  at  Christie's 
amounted  to  ^u,557  19S>  6^. 

The  Earl  of  Mulgrave's  collection  of  seventy- 
five  pictures  formed  the  great,  and  the  only, 
sensation  of  the  year  1832.  It  included  no  less 
than  thirteen  pictures  and  sketches  painted  by 
David  Wilkie,  for  his  lordship  ;  and  of  these,  the 
most  important  was  the  celebrated  Rent  Day, 
painted  in  1807,  750  guineas;  the  sketch  for  the 
picture  of  the  Cut  Finger,  realized  150  guineas. 
The  other  pictures  included  two  Claudes,  a  Morn- 
ing Scene,  river  with  bridges  and  buildings,  from 
the  Govotti  Palace,  Savona,  260  guineas ;  and  an 
Evening  Scene,  with  peasants  attacked  by  Ban- 
ditti, purchased  about  1802  from  Prince  Rus- 
pigliosi  (for  whose  family  it  was  painted),  350 
guineas ;  Rubens,  Moonlight  Landscape,  with  a 
horse  grazing  in  the  foreground,  and  the  stars 
painted,  from  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds's  collection,  210 
guineas;  Rembrandt,  the  Jewess  Bride,  115 
guineas  ;  Vandyck,  St.  Sebastian  with  two  Angels, 
140  guineas.  The  sale  produced  the  total  of 
^5^93  5s-  The  late  Mr.  John  Ewer's  collection 
of  a  dozen  pictures  was  also  sold  in  1832,  May  1 2th, 
and  included  A.  Van  de  Velde,  Landscape,  with 
colt  of  mouse  colour  in  the  centre,  a  tan  cow  lying 


down  with  a  white  calf,  and  some  sheep  14  x  10, 
from  the  Holderness  collection,  430  guineas ; 
Berghem,  a  small  Landscape  with  cattle  and 
figures,  from  the  Duke  of  Bedford's  collection, 
,£215;  and  Gainsborough,  Woody  landscape, 
Sunset,  220  guineas — purchased  by  Mr.  Vernon, 
and  now  in  the  National  Gallery.  On  June  22nd, 
of  this  year,  the  greater  portion  of  pictures  formed 
by  the  Chevalier  Sebastian  Erard,  was  offered  for 
sale,  but  some  of  the  more  important  works  were 
bought  in  ;  the  sales  included  N.  Poussin,  Birth 
of  Bacchus,  45  x  56,  ^305  ;  Cuyp,  landscape,  with 
Shepherdess,  17  x  27,  380  guineas:  Teniers, 
Prodigal  with  two  Women,  19  x  28,  ^703  ; 
A.  Van  Der  Neer,  moonlight,  with  figures  by  Cuyp, 
44  x  56,  770  guineas,  and  A.  Van  de  Velde, 
Maternal  Occupation,  woody  scene,  with  a  shed  at 
the  side,  on  the  bank  is  a  woman  suckling  an 
infant,  dated  1762,  280  guineas — this  fine  picture 
occurred  again  in  the  Dean  Paul  sale  of  June  27th, 

Lord  Charles  Townshend's  collection  of  pictures 
was  sold  on  April  i  ith,  1835,  and  realized  a  total 
of  ,£4,641  35.  6d.  It  included  some  good  pictures, 
one  of  the  best  being  a  Greuze,  Girl  with  a  chaplet 
of  wild  flowers,  305  guineas ;  Ruysdael,  a  moun- 
tainous landscape,  with  a  village  church,  cottages, 
33  x  33i>  from  the  Brentano  collection,  690 
guineas ;  Berghem,  Ancient  ruins  near  Rome, 
750  guineas ;  Sir  A.  W.  Callcott,  View  on  the 
Meuse,  8  feet  5  inches  by  4  feet  7  inches,  750 
guineas  ;  Teniers,  Village  Fete,  dated  1646,  675 

I.  K 


guineas,  and  the  celebrated  picture  by  Wilkie, 
Duncan  Gray,  455  guineas.  Immediately  after 
the  sale  of  this  collection  of  pictures,  was  sold,  by 
order  of  the  Court  of  Chancery,  the  celebrated 
work  of  Manzuoli  di  Friano,  Visitation  :  Virgin 
bending  towards  St.  Elizabeth,  who  is  kneeling 
before  her,  Zacharias  behind,  with  hands  raised, 
13  feet  x  8J  feet,  in  fine  preservation,  painted  on 
thick  panel  of  white  poplar,  with  arched  top,  450 
guineas  (Hope). 

The  pictures  of  the  Right  Hon.  Sir  Charles 
Bagot,  G.C.B.,  were  sold  on  June  i8th,  1836,  for 
,£5,638  ios.,  and  the  56  lots  included  :  Wouver- 
man,  the  Horse  Fair,  169  guineas;  A.  Van  Der 
Neer,  View  in  Holland,  moonlight,  from  the 
collection  of  M.  Sapor tas,  of  Amsterdam,  in 
guineas  (Lord  Normanton)  ;  Hackaert,  View  in 
the  wood  at  the  Hague,  evening  effect,  a  return 
from  Hawking,  figures  by  A.  Van  de  Velde,  from 
the  Duval  collection,  191  guineas;  G.  Dow,  Old 
woman  at  an  arched  window,  holding  a  reel  for 
winding  thread,  1653,  196  guineas;  Van  der 
Heyden  and  A.  Van  de  Velde,  view  in  a  town  in 
Holland,  with  the  procession  of  the  Host,  from 
the  Holderness  collection,  200  guineas  ;  Hob- 
bema,  Landscape,  with  a  view  on  river,  village  and 
windmill,  150  guineas,  and  the  companion,  a 
retired  Village,  rustic  bridge  in  the  foreground, 
from  the  Hossner  collection,  200  guineas — both 
purchased  by  Sequier  for  Lord  Normanton  ; 
Backhuysen,  view  on  the  Zuyder  Zee,  under  the 
aspect  of  a  fresh  breeze,  370  guineas — this  picture 


was  again  sold  in  the  Dean  Paul  collection,  June 
27th,  1896  ;  Berghem,  Landscape,  with  figures  and 
cattle,  from  the  celebrated  collection  of  Ranclon 
de  Boisset,  535  guineas;  and  G.  Metzu,  Interior, 
from  the  collections  of  Colonel  Way  and  Lord 
Vernon,  586  guineas. 

Sir  Francis  F  reeling's  pictures,  sold  April  I5th, 
1837,  included  C.  Stanfield,  a  Market  Boat  on 
the  Schelt,  1 70  guineas ;  W.  Etty,  Cleopatra 
embarking  on  the  Cydnus,  210  guineas,  and 
W.  Collins,  the  Shrimpers,  122  guineas  (the  total 
realized  ,£2,901  us.).  There  were  two  or  three 
other  good  picture  sales  during  this  year,  notably 
the  collection  of  works  of  the  Italian  masters,  of 
W.  G.  Coesvelt,  removed  from  the  Gallery  in 
Carlton  Gardens,  sold  on  June  2nd  and  3rd,  and 
including  Titian,  Rape  of  Proserpine,  25  x  37, 
390  guineas  ;  and  Virgin  and  Child,  St.  Catherine 
and  St.  John,  in  a  landscape,  550  guineas  ;  Raphael, 
Virgin  and  Child,  seated  on  clouds,  16  x  12,  ^546. 
Parmegiano,  Flagellation  of  Christ,  23  x  18,  ^215  ; 
Claude,  Sunset,  46  x  68,  ^640  ;  Fra  Bartolommeo, 
Virgin  and  Child,  in  landscape,  33  in.,  circle,  ,£472. 
The  total  of  this  sale  is  not  indicated,  and,  as 
a  matter  of  fact,  the  very  high  reserves  placed 
on  nearly  all  the  pictures  rendered  the  auction  a 
complete  fiasco.  Mr.  Coesvelt  was  a  foreign 
dealer  who  resided  in  London,  and  he  issued 
an  illustrated  catalogue  of  these  pictures,  the 
majority  of  which  were  again  offered  for  sale 
at  Christie's,  in  June,  1840,  when  nearly  all  were 
either  bought  in  at  "  less  than  half  the  sum 


in   the   previous  sale,"    or  were    sold  at  a   great 


We  may  mention  here  that  the  Right  Hon. 
Sir  George  Warrender's  twenty-two  pictures  were 
sold  on  June  3rd,  and  a  total  of  ,£3,750  was 
obtained ;  among  them  was  a  Velasquez,  portrait 
of  Don  Baltasar  Carlos,  full  length,  imported  from 
Cadiz  in  1814,  410  guineas,  now  in  possession  of 
the  Duke  of  Abercorn  ;  there  were  also  Guercino, 
Assalone  con  Tamar,  1645,  painted  for  Cardinal 
Cornaro,  and  purchased  out  of  the  Cornaro  Palace 
at  Verona,  300  guineas  ;  and  Teniers,  view  of  his 
Chateau,  men  presenting  a  pike  to  the  artist  and 
his  family,  345  guineas. 

A  brief  reference  may  be  here  made  to  the 
extensive  collection  of  engraved  gems,  the  property 
of  Prince  Poniatowski,  and  also  his  pictures, 
bronzes  and  minatures,  which  were  sold  at 
Christie's  in  February,  March,  and  April,  1839. 
The  2,639  lots  of  gems,  which  took  seventeen  days 
to  sell,  realized  ,£3,796;  the  211  lots  of  pictures, 
,£2,374;  and  the  marbles,  bronzes,  etc.,  ,£441. 

Only  one  important  picture  sale  took  place 
during  1840,  and  that  comprised  the  celebrated 
gallery  of  the  late  Sir  Simon  H.  Clarke,  removed 
from  Oakhill,  Herts,  and  sold  on  May  8th  and 
9th,  1 1 1  pictures,  realizing  a  total  of  ,£28,065  i  is. 
Among  these  were  A.  Ostade,  Interior  of  aCottage, 
four  men,  and  two  men  in  the  background  playing 
tric-trac,  dated  1668,  from  the  Prince  de  Conti 
andTuffen  collections,  510  guineas  ;  the  companion 
picture,  two  Peasants  seated  at  card  table,  figures 

SIR    SIMON    H.    CLARKE  S   PICTURES.  133 

around  a  fire,  1673,  310  guineas;  Berghem,  Roman 
ruins  near  a  bridge,  cascade,  peasants  and  cattle, 
230  guineas,  and  the  companion  picture,  ruins  of 
a  Roman  aqueduct,  385  guineas  ;  Rachael  Ruysch, 
group  of  peaches,  grapes,  and  other  fruit,  274 
guineas;  and  the  companion  picture,  Group  of 
flowers,  200  guineas ;  Rembrandt,  "  Le  Port 
Drapeau,"  the  artist  in  the  character  of  a  Standard 
Bearer,  once  in  the  collection  of  George  IV.  who 
exchanged  it  with  Lafontaine  for  other  pictures, 
800  guineas;  and  the  Tribute  Money,  1645,  600 
guineas  ;  Rubens,  Diana  departing  for  the  Chase, 
from  the  Hibbert  collection,  610  guineas;  the 
Holy  Family,  from  the  same,  900  guineas 
(Buchanan,  for  Mr.  Holford) ;  and  the  portrait 
of  Helen  Forman,  295  guineas ;  Ruysdael,  Water- 
fall, evening  effect,  530  guineas  ;  Terburg,  Reading 
a  Letter,  from  the  Hibbert  collection,  415  guineas  ; 
Karel  du  Jardin,  Landscape,  with  a  bullock,  an  ass, 
sheep  and  goats  under  a  group  of  trees,  930 
guineas;  Teniers,  the  Industrious  Housewife,  270 
guineas  ;  Cuyp,  Castle  on  a  precipitous  rock  over- 
looking a  bay,  340  guineas  (Lord  Normanton) ; 
and  Woman  Milking  a  Cow,  910  guineas  ;  Claude, 
Seaport  at  Sunrise,  from  the  Robit  collection,  700 
guineas  ;  Wouverman, "  Le  Depart  des  Cavaliers," 
415  guineas;  Adrian  Van  De  Velde,  peasants 
passing  a  ford  under  a  tree,  with  sheep,  goats,  and 
man  leading  a  cow,  760  guineas  ;  William  Van  De 
Velde,  Calm,  with  Dutch  fleet  at  anchor,  awaiting 
a  royal  personage  who  is  embarking  from  a  yacht, 
980  guineas  ;  Jan  Steen,  the  Tired  Traveller,  from 

134  PICTURE    SALES,     1840-1848. 

the  Tuffen  collection,  560  guineas  ;  Carlo  Dolci, 
St.  Matthew  writing  his  Gospels,  attended  by  an 
angel,  910  guineas;  and  the  companion  picture, 
St.  John,  in  a  green  and  red  drapery,  holding  a 
pen  and  book,  480  guineas, — both  these  pictures 
were  from  the  gallery  of  Lucien  Bonaparte  ;  and 
Domenichino,  Magdalen  in  Contemplation,  665 
guineas  (Buchanan,  for  Mr.  Holford)  ;  Metzu, 
"  Le  Corset  Rouge,"  510  guineas;  Murillo,  The 
Good  Shepherd,  2,900  guineas  (Rothschild),  and 
the  Infant  St.  John,  2,000  guineas  (Lord  Ash- 
burton,  for  the  National  Gallery),  and  Teniers, 
The  Freemasons,  630  guineas. 

Three  important  picture  sales  took  place  at 
Christie's  from  1840  to  1848.  The  earliest  of 
these  comprised  the  "  celebrated  collection  of  pic- 
tures of  the  very  highest  class,"  formed  by  the 
late  John  Penrice,  of  Great  Yarmouth.  The 
seventeen  lots  realized  a  total  of  ,£11,488,  and 
included  Titian,  Riposo,  Virgin  and  Child,  and 
St.  Joseph,  from  the  Giustinian  Gallery,  200 
guineas ;  and  the  Woman  taken  in  Adultery,  600 
guineas  (bought  in)  ;  Wouverman,  Hawking 
Party,  from  the  Orleans  Gallery,  620  guineas  ; 
D.  Teniers,  "  Le  Lendemain  des  Noces,"  from 
the  Brunois  collection,  535  guineas  ;  and  "  Pair, 
ou  non  Pair,"  interior  of  cabaret,  with  peasants, 
from  the  Orleans  Gallery,  840  guineas  ;  Guido, 
Lot  and  his  Daughters  leaving  Sodom,  45^  x  58^, 
i, 600  guineas  (National  Gallery),  and  Susannah 
and  the  Elders,  46  x  59^,  900  guineas,  bought  in, 
but  sold  privately  to  the  National  Gallery  in  the 


following  year  for  1,200  guineas,— both  these  pic- 
tures were,  until  the  French  Revolution,  in  the 
Lancellotti  Palace,  at  Rome,  and  were  brought  to 
England  by  Mr.  Irvine  for  Mr.  Champernowne  ; 
A.  Ostade,  Interior,  with  two  dancing,  and  about 
twenty-six  other  figures,  from  the  Le  Brun, 
Wassenaer,  Randon  de  Boisset,  Geldermester  and 
Crawford  collections,  1,310  guineas  ;  but  the  great 
picture  of  the  sale  was  the  Rubens,  Judgment  of 
Paris,  57x75,  from  the  Orleans  collection,  from 
which  it  was  acquired  by  Lord  Kinnaird  for  2,000 
guineas,  passing  subsequently  into  the  possession 
of  Mr.  Penrice  at  2,500  guineas,  at  whose  sale  it 
was  acquired  for  the  National  Gallery  for  4,000 

The  Saltmarshe  collection,  formed  by  Mr. 
Edmund  Higginson,  of  Saltmarshe,  near  Brom- 
yard,  Herefordshire,  formed  the  great  sale  of 
1846  ;  it  occupied  three  days,  June  4th,  5th,  and 
6th,  and  the  231  lots  produced  a  total  of  ,£32,703  ; 
but  several  lots  were  bought  in,  to  the  extent, 
indeed,  of  ,£13,416,  and  came  up  again  for  sale  in 
1860.  This  collection  was  formed  with  exceed- 
ingly good  judgment  from  the  sales  of  the  Bour- 
sault,  Burtin,  Beckford,  Gray,  Northwick,  and 
other  first-class  Galleries.  The  highest  price 
paid  for  a  single  picture  in  this  sale  went  for 
the  Murillo,  Adoration  of  the  Shepherds,  2,875 
guineas,  the  purchaser  being  Sir  Richard  Wallace, 
and  the  picture  is  still  at  Manchester  House, 
London ;  it  is  considered  that  this  exceptionally 
fine  work  was  brought  by  Mr.  Irvine  from  the 


Capuchin  Convent  at  Genoa.  The  next  highest 
price  was  paid  for  a  Rubens,  The  Holy  Family, 
originally  in  the  Imperial  Gallery  at  Vienna,  and 
presented  by  the  Emperor  Joseph  II.  to  M.  de 
Burtin,  of  Brussels,  2,360  guineas  (Marquis  of 
Hertford);  and  the  other  important  pictures  in- 
cluded the  following:  Metzu,  Woman  cleaning 
Fish,  with  kitten  sitting  on  a  brass  kettle  turned 
up  on  its  side,  lox  12  inches,  480  guineas  (Baron 
Rothschild)  ;  Wouverman,  Sacking  a  Village, 
24!  x  i6f  inches,  460  guineas  (bought  in); 
William  Van  De  Velde,  Calm,  with  ship  of  war 
at  anchor,  64  x  98^,  from  the  Lichfield  collection, 
i, 680  guineas  (Marquis  of  Hertford);  K.  du 
Jardin,  The  Farrier,  iQfxiS  inches,  from  the 
Pourtales  collection,  1,350  guineas  (Baron  Roth- 
schild) ;  Greuze,  Psyche,  1,000  guineas  (Marquis 
of  Hertford)  ;  Rembrandt,  Portrait  of  Katrina 
Hoogh,  49^-  x  39,  her  name  inscribed  with  date, 
1657,  from  Lord  de  Spencer's  collection,  760 
guineas  (bought  in) ;  Claude,  Landscape,  from  the 
Hesse  Cassel  and  Talleyrand  collections,  1,470 
guineas  (Marquis  of  Hertford)  ;  and  ^Eneas 
visiting  Helenus  at  Delos,  painted  for  M.  Passey 
le  Gout,  1,200  guineas  (bought  in)  ;  P.  Potter, 
Three  cows  in  a  meadow,  from  the  Erard  collec- 
tion, 930  guineas  (Marquis  of  Hertford)  ;  and 
A.  Ostade,  The  Cabaret,  dated  1652,  950  guineas  ; 
and  J.  Ostade,  a  Village  Inn,  from  the  Lucien 
Bonaparte  and  Boursault  collections,  1,010  guineas. 
Some  of  the  unsold  pictures  were  again  offered 
for  sale  in  1860,  and  of  these  we  may  mention  the 


Wouverman,  which  now  sold  for  500  guineas ; 
the  Claude,  ^Eneas,  realizing  850  guineas;  the 
Rembrandt,  portrait  of  Katrina  Hoogh,  740 
guineas ;  whilst  a  work  of  Baldassare  Peruzzi, 
Adoration  of  the  Magi,  bought  in  at  500  guineas, 
was  presented  to  the  National  Gallery  in  1849, 
by  Mr.  Higginson. 

Two  noteworthy  sales  took  place  in  1847.  The 
earlier  of  these  comprised  the  valuable  and  in- 
teresting collection  formed  by  Mr.  Edward  Solly, 
whose  knowledge  of  the  Italian  School  of  painting 
was  great  and  his  judgment  excellent.  The  forty- 
two  lots  sold  on  May  8th,  produced  a  total  of 
,£5,279.  In  this  collection  there  were  Girolamo 
da  Cottignola,  Ascension  of  the  Virgin,  dated 
1512,  120x72,  240  guineas,  and  Pope  Gregory 
and  St.  Peter,  dated  1528,  26x66,  203  guineas; 
Francia,  Christ  on  the  Cross,  96  x  67,  330  guineas  ; 
Innocenzo  da  Imola,  Virgin  and  Child  enthroned, 
dated  1527,  8x6,  310  guineas — all  purchased  by 
Mr.  Davenport  Bromley.  Carlo  Grivelli,  Annun- 
ciation, 82  x  58,  painted  for  the  Convent  Santis- 
sima  Annunziata,  at  Ascoli,  where  it  was  still 
preserved  in  1790  (bought  for  310  guineas  by 
Mr.  Labouchere,  afterwards  Lord  Taunton,  who 
presented  it  to  the  National  Gallery,  in  1864); 
Mazzolini  da  Ferrara,  Destruction  of  Pharaoh  and 
his  Host,  dated  1521,  50  x  63,  230  guineas; 
Lorenzo  Lotto,  Portraits  of  the  artist,  his  wife,  and 
two  children,  signed,  48  x  54,  engraved  when  in 
Lucien  Bonaparte's  collection  as  by  Carlo  Lotto, 
215  guineas;  Bernadino  Luini,  Madonna  and 


child  standing  on  her  lap,  in  a  landscape,  from 
the  Cathedral  at  Como,  84x60,  372  guineas 
(Tate) ;  Girolamo  da  Treviso,  Madonna  en- 
throned, from  the  Church  of  St.  Domenico,  at 
Bologna,  98  x  57,  282  guineas,  purchased  by  Lord 
Northwick,  at  whose  sale  in  1859  it  was  sold  for 
450  guineas  to  the  National  Gallery ;  Raphael, 
Ascension  of  the  Virgin,  from  Pisa  Cathedral, 
72  x  72,  330  guineas  ;  and  Giorgione,  Madonna 
enthroned,  from  Soranzoo  and  Balbi  collections, 
560  guineas.  On  June  nth,  fifty-five  pictures 
brought  from  M.  Claudius  Tarral's  residence  in 
Paris,  fetched  a  total  of  ,£3,383,  and  among  them 
were  Giorgipne,  Adoration  of  the  Shepherds, 
35x42,  1,470  guineas;  Ruysdael,  Forest  Scene, 
22  x  25,  460  guineas  ;  and  Backhuysen,  a  Squall, 
240  guineas, — all  three  of  which  came  from  the 
collection  of  Cardinal  Fesch. 

(Bernal  Sale,  p.  176.) 




N  historic  interest  is  attached  to  the 
dispersal  of  the  celebrated  Stowe  col- 
lection of  works  of  art,  the  property 
of  the  Duke  of  Buckingham  and 
Chandos.  The  sale  on  the  premises 
occupied  Messrs.  Christie  and  Manson  forty  days, 
beginning  with  August  I5th,  1848,  and  produced 
what  at  this  day  would  be  regarded  as  the  compara- 
tively small  total  of  ,£77,562  45.  6d.  In  every 
respect  the  sale  was  the  most  remarkable  which 
had  up  to  that  period  taken  place  in  this  country. 
The  Strawberry  Hill  sale — conducted  by  George 
Robins — six  years  previously,  produced,  in  twenty- 
four  days,  the  total  of  ,£33,450  i  is.  gd. ;  and  the 
Beckford  sale — conducted  by  Phillips — in  1823, 
produced  in  forty-one  days,  the  then  handsome 
total  of  ,£43,869  14^.  The  following  leading 
article  appeared  in  77/6'  Times  of  August  I4th,  and 


gives  such  a  picturesque  view  of  the  whole  event 
at  Stowe  that  we  make  no  apology  for  giving  it 
in  extenso  : 

"  During  the  past  week  the  British  public  has 
been  admitted  to  a  spectacle  of  painful  interest 
and  gravely  historical  import.  One  of  the  most 
splendid  abodes  of  our  almost  regal  aristocracy 
has  thrown  open  its  portals  to  an  endless  succession 
of  visitors,  who  from  morning  to  night  had  flowed 
in  an  uninterrupted  stream  from  room  to  room, 
and  floor  to  floor — not  to  enjoy  the  hospitality  of 
the  lord,  or  to  congratulate  him  on  his  countless 
treasures  of  art,  but  to  see  an  ancient  family  ruined, 
their  palace  marked  for  destruction,  and  its  con- 
tents scattered  to  the  four  winds  of  Heaven.  We 
are  only  saying  what  is  notorious,  and  what,  there- 
fore, it  is  neither  a  novelty  nor  a  cruelty  to 
repeat,  that  the  most  noble  and  puissant  prince, 
his  Grace  the  Duke  of  Buckingham  and  Chandos, 
is  at  this  moment  an  absolutely  ruined  and 
destitute  man.  Our  advertising  columns  have 
introduced  to  the  public  the  long  list  of  estates, 
properties  and  interests,  which  are  no  longer  his, 
and  will  not  revert  to  his  heirs.  The  last  crash  of 
this  mighty  ruin  is  that  which  now  sounds.  Stowe 
is  no  more.  This  morning  the  tumultuous  inva- 
sion of  sight-seers  will  once  again  be  endured,  and 
to-morrow  the  auctioneer  will  begin  his  work. 

"  As  every  thoughtful  spectator  has  spoken  to 
the  peculiar  and  most  lamentable  character  of  the 
scene,  one  may  be  permitted  to  dwell  for  a  while 
upon  circumstances  of  such  rare  occurrence  and 

THE    STOWE  SALE.  141 

ndelible  recollection.  Under  the  lofty  arch  which 
crowns  the  long  avenue  from  Buckingham,  and 
opens  the  first  view  of  the  magnificent  Palladian 
facade,  has  lately  passed  a  daily  cavalcade  which, 
except  in  its  utter  absence  of  style,  might  remind 
one  of  the  road  to  Epsom  on  a  Derby  Day. 

(Stowe  and  Bernal  Sales,  p.  173.) 

Barouches,  flys,  stage-coaches,  "  busses "  pressed 
from  the  metropolitan  service,  and  every  grada- 
tion of  "trap,"  down  to  the  carrier's  cart  hastily 
emptied  of  groceries,  dragged  to  Wolverton,  and 
filled  with  the  unfortunate  holders  of  return  tickets 
to  town,  constitute  a  dreary  antithesis  to  the  cortege 


which  so  lately  brought  royalty  to  Stowe.  An 
elaborately  circuitous  road  conducted  the  impatient 
visitors  to  the  park  front,  before  which  in  the  vast 
amphitheatre  formed  by  its  side  colonnades,  so 
often  the  scene  of  rural  festivities,  the  enemy  en- 
camped, one  might  imagine  a  great  country  picnic 
had  suddenly  gathered  at  Stowe  ;  even  stalls  were 
there.  From  the  branch  of  a  noble  beech  hung  a 
huge  pair  of  scales,  on  which  venison  was  weighed. 
An  advertisement  posted  on  the  front  door  par- 
ticularized the  very  moderate  prices  at  which  a 
back,  a  half,  or  a  quarter  might  be  obtained.  In 
the  distance  were  fallen  trees,  timber  waggons, 
and  extempore  sawpits.  The  enormous  edifice 
was  a  human  hive,  every  window  showed  the 
crowd  within  passing  to  and  fro.  But  once  ad- 
mitted—once standing  under  the  Pantheon-like 
vault  of  the  central  saloon,  and  glancing  right 
and  left,  endless  vistas  of  gorgeous  apartments, 
then  one  indeed  realized  the  sacrilege  that  was 
going  on.  Every  scholar  must  have  thought  of 
the  scene  related  by  ^neas,  when  the  Greeks 
burst  open  the  gates  of  Priam's  palace,  and  when 
the  splendid  interior,  the  spacious  halls,  and  the 
sacred  haunts  of  the  ancient  dynasty  were  pre- 
sented to  the  eyes  of  the  furious  assailants. 

"The  house  was  well  set  out  for  the  distinguished 
visitors.  Neither  Louis  XVIII.,  nor  the  Duke 
of  Orleans,  nor  Queen  Victoria,  nor  any  of  the 
great  ones  of  the  earth,  whose  visits  are  recorded 
with  pillars,  and  with  trees  planted  with  their  own 
hands,  saw  Stowe  so  nobly  arrayed  as  the  British 

THE    STOWE    SALE.  143 

public  have  seen  it  this  week.  The  bride  was 
dressed  for  the  altar,  the  victim  for  the  sacrifice. 
No  thrifty  coverings,  no  brown  hollands,  no  neat 
chintzes  were  there.  King  Mob  had  it  all  of  the 
best,  the  richest  damask  furniture  of  the  newest 
state  hangings ;  only  as  that  personage  rode 
literally  roughshod  through  the  palace,  and  brought 
with  him  cartloads  of  gravel,  there  was  just  an 
attempt  to  save  the  carpets  from  excessive  tritura- 
tion.  In  the  state  dining  room  were  set  out 
60,000  ounces  of  gold  and  silver  plate ;  one  was 
involuntary  reminded  of  the  weight,  for  the  scales 
were  at  work  there  also,  and  men  were  weighing 
and  noting  down  lot  after  lot. 

"  On  a  table  20  yards  long,  and  on  a  dozen  side- 
boards stood  forests  of  vases,  candelabras,  epergnes, 
groups,  goblets,  tankards,  and  every  form  and 
variety  of  plate,  from  the  eleborate  designs  of 
Italian  artists  to  the  simple  elegance  of  the  old 
English  schools,  and  the  pretentious  richness  of 
the  last  generation.  Among  fifty  other  pieces  of 
historic  value,  the  gift  of  royal  personages  and 
distinguished  men,  stood  a  vase  formed  from  snuff 
boxes,  presented  by  the  cities  and  corporations  of 
Ireland  in  1779,  the  mace  of  the  old  corporation 
of  Buckingham,  purchased  by  the  Buckingham 
Conservatives,  and  presented  to  the  Duke  as  an 
everlasting  possession,  and  the  Chandos  testi- 
monial, for  which  the  gentry  and  yeomanry  of  the 
county  lately  subscribed,  we  believe,  ,£1,500. 
During  the  whole  week  this  testimonial  was  sur- 
rounded by  a  crowd  of  agriculturalists,  the  very 


originals  of  the  figures  thereon  represented,  telling 
of  the  guineas  they  had  contributed  to  the  ill-fated 
fabric,  but  avowing  with  unvaried  gratitude  worthy 
of  a  safer,  if  not  a  better  cause,  that  they  would 
gladly  give  the  money  over  again. 

"  The  galleries  of  family  portraits  and  collections 
of  family  memorials  seem  to  connect  all  the  great 
men,  and  all  the  great  achievements  of  modern 
Europe  with  the  name  of  Chandos,  Temple,  Cob- 
ham,  and  Grenville.  But  beyond  the  somewhat 
extensive  circle  of  family  affection,  the  original 
portraits  of  famous  men  and  women  here  as- 
sembled, are  of  the  greatest  interest  and  value. 
Here,  too,  is  the  victor's  portion  in  the  celebrated 
sieges,  the  memento  of  historical  friendships,  and 
the  favourite  gem  of  royalty  or  beauty.  In  the 
manuscript  room  is  the  most  extensive  and  valu- 
able collection  of  Irish  documents  anywhere  to  be 
found.  For  the  pictures,  marbfes,  bronzes,  antique 
articles  of  vertu,  curiosities,  china,  glass  and  wines, 
we  leave  them  to  the  auctioneer  and  his  catalogue 
of  5,000  items.  It  is  not  our  purpose  to  speak  of 
that  which  money  has  collected,  and  may  collect 
again.  Such  things  are  only  scattered  for  a  fresh 
reunion  elsewhere,  under  new  and  more  favour- 
able auspices.  But  the  heirlooms  of  many  great 
families,  the  records  of  many  great  events,  and  the 
memorials  of  many  great  persons,  all  spontaneously 
collected  into  one  great  whole,  constitute  a  most 
singular  and  significant  fact,  the  obliteration  of 
which  we  can  only  compare  to  the  overthrow  of  a 
nation  or  a  throne. 

THE   STOWE    SALE.  145 

"  And  everything  is  to  be  sold.  The  fatal  ticket 
is  everywhere  to  be  seen.  The  portrait  of  Charles 
Brandon,  Duke  of  Suffolk,  the  founder  of  the 
family,  by  Holbein,  is  Lot  51  in  the  twenty-first 
day's  sale.  That  every  other  ancestor  should  go 
to  the  hammer,  whether  Vandyck  or  Lely,  or 
Knelleror  Gainsborough,  or  Reynolds,  follows,  of 
course.  But  there  is  one  item  of  which  no  pre- 
paration can  remove  the  shock.  The  Chandos 
family  is  descended  from  F ranees  Brandon,  eldest 
daughter  of  the  above  Charles  Brandon,  by  Mary, 
daughter  of  Henry  VII.,  and  Queen  Dowager  of 
France.  Some  time  since  savages  or  dilettanti  at 
Bury,  exhumed  that  Mary  Brandon  from  her  grave 
and  took  from  her  head  a  lock  of  silken  hair,  which 
thus  constitutes  a  visible  link  between  the  present 
Duke  of  Buckingham  and  the  throne  of  these 
realms,  to  which  he  has  a  reversionary  claim.  That 
lock  of  silken  hair  in  its  glass  case  is  now  to  be  sold 
to  the  highest  bidder." 

Messrs.  Christie  and  Manson  charged  15^.  for  the 
sale  catalogue,  and  this  admitted  four  persons  to  the 
private  view,  August  3rd  to  the  I5th  ;  but  imme- 
diately after  the  conclusion  of  the  sale,  Henry  Ram- 
sey Forster  compiled,  and  David  Bogue  published, 
the  "  Stowe  Catalogue,  Priced  and  Annotated,"  a 
valuable  and  interesting  book  in  quarto,  of  310 
pages,  with  a  number  of  illustrations,  and  a  frontis- 
piece of  the  celebrated  Rembrandt,  The  Unmerci- 
ful Servant.  It  is  neither  possible,  nor  perhaps 
desirable,  for  us  to  enter  exhaustively  into  the 
innumerable  details  of  this  sale,  and  we  must 

i.  L 


content  ourselves  with  a  severe  condensation  of 
Forster's  Catalogue.  The  principal  articles,  taken 
in  the  order  of  sale,  were  as  follows: — A  jewel,  de- 
signed for  a  Benitoire,  in  the  most  exquisite  taste, 
of  the  period  of  Cellini  ;  the  vessel  for  holy  water 
is  formed  of  a  single  almandine,  supported  by  two 
angels  of  gold,  enamelled,  on  the  lid  is  a  bust  of 
the  Virgin,  and  cameos,  above  is  a  relief  of  the 
Virgin,  in  a  glory,  supported  by  angels,  with  the 
Trinity  above;  the  whole  jewel  is  thickly  studded 
in  rose  diamonds  and  turquoise — this  beautiful 
work  of  art  was  formerly  among  the  crown  jewels 
of  Portugal,  whence  it  was  brought  to  this  country 
by  Dom  Miguel — 101  guineas;  an  oviform  vase, 
long  considered  a  perfect  chef-d'oeuvre  of  Raffaele 
ware,  50  guineas;  an  oval  salver  of  Sevres  porcelain, 
turquoise  ground,  with  a  subject  after  Watteau,  100 
guineas ;  a  beautiful  antique  , statue,  the  Marine 
Venus  arranging  her  hair,  found  in  excavating  the 
baths  of  Agrippa  at  Rome,  and  brought  to  Eng- 
land by  the  Marquis  of  Chandos,  4  feet  6  inches 
high,  156  guineas  (Her  Majesty  the  Queen) ;  the 
celebrated  Laocoon,  a  magnificent  bronze,  of  the 
size  of  the  original  group,  by  G.  di  Bologna  at 
Florence,  by  Carbonneaux  (?  or  by  Crozatier), 
executed  for  Watson  Taylor  at  ^2,000  (but  never 
in  his  possession),  from  the  Fonthill  collection, 
540  guineas  (Duke  of  Hamilton)  ;  Roubiliac's 
bust  of  Prior,  1 30  guineas  (Sir  Robert  Peel)  ;  a 
pair  of  superb  candelabra,  the  stem  and  pedestal  of 
Sevres  bleu  du  Roi,  mounted  with  ormolu,  8  feet 
6  inches  high,  235  guineas  (E.  L.  Betts) ;  the  state 

THE    STOWE    SALE.  147 

bedstead,  magnificently  carved  and  gilt,  made  for 
the  Prince  and  Princess  of  Wales  upon  their  visit 
to  Stowe  in  1737,  and  subsequently  the  resting 
place  of  very  many  royal  personages,  including 
the  Prince  of  Wales  in  1805,  Louis  XVIII.  in 
1808  or  1809;  and  of  the  Queen  and  Prince 
Albert  in  1845,  86  guineas ;  a  beautiful  cabinet  of 
marqueterie  of  the  finest  old  German  work,  formed 
as  a  table  supporting  a  cabinet,  235  guineas  ;  a 
pair  of  magnificent  silver  gilt  sideboard  vases,  with 
lip,  each  with  two  handles  springing  from  above  a 
mask,  covers  surmounted  by  a  figure  of  a  cavalier, 
311  ounces  at  £2  per  ounce. 

The  first  portion  of  the  pictures  came  up  for 
sale  on  Tuesday,  September  i2th.  The  Stowe 
collection  had  been  formed  out  of  the  accumulation 
of  several  families  ;  from  Gosfield,  the  seat  of  Earl 
Nugent,  in  Essex  ;  from  Minchenden  House,  near 
Southgate,  the  seat  of  Mr.  Nicoll,  whose  only 
daughter  and  heiress  married  James,  Marquis  of 
Carnarvon,  afterwards  third  Duke  of  Chandos  ; 
and  from  Avington,  another  seat  of  the  Chandos 
family,  in  Hampshire.  When  the  second  Duke 
of  Buckingham,  whose  sale  we  are  now  describing, 
succeeded  to  the  title,  he  made  a  complete  clearance, 
and  sent  nearly  one  thousand  pictures  to  Christie's 
rooms,  where  they  produced  a  total  of  about  /"6oo. 
Those  sold  at  Stowe  included  a  number  of  copies, 
replicas  and  so  forth  ;  the  more  important  were 
the  following : —  Holbein,  Portrait  of  Charles 
Brandon,  Duke  of  Suffolk,  48  guineas  (Duke  of 
Sutherland) ;  Fuseli,  Midsummer  Night's  Dream, 

I48  THE   STOWE    SALE. 

painted  for  Boydell's  Shakespeare,  65  guineas,  and 
another  scene  from  the  same,  60  guineas ;  Henry 
Morland  (father  of  George),  Lady  Coventry,  32 
guineas,  and  Duchess  of  Hamilton,  36  guineas. 

The  sale  on  Wednesday,  September  i3th,  in- 
cluded a  number  of  interesting  relics,  and  among 
these  were  William  1 1 1. 's  silver  watch, by  Bushman, 
of  London,  10  guineas  ;  the  white  silk  sash  of  the 
Pretender,  Charles  Edward,  taken  from  his  baggage 
at  Culloden,  in  1745,  40  guineas;  the  badge  and 
ribbon  of  the  Order  of  the  Bath,  worn  by  Sir 
R.  Temple  at  the  coronation  of  Charles  II.,  6} 
guineas ;  a  lock  of  the  hair  of  Queen  Mary, 
taken  from  the  corpse  at  St.  Mary's  Church,  Bury, 
in  1784,  purchased  at  the  sale  of  the  museum  of 
the  Duchess- Dowager  of  Portland  in  1786,  for 
£6  ios.,  and  now  sold  for  £7  los.  ;  and  the  cele- 
brated miniature  portrait  of  Charles  II.  by  Cooper, 
sent  by  the  King  in  1651  to  Henry,  Lord  Beau- 
champ,  100  guineas.  Pictures  were  again  sold  on 
September  i4th,  and  included  Richardson's  Por- 
trait of  Alexander  Pope,  70  guineas  (Sir  Robert 
Peel)  ;  and  his  Portrait  of  J.  Locke,  40  guineas 
(Earl  of  Mansfield) ;  several  by  Sir  Joshua  Rey- 
nolds, Richard  Grenville,  Earl  Temple,  half- 
length,  1 60  guineas;  Mary,  Marchioness  of  Buck- 
ingham, and  her  son,  in  a  landscape,  whole  length, 
1 30 guineas;  the  Right  Hon. G. Grenville,  in  robes, 
1 60  guineas;  and  the  Marquis  of  Granby,  whole 
length,  in  engagement  in  the  background,  200 
guineas;  T.  Gainsborough,  Robert,  Earl  Nugent, 
seated,  whole  length,  101  guineas ;  six  by  Sir 

THE    STOWE    SALE.  149 

P.  Lely,  Lady  H  enrietta  Berkeley,  70  guineas ; 
Frances  Stuart,  Duchess  of  Richmond,  in  yellow 
satin  dress,  whole  length,  68  guineas;  Charles  II., 
whole  length,  16  guineas;  Anne,  Countess  of 
Southesk,  80  guineas  ;  Nell  Gwynne,  whole  length, 
in  yellow  and  blue  dress,  100  guineas  ;  and  Anne 
Maria,  Countess  of  Shrewsbury,  as  Minerva,  65 
guineas  (Sir  R.  Peel)  ;  Vandyck,  the  Marquis  of 
Vieuville,  in  a  white  dress  and  black  coat,  whole 
length,  210  guineas;  R.  Wilson,  Minchenden 
House,  Southgate,  with  extensive  landscape  and 
water,  figures  in  the  foreground,  195  guineas  (Lord 
Leigh),  and  Caernarvon  Castle,  with  peasants  and 
cattle,  no  guineas.  But  the  great  picture  of  the 
sale  was  the  Chandos  portrait  of  Shakespeare, 
presumed  to  be  the  work  of  Burbage,  who  first 
acted  "  Richard  III.";  it  was  the  property  of  John 
Taylor,  the  poet's  Hamlet,  who  left  it  by  will  to 
Sir  W.  Davenant  in  or  about  1653;  at  Davenant's 
death,  or  soon  after,  it  was  purchased  by  Betterton 
the  actor,  and  when  he  died,  Robert  Keck,  of  the 
Inner  Temple,  gave  Mrs.  Barry,  the  actress,  40 
guineas  for  it ;  from  Keek's  possession  it  passed  to 
Mr.  Nicoll,  of  Minchenden  House,  whose  only 
daughter,  as  we  have  before  stated,  married 
James,  Marquis  of  Carnarvon,  afterwards  Duke  of 
Chandos ;  it  was  here  purchased  by  Rodd,  the 
bookseller  of  Little  Newport  Street,  London,  for 
the  Earl  of  Ellesmere,  for  355  guineas.  The  last 
picture  in  the  day's  sale  was  the  celebrated  work  of 
Clarkson  Stanfield,  Wreckers  off  Calais,  from  the 
Watson  Taylor  collection,  410  guineas  (Naylor). 

l$O  THE    STOWE    SALE. 

The  most  important  pictures  in  the  collection 
were  sold  on  Friday,  September  isth,  and  at  the 
head  of  these  came  the  celebrated  Rembrandt,  the 
Unmerciful  Servant,  7  feet  by  5  feet  10  inches,  pur- 
chased in  Amsterdam  from  the  representatives  of 
the  family  for  whom  it  was  painted,  and  brought 
away  the  night  before  the  entrance  of  the  French 
troops,  2,200  guineas  (Marquis  of  Hertford).  This 
day's  sale  included  two  other  important  works  of 
this  master,  a  Portrait  of  a  Burgomaster  in  a  black 
dress,  wearing  a  skull-cap  and  ruff,  52  x  43,  from 
the  Orleans  Gallery,  at  the  dispersal  of  which  it 
sold  for  300  guineas ;  at  the  Morland  sale  it  sold 
for  400  guineas  ;  and  it  was  now  understood  to  be 
purchased  for  the  Marquis  of  Breadalbane  for 
810  guineas;  and  a  Negro  armed  with  bows  and 
arrows,  richly  attired,  251  guineas  (Holford).  The 
other  pictures  included  a  pair  by  Albert  Dtirer,  St. 
Catherine  reading  a  book,  150  guineas;  and  St. 
Barbara,  with  a  book  in  her  left  hand,  160  guineas  ; 
D.  Ferriers,  three  old  peasants  in  conversation 
near  the  door  of  a  farmhouse,  240  guineas  ;  Do- 
menichino,  Sybilla  Persica,  one  of  the  finest  pro- 
ductions of  this  master,  from  the  Orleans  Gallery, 
690  guineas  (Marquis  of  Hertford);  Salvator  Rosa, 
The  Finding  of  Moses,  79  x  48,  brought  to  England 
by  W.  Y.  Ottley,  "as  the  companion  to  the  cele- 
brated picture  in  the  National  Gallery  "  (which,  how- 
ever, it  is  not,  as  the  companion  to  the  Stowe  pic- 
ture is  engraved  in  Le  Brun's  work),  1,000  guineas 
(Marquis  of  Breadalbane) ;  and  the  celebrated 
Cuyp,  Philip  Baptizing  the  Eunuch,  66  x  45,  from 


the  collection  of  the  Count  de  Vismes,  i  ,470  guineas 
(T.  B.  Brown).  The  only  two  other  lots  in  this 
sale  to  which  we  need  refer  are  the  following: 
The  celebrated  collections  of  mineralogy  and  geo- 
logy formed  by  the  Abbe  Haliy,  comprising  nearly 
ten  thousand  specimens,  each  carefully  labelled 
and  described  by  his  own  hand,  together  with  very 
numerous  models  of  crystals,  elaborately  cut  in 
wood,  to  explain  his  particular  system  of  Crystalo- 
graphy ;  an  extensive  hortus  siccus,  etc.,  the  whole 
forming  a  valuable  and  interesting  illustration  of 
the  "  Trait£  de  Mineralogie,"  published  by  the 
Abbe  in  1822,  310  guineas,  purchased  by  the 
Directors  of  the  Jardin  des  Plantes,  Paris.  And 
the  Buckingham  collection  of  mineralogy  and  geo- 
logy, containing  more  than  6,000  specimens,  some 
of  them  of  considerable  variety  and  beauty,  65 

It  may  be  mentioned  here  that  the  contents  of 
the  Duke  of  Buckingham's  town  house  at  91,  Pall 
Mall,  were  sold  at  Christie's  in  the  spring  preced- 
ing the  great  dispersal  at  Stowe.  On  March  27th, 
28th,  and  29th  the  Sevres  and  other  porcelain, 
wines,  and  a  few  pictures  brought  a  total  of  about 
,£2,300;  on  March  3oth  the  plate  realized  ,£3,267 
1 35. ;  on  April  3rd,  the  books,  stuffed  birds,  car- 
riages, etc.,  realized  nearly  .£300 ;  whilst  a  sale  of 
guns,  rifles,  etc.,  took  place  on  July  i  ith. 

Although  the  Stowe  sale  overshadowed  every 
other  event  of  its  kind  in  1848,  it  was  by  no  means 
the  only  important  auction  of  the  year.  Neither 
was  it  the  earliest.  In  the  sale  of  J.  Newington 


Hughes  ("  who  was  so  well  known  as  a  collector  for 
the  last  sixty  years")  of  Winchester,  on  April  Hth 
and  1 5th,  1848.  A  few  good  pictures  occurred: 
A  series  of  sixteen  portraits  of  celebrities  of  the 
times  of  Charles  I.,  known  as  "The  Fairfax  por- 
traits/' ^"174;  J-  M.  W.  Turner,  Sheerness  and 
the  Isle  of  Sheppey,  565  guineas;  and  Whalley 
Bridge  and  Abbey,  295  guineas  (now  in  the  col- 
lection of  Lord  Wantage) ;  A.  Ostade,  an  Interior, 
three  Boors  sitting  at  a  table,  one  looking  into  a 
jug,  370  guineas  ;  Teniers,  the  Village  Mill,  obelisk 
in  foreground,  225  guineas  ;  and  Cuyp,  a  Chateau 
on  a  river,  man  in  red  on  grey  horse  conversing  with 
a  peasant,  710  guineas  (Baron  L.  de  Rothschild). 
Early  in  the  following  month  (May  5th),  twenty- 
six  pictures  of  the  Dutch  School,  "  the  most  select 
portion  of  the  collection  formed  by  the  former 
minister  of  France,  the  late  M.  Casimir  Perier" 
(who  died  in  1832),  was  sent  "over  to  Christie's 
from  France,  and  produced  a  total  of  ,£5,987. 
Several  of  the  more  important  pictures  were  pur- 
chased by  the  Marquis  of  Hertford,  notably  P.  de 
Hooghe,  Interior,  lady  peeling  apples,  21  x  28, 
270  guineas;  Metzu,  a  Dutch  kitchen,  known  as 
"  The  Tabby  Cat,"  13  x  16,  240  guineas:  Rem- 
brandt, Portrait  of  himself,  with  black  cap  and  fur 
collar,  25x19,  280  guineas;  Wouverman,  "  Les 
Sables,"  the  Downs,  Holland,  26  x  22,  from  the 
Choiseul  collection, 390  guineas;  and  Terburg,  "La 
Liseuse,"  Dutch  lady  reading,  1 8  x  14,  6 10  guineas. 
There  were  also  Hobbema,  "  Les  Deux  Mares," 
two  ponds,  man  on  horseback,  33  x  24,  560 guineas  ; 


P.  Potter,  "  L'Hotellerie,"  coach  in  sandy  road, 
13  x  20,  425  guineas  ;  Ruysdael,  a  Watermill,  large 
stones  and  old  timber,  32  x  25,  350  guineas 
(Gardner);  Terburg,  "La  Couseuse,"  old  woman 
at  needlework,  18  x  14,  310  guineas  (bought  in); 
W.  Van  De  Velde,  a  Calm,  with  numerous  vessels, 
1 8  x  1 6,  550  guineas  (Gardner);  Wouverman, 
Le  Defil6  de  Due  de  Vendome,  a  landscape,  with 
cavalry  and  leader  on  white  horse,  41  x  31,  610 
guineas  (Lord  Derby)  ;  and  Velasquez,  Philip  IV. 
in  armour,  26  x  16,  180  guineas  (Stone). 

The  last  noteworthy  picture  sale  prior  to  the 
Stowe  dispersal  comprised  136  pictures  sold  by 
direction  of  the  will  of  the  late  Sir  Thomas  Baring, 
and  removed  from  Stratton  Park  and  Devonshire 
Place,  London.  The  sale  took  place  on  Friday 
and  Saturday,  June  2nd  and  3rd,  and  the  total 
realized,  ,£11,776  us.,  does  not  give  a  very  high 
average.  The  following  were  the  most  important 
works  :  William  Collins,  Boulogne  Fisherman  and 
Girls,  230  guineas ;  and  Boy  taking  Sea- fowls' 
Eggs,  1833, "  the  capital  chef  d'ceuvre,"  245  guineas  ; 
J.  M.  W.  Turner,  Sheerness,  sun  rising  through 
the  fog,  man-of-war  at  anchor,  550  guineas  (Wells) ; 
D.  Wilkie,  Alfred  in  the  Neatherd's  Cottage,  430 
guineas  (Ryan)  ;  and  Sheepwashing,  660  guineas; 
R.  Wilson,  Meleager,  170  guineas  (Rought); 
Rembrandt,  Landscape,  with  village  church  on 
a  hill,  partly  concealed  by  trees,  215  guineas 
(Farrer) ;  Hobbema,  Watermill,  with  village  church 
and  cottage,  275  guineas;  Rubens,  Abraham 
and  Melchizedec,  365  guineas  ;  Backhuysen,  a 


Fresh  Breeze,  with  Dutch  men-of-war,  from  the 
Hibbert  collection,  270  guineas;  Paul  Potter, 
a  brown  Bull  standing  near  a  tree,  two  sheep 
lying  down,  210  guineas  (Fuller)  ;  and  Wouver- 
man,  A  Stag  Hunt,  on  the  banks  of  a  river,  425 

Early  in  1849  another  batch  of  pictures  was 
received  at  Christie's  from  France,  where  the  revo- 
lution of  the  previous  year  rendered  everything 
uncertain.  These  pictures  comprised  the  Mont- 
calm  Gallery  at  Montpellier,  originally  formed  by 
the  Marquis  de  Montcalm,  who  commanded  the 
French  forces  at  the  battle  of  Quebec.  Other 
pictures  were  added  to  the  collection,  which  con- 
sisted of  145  works,  and  the  sale  of  May  4th  and 
5th  showed  a  total  of  ,£9,546.  The  chief  lots  were 
H.  Vernet,  Une  Odalisque,  27  x  23,  102  guineas  ; 
Sasso  Ferrato,  Virgin  and  Child,  circle,  17  inches, 
205  guineas  ;  P.  de  Champagne,  Adoration  of  the 
Shepherds,  from  the  Bonnemaison  collection,  350 
guineas ;  and  Albano,  Venus  Reposing  in  Clouds, 
12  x  14,  370  guineas — (all  the  foregoing  were 
purchased  by  the  Marquis  of  Hertford) ;  Salvator 
Rosa,  Rocky  Coast  of  Calabria,  190  guineas;  and 
one  of  the  Battles  of  Alexander,  from  the  Lapey- 
riere  collection,  260  guineas  ;  Le  Sueur,  the  Annun- 
ciation, from  the  Tourgot  and  Robit  collection,  1 70 
guineas ;  Guido,  Woman  in  pink  plucking  rose 
from  a  vase,  from  the  Sommariva  collection,  252 
guineas — all  of  which  were  purchased  by  the  Earl 
of  Normanton ;  Greuze,  Le  Premier  Sentiment, 
a  portrait  of  Madame  Geoffrin  when  young,  oval, 


22  x  28,  600  guineas  (Norton) ;  and  La  Reveuse, 
head  of  a  very  beautiful  girl  with  light  hair,  1 5  x  12, 
355  guineas  (Bryant). 

The  pictures  collected  by  a  well-known  amateur 
of  repute  in  his  day,  W.  Coningham,  were  dis- 
persed in  three  portions,  the  first  on  April  25th, 
1844,  the  second,  April  25th,  1849,  and  the  last  on 
April  1 2th,  1851.  The  second  of  these  sales  in- 
cluded sixty-seven  pictures,  the  most  important  of 
his  collection,  the  total  realizing  ,£6,894.  Special 
mention  may  be  made  of  the  following :  Garofalo, 
Circumcision,  from  Lord  Cawdor's  collection,  250 
guineas  (Farrer)  ;  Filippo  Lippi,  Offering  of  the 
Wise  Men,  circle,  from  the  Guicciardini  Palace, 
Florence,  270  guineas  ;  Andrea  Mantegna,  Christ 
on  the  Mount  of  Olives,  signed  "  opus  Andrea 
Mantegna,"  from  Cardinal  Fesch's  collection,  400 
guineas  (bought  in)  ;  Titian,  Tarquin  and  Lucretia, 
from  Charles  the  First's  collection,  73  x  56|-,  525 
guineas  (bought  in) ;  Carlo  Crivelli,  Virgin  and 
Child,  St.  Peter  and  Saints,  from  the  Brera  Gallery, 
900  guineas  (bought  in) ;  P.  Veronese,  Death  of 
Procris,  500  guineas  (bought  in)  ;  Raphael,  Christ 
Praying  on  the  Mount  of  Olives,  from  the  Gabrielli 
collection,  24  x  27!,  750  guineas  (W.  Brown) ;  Se- 
bastian del  Piombo,  Holy  Family,  from  the  Cam- 
biaso  collection  i, 800  guineas  (Baring);  Rembrandt, 
Portrait  of  Martin  Looten,  dated  1637,  from  the 
Fesch  collection,  £"700  (Holford).  The  third  sale, 
in  1851,  included  six  of  Mr.  Coningham's  pictures, 
and  of  these  two  were  among  those  bought  in  at 
the  1849  sale,  viz.,  the  Mantegna,  which  now  sold 

W.    WELLS    OF    REDLEAF. 

for  240  guineas,  and  the  Paul  Veronese,  which  now 
realized  ^301. 

One  of  the  most  important  picture  sales  of  1849 
took  place  the  week  after  the  dispersal  of  Mr.  Con- 
ingham's  second  instalment.  This  was  the  earlier 
of  the  two  sales  of  William  Wells,  of  Redleaf,  and 
it  occupied  two  days,  May  i2th  and  I3th.  This 
sale  included  the  following  :  Guido,  a  Sybil,  in  a 
white  dress  and  blue  drapery,  25  x  30,  340  guineas  ; 
R.  Maes,  a  Distressed  Boy  asking  alms  of  a  lady, 
31  x  24,  585  guineas ;  W.  Van  Mieris,  young  woman 
with  a  basket  of  eggs  on  her  arm,  18  x  15,  260 
guineas;  and  the  companion  picture,  a  Woman  with 
a  dish  of  flounders  in  her  hand  at  a  window,  200 
guineas;  D.  Teniers,  Interior  of  a  kitchen,  with  a 
pile  of  culinary  and  other  objects,  IQ^-  x  23^,  270 
guineas ;  P.  Wouverman,  Landscape  presenting  a 
view  of  an  open,  barren  country,  group  of  pedes- 
trians, and  gentleman  on  a  brown  horse,  1 3 \  x  2oJ, 
570  guineas  (Theobald) ;  I.  Ostade,  Peasant  at  the 
half-door  of  a  thatched  cottage  talking  to  a  traveller, 
from  the  Robit  and  other  collections,  3 1 5  guineas, 
and  View  of  the  back  court  of  a  house,  with  various 
accessories  introduced,  4  r  5  guineas  ;  Claude,  Herds- 
man tending  goats,  3 1 5  guineas  ;  Sir  David  Wilkie, 
Distraining  for  Rent,  1,050  guineas ;  F.  Mieris, The 
Tired  Traveller  seated  on  a  bank,  with  his  hat  off, 
and  a  knapsack  by  his  side,  said  to  be  a  portrait 
of  the  artist  when  he  was  young,  9x7,  470  guineas 
(now  at  Dorchester  House) ;  A.  Cuyp,  Cows  and 
oxen  at  pleasure,  27  x  26,  390  guineas  (Fletcher) ; 
Van  DeCapella,  Calm  off  the  Dutch  Coast,  1 1\  x  13, 


310  guineas  (Emmerson) ;  J.and  A.  Both,  View  in 
Italy,  represented  under  the  effect  of  a  fine  sum- 
mer's day,  i8|-X26,  295  guineas;  and  Peter  de 
Hooghe,  View  in  the  back  court  of  a  house,  having 
an  open  door  at  the  end  of  it,  28  x  23,  5 15  guineas. 
The  total  of  the  two  days'  sale  amounted  to 
,£5,566.  In  1852  another  portion  of  the  Redleaf 
collection,  in  which  there  were  some  excellent 
examples  of  the  English  school,  came  up  for  sale 
on  May  2Oth,  and  for  convenience'  sake  may  be 
included  here.  The  total  realized  by  the  125  lots 
amounted  to  ,£30,736  7$.  6d.  The  principal  pic- 
tures were  Sir  E.  Landseer,  Fallow  Deer,  700 
guineas,  and  the  companion,  Red  Deer,  650 
guineas  ;  J.  M.  W.  Turner,  a  Harbour  Scene,  sun- 
set, ships  of  war  at  anchor,  640  guineas  (Graves)  ; 
F.  Goodall,  the  Hurdy-Gurdy  Player,  306  guineas  ; 
T.  Webster,  Boys  Going  to  School,  365  guineas ; 
A.  Egg,  Autolycus,  the  much-admired  work  in  the 
Royal  Academy  of  1845,  355  guineas  (Graves) ; 
C.  R.  Leslie,  Columbus  and  the  Egg,  in  the  Royal 
Academy  1834,  318  guineas;  J.  Ostade,  a  Little 
Country  Inn,  at  which  a  gentleman  has  just  arrived, 
from  the  Prince  Galitschkin  collection,  30  x  24, 
i, ooo  guineas  ;  Vandyck,  Portrait  of  the  Wife  of  De 
Vos,  when  about  thirty,  750  guineas  (Lord  Hert- 
ford);  Wouverman,  Halt  of  Cavalry,  14  x  17^-, 
330  guineas,  and  a  similar  subject,  12  x  17,  380 
guineas,  described  in  Smith's  Catalogue,  No.  380 
and  381  respectively;  A.  Ostade,  Country  Fair, 
310  guineas;  K.  du  Jardin,  a  Rocky  Glen,  640 
guineas  ;  Hobbema,  a  View  in  Westphalia,  610 


guineas ;  G.  Metzu,  the  Fainting  Lady,  in  a  scarlet 
jacket  (i  5  x  13),  from  a  number  of  celebrated  collec- 
tions, including  Hemskirk,  Van  Alpen,  Crewe,  and 
Schimmelpeninck,  300  guineas  (Duke  of  Cleve- 
land) ;  W.  Van  De  Velde,  View  on  the  Coast  of 
Scheveningen,  dated  1659,  500  guineas  (Sir  R. 
Peel);.J.  Ruysdael,  Forest  Scene,  45x56,  700 
guineas;  J.  Van  Huysman,  Yellow  Vase  with 
flowers,  grapes,  bird's  nest,  etc.,  53x36,  400 
guineas;1  J.  B.  Greuze,  Young  Woman  with  light 
auburn  hair  and  a  blue  kerchief  round  her  shoulders, 
with  a  basket  of  eggs  in  her  lap,  750  guineas  (Lord 
Hertford) ;  Claude,  The  Enchanted  Castle,  46  x  6oJ, 
from  the  Walsh  Porter  collection,  2,000  guineas 
(Lord  Overston) ;  Velasquez,  Portrait  of  Prince 
Balthazar  of  Spain,  650  guineas  (Lord  Hertford); 
Domenichino,  St.  Cecilia,  580  guineas ;  and 
Murillo,  St.  Thomas  Distributing  Alms  to  the 
Poor  (59  x  59),  2,850  guineas  {Lord  Hertford). 
Finally  it  may  be  mentioned  here  that  the 
celebrated  work  of  Sir  E.  Landseer,  the  Portrait 
of  Sir  Walter  Scott  seated  in  the  Rhymer's  Glen, 
painted  for  Mr.  Wells,  was  sold  on  June  9th,  1877, 
for  3,050  guineas.  In  1890  yet  another  portion  of 
the  Redleaf  collection  came  up  for  sale,  and  it  is 
dealt  with  under  that  date. 

The  last  important  picture  sale  at  Christie's  in 
1849,  took  place  on  June  i4th,  i5th  and  i6th,  and 
comprised  "  pictures  of  the  very  highest  class, 

This  beautiful  picture  was  purchased  on  this  occasion  by 
Alexander  Darby,  at  whose  sale,  in  1867,  it  realized  380  guineas, 
and  is  now  in  the  National  Gallery. 


partly  from  Rushton  Hall,  Northamptonshire," 
with  some  rare  vases,  bronzes  and  enamels,  the 
property  of  William  Williams  Hope.  The  total 
amount  realized  by  the  101  pictures  was  ,£7,526 
14$.  Some  of  the  best  pictures  were  bought  in, 
notably  Jan  Steen,  the  Poultry  Market,  500 
guineas;  Teniers,  the  Three  Smokers,  520 
guineas  ;  Wouverman,  Cavaliers  starting  from  a 
stake,  350  guineas  ;  Hobbema,  Wood  in  Guelder- 
land,  360  guineas  ;  Greuze,  Ariadne,  550  guineas  ; 
and  Claude,  Italian  landscape,  shepherd  seated  in 
the  foreground,  figures  and  mules  crossing  a 
bridge,  550  guineas.  The  pictures  sold  included 
A.  Van  de  Velde,  landscape  with  shepherd  and 
shepherdess,  400  guineas  (Winthrop)  ;  Murillo, 
Virgin  and  Child,  580  guineas  (Lord  Hertford), 
and  a  Riposo  of  the  Holy  Family,  780  guineas 
(the  same) ;  W.  Van  de  Velde,  a  Calm,  men 
of  war  furling  sails,  340  guineas  (Farrer) ;  Isaac 
Ostade,  the  Bowl  Players,  262  guineas  (Norton)  ; 
Van  der  Heyden,  square  in  a  German  Town, 
370  guineas;  Rembrandt,  portrait  of  Admiral 
Van  Tromp,  460  guineas  (Baron  Rothschild)  ; 
and  A.  Ostade,  Adoration  of  the  Shepherds,  450 

Lord  Ashburnham's  sale,  July  2Oth,  formed  the 
principal  event  of  1850,  91  pictures  and  5  bronzes 
realizing  total  of  ,£13,295,  or,  deducting  the  bought 
in  property,  ,£9,773.  The  principal  pictures  in 
the  sale  included  Carlo  Dolci,  Daughter  of  Hero- 
dias,  700  guineas  (Marquis  of  Westminster) ;  Sal- 
vator  Rosa,  Apollo  and  the  Sibyl,  1,700  guineas 


(Marquis  of  Hertford) ;  and  St.  John  preaching  in 
the  Wilderness,  with  Philip  baptizing  the  Eunuch, 
1,000  guineas  (bought  in);  Vandyck,  portrait  of 
Don  Livio  Odescalchi,  450  guineas— or  ^500  it 
is  not  quite  clear  from  the  catalogue  which  is  the 
correct  amount  (Lord  C.  Tovvnshend);  Rembrandt, 
a  Cavalier  in  black  dress,  690  guineas,  (Farrer)  ; 
and  Mathematician  and  Pupil,  the  engraved  picture 
from  the  Dundas  collection,  1,000  guineas  (bought 
in);  Guido,  Bacchus  and  Ariadne,  400  guineas 
(bought  in)  ;  and  Lucretia  stabbing  herself,  390 
guineas  (Baron  N.  Rothschild) ;  Claude,  View  in  the 
Bay  of  Naples,  1,070  guineas,  and  a  view  of  Rome, 
with  the  Ponte  Molle  in  the  distance,  1,800 
guineas,  both  bought  in  ;  Murillo,  Portrait  of  him- 
self, signed  and  inscribed,  790  guineas  (Lord 
Spencer),  and  St.  Francis  kneeling  in  prayer,  from 
the  Dundas  collection,  1,000  guineas  (bought  in)  ; 
Rubens,  Nature  unveiled  by  the  Graces,  painted 
for  Villiers,  Duke  of  Buckingham,  1,000  guineas 
(bought  in);  G.  Poussin,  View  of  Tivoli,  with 
figures,  from  the  Waldegrave  and  Fleming  collec- 
tions, 480  guineas  (Marquis  of  Hertford)  ;  N. 
Poussin,  Triumph  of  Bacchus,  1,1 60  guineas  (Lord 
Carlisle) ;  Triumph  of  Pan,  1,180  guineas  (Hume) 
—these  two  belong  to  a  set  of  three  pictures  said 
to  have  been  painted  for  the  Due  de  Montmorenci, 
the  third  is  in  the  National  Gallery,  No.  42  ;  and 
another  by  the  same  artist,  a  Landscape  with  storm, 
and  Pyramusand  Thisbe,  400  guineas  (bought  in) ; 
and  Schidone,  Girl  with  Horn  Book  learning  the 
Lord's  Prayer,  from  the  Capo  di  Monte  collection, 


750  guineas  (bought  in).  A  few  interesting  Dutch 
pictures  were  included  in  the  sale,  July  31  st,  1851, 
of  Viscount  Middleton's  collection,  removed  from 
Peper  Harrow  Park,  near  Godalming,  Surrey. 
The  87  pictures  realized  ,£3,137,  and  included 
Rembrandt,  Portrait  of  himself  in  a  brown  cloak 
and  brown  cap,  hands  clasped,  bust  size,  33  x  27^, 
4ioguineas  (Sir  Charles  Eastlake,  for  the  National 
Gallery) ;  and  Jan  Van  Eyck,  Portrait  of  a  man  in  a 
fur  cloak,  with  red  chaperon  round  his  head,  from 
the  Arundel  collection,  and  painted,  according  to 
an  inscription  on  the  lower  part  of  the  frame, 
October  21,  1433,  10^x7^,  300  guineas,  now  in 
the  National  Gallery  ;  A.  Ostade,  Interior,  with 
six  peasants,  dated  1649,  290  guineas;  Wouver- 
man,  an  Army  on  the  March,  on  rising  ground 
near  a  pool,  ^250  ;  and  Terburg,  Lady  tickling  the 
face  of  an  officer  who  is  asleep,  285  guineas. 

Curiously  enough  the  two  picture  sale  sensations 
of  1853  were  of  what  may  be  termed  French 
extraction.  The  earlier  of  these  two  sales,  March 
1 2th,  comprised  47  lots,  which,  with  the  exception 
of  four,  were  those  which  were  reserved  at  the 
sale  of  the  gallery  of  the  late  Cardinal  Fesch  by 
his  grand  nephew,  Charles  Lucien  Buonaparte, 
Prince  of  Canino.  Of  the  47  lots  the  only  two 
which  were  not  bought  in  were  Tiberio  d'Assisi, 
Virgin  and  Child  enthroned,  angels  on  each  side, 
and  Saints,  "  a  chef-d oeuvre  of  this  exceedingly 
rare  master,"  dated  1 507,  380  guineas;  and  Rubens, 
Adoration  of  the  Magi,  "  formerly  the  property  of 
the  Church  of  Berg-Saint-Vinox,  sold  about  1 766, 

i.  M 


to  Randon  de  Boisset  for  about  ,£2,400  "  (at  whose 
sale  in  1777,  it  realized  10,000  livres),  ;£  1,200. 

The  great  sensation  of  the  year,  however,  was 
provided  by  the  death  of  Louis  Philippe,  the 
ex-king  of  the  French,  which  occurred  at  Clare- 
mont,  on  August  26th,  1850;  but  the  sale  of  his 
pictures  did  not  begin  until  the  Spring  of  1853. 
The  sales  were  held  on  May  6th,  7th,  i3th,  i4th, 
20th,  and  2ist,  whilst  the  collection  bequeathed  to 
Louis  Philippe  by  Frank  Hall  Standish,  came 
up  for  dispersal  on  the  28th  and  3Oth.  The  528 
pictures  in  the  ex-king's  own  collection  realized 
.£27,635  165-.  6d.,  and  were  chiefly  of  the  Spanish 
School ;  they  formed  the  "  Spanish  Gallery,"  as 
exhibited  at  the  Louvre ; 1  the  Standish  pictures 

1  "  King  Louis  Philippe  possessed  a  collection  of  paintings 
by  the  old  Spanish  masters,  which  was  perhaps  the  largest  ever 
brought  together,  as  well  as  one  of  the  most  important. 
Besides  the  specimens  of  other  schools",  it  included  656  Spanish 
paintings,  being  140  more  of  that  school  than  are  to  be  found 
in  the  famous  Museo  del  Prado  at  Madrid.  .  .  .  The  Standish 
Gallery  was  formed  by  Frank  Hall  Standish,  of  Duxbury  Hall, 
Lincolnshire,  an  enthusiastic  lover  of  Spanish  art,  who  resided 
a  long  time  in  Spain,  and  wrote  an  agreeable  and  useful  book, 
entitled  'Seville  and  its  Vicinity,'  1840.  His  collection  of 
drawings,  which  included  those  formerly  owned  by  the  Conde 
del  Aguila,  was  probably  the  most  extensive  and  valuable  ever 
brought  together.  .  .  .  Mr.  Standish,  dying  in  1841,  bequeathed 
to  King  Louis  Philippe,  all  his  books,  pictures,  etc.,  'as  a 
testimony  of  my  esteem  for  a  generous  and  polite  nation,  which 
is  always  ready  to  welcome  travellers,  and  which  I  have  always 
visited  with  pleasure  and  quitted  with  regret.' "  (Curtis, 
"  Velasquez  and  Murillo.")  It  is  said  that  Mr.  Standish  offered 
to  give  his  books  to  the  British  Museum,  and  his  pictures  to 
the  National  Gallery,  but  the  hint  at  a  revival  of  a  baronetcy 


were  249  in  number,  and  realized  ,£9,859  igs.  ; 
whilst  the  furniture,  porcelain,  and  objects  of  art 
from  the  Chateau  d'Eu  realized  ,£1,190.  The 
Spanish  pictures  included  the  following  : — Alonzo 
Cano,  Virgin  and  Child,  ,£200,  Balaam's  Ass,  ,£240, 
and  three  others  by  the  same  artist ;  Morales, 
Ecce  Homo,  ,£110,  and  Carrying  the  Cross,  115 
guineas;  over  thirty  attributed  to  Murillo,  and 
among  them  the  Infant  Jesus  sleeping  on  the 
knees  of  St.  Joseph,  380  guineas  ;  Christ,  after 
the  Flagellation,  kneeling  on  the  ground,  205 
guineas;  St.  Bonaventura,  125  guineas;  St.  Thomas 
de  Villanueva,  a  composition  of  fifteen  figures, 
described  by  R.  Ford  in  the  Athenceum,  May 
28th,  1853,  as  "one  of  the  finest  sketches  of 
Murillo  in  existence,"  51  \  x  29,  ^"710,  now  in  the 
possession  of  Lord  Northbrook ;  St.  Felix  of 
Cantalicio,  ,£350,  now  in  Lord  Elcho's  collection ; 
St.  Rodrigues  crowned  by  an  Angel,  200  guineas, 
now  in  the  Dresden  Gallery,  No.  633 ;  St. 
Catherine,  ,£300,  now  in  the  collection  of  the 
Duke  of  Cleveland,  Raby  Castle,  Durham  ;  St. 
Joseph  and  Infant  Jesus,  42  x  34,  ^"440  (when 
sold  it  was  in  bad  condition,  having  been  injured 
by  sea- water  and  ill-usage ;  it  was  purchased  by 
Mr.  Rutley  for  Mr.  Lyne  Stephens,  of  Lynford 
Hall,  Norfolk,  in  whose  possession  it  remained 
until  May,  1895,  when  it  was  again  sold  at 
Christie's) ;  the  Magdalen,  in  purple  drapery,  at 
the  entrance  of  a  cavern,  59  x  41,  800  guineas 

which  had  once  been  in  his  family,  not  being  taken  by  Lord 
Melbourne,  the  collections  were  willed  as  described. 


(Wells);  St.  Augustine  at  Hippona,  the  saint  in 
bishop's  robes,  £680  (J.  T.  Mills);  portrait  of 
Don  Andreas  di  Andrada,  inscribed,  78  x  46, 
,£1,020— "  this  picture  was  bought  by  Sir  J.  M. 
Brackenbury  some  twenty  years  ago  from  the 
heirs  of  Andradae  for  ,£1,000"  (Athenceum,  May, 
1853,  p.  623),  it  was  purchased  by  Thomas  Baring, 
and  is  now  in  the  Northbrook  collection ;  Portrait 
of  the  artist,  oval,  inscribed  "Vera  effigies  Bar- 
tholomsei  Stephani  a  Morillo  Maximi  Pictoris 
Hispani,"  etc.,  400  guineas  (Baron  Seilliere) ; 
Miraculous  Conception,  from  a  Convent  at  Cor- 
dova, £"810;  Virgin  and  Infant  Jesus,  known  as 
"  La  Vierge  a  la  Ceinture,"  or  "  Virgen  de  la  Faja," 
,£1,550  (Due  de  Montpensier) — this  celebrated 
work  was  purchased  by  Louis  Philippe  for  60,000 
francs  ;  Christ  and  St.  John  by  the  River  Jordan, 
£660  (the  same) ;  and  a  Portrait  of  himself,  a 
head,  resembling  the  portrait  above  mentioned, 
but  with  material  differences,  330  guineas.  The 
more  important  of  nearly  twenty  examples  of 
Velasquez  were  the  following  :  Landscape,  setting 
sun,  with  monastery  of  the  Escurial  in  the  distance, 
410  guineas;  Angel  appearing  to  Shepherds,  380 
guineas  (Davenport  Bromley)  ;  portrait  of  the 
Infant  Don  Balthazar  Carlos,  son  of  Philip  IV., 
when  a  child  of  about  three  years  of  age,  whole 
length,  i,  600  guineas  (Lord  Hertford);  portrait  of 
Philip  IV.,  whole  length,  £250  ;  portrait  of  Caspar 
Gusrnan  Conde  d'Olivares,£3 10;  portrait  of  Isabel 
de  Bourbon,  whole  length,  wearing  a  black  head- 
dress with  a  white  feather,  £300.  The  last  three 


pictures  were  purchased  by  Mr.  Farrer,  who  ex- 
hibited them  at  Manchester  in  1857,  and  sold 
them  to  Mr.  Henry  Huth  in  1863;  Jesus  and 
his  Disciples  at  Emmaus,  ^235  (Earl  of  Breadal- 
bane) ;  and  the  most  important  of  all,  the  celebrated 
Adoration  of  the  Shepherds,  known  as  "  The 
Manger,"  91  x  66,  ^2,060 — purchased  about  1832 
for  ,-£4,800  by  Baron  Taylor,  Louis  Philippe's 
agent,  from  the  Conde  del  Aguila,  in  whose  house 
in  Seville  it  had  remained  since  the  time  it  was 
painted  ;  it  is  now  in  the  National  Gallery.  The 
other  Spanish  pictures  included  four  examples  of 
Spagnoletto,  notably  the  Assumption  of  the  Mag- 
dalen, £200 ;  a  number  of  examples  of  Zurbaran, 
among  them  a  Franciscan  Monk  holding  a  skull 
in  his  hands,  61  x  39,  ^265  ;  and  a  pair,  Adoration 
of  the  Shepherds,  and  Adoration  of  the  Magi, 
^1,700  (Colnaghi).  There  were  also  four  works 
of  David  Roberts,  Interior  of  the  Temple  of 
Edfou,  360  guineas ;  St.  Helena  at  Bethlehem, 
460  guineas  ;  Interior  of  the  Mosque  at  Cordova, 
300  guineas;  and  the  High  Altar  in  the  Seville 
Cathedral,  300  guineas  ;  also  a  fine  example  of 
Watteau,  Landscape,  with  the  actors  of  the 
Come'die  Italienne,  700  guineas  (Lord  Hertford). 
Only  two  sales  of  note  occurred  in  1854.  The 
earlier  of  these  was  the  small  but  interesting 
collection  of  J.  D.  Gardner,  removed  from 
Bottisham  Hall,  Cambridgeshire,  and  the  total 
realized,  on  March  25th,  by  the  seventy-five  lots 
was  ,£2,305.  These  were  :  Rubens,  Landscape,  ex- 
hibiting a  wild  and  sequestered  scene,  with  figures, 


imported  from    Holland  by   Emmerson   in    1818 
(and  from  the  Harman  sale  of  1844),  400  guineas  ; 
and  Salvator  Rosa,  view  in  the  Apennines,  also 
from  the  Harman  sale,  450  guineas — both  bought 
in,  and  offered  again  in   1877,  when  the  former 
sold  for  490  guineas,  and  the  latter  for  2 10  guineas. 
This  sale  included  the  antique  marble  of  an  eagle, 
found   in   the    Boccapudugli    Gardens,    near   the 
Baths  of  Caracalla,  Rome,  in  1742  ;  at  the  Straw- 
berry Hill  sale  in   1842  it  realized  200  guineas, 
and  it  now  fetched  530  guineas.    The  second  note- 
worthy sale  of  the  year  took  place  on  June  i2th, 
and  comprised  the  collection  of  fifty-seven  pictures 
of  E.  J.  De  Bammeville;  of  the  total  of  ^4,106, 
,£1,253  represented  pictures  bought  in.     One  of 
the  pictures  in  this  sale  was  purchased  for  the 
National  Gallery,  viz.,  Lorenzo  di  San  Severino, 
Marriage  of  St.  Catherine,  formerly  in  the  Church 
of  Santa  Lucia  at  Fabriano,  57x57,  375  guineas. 
The  other  pictures  included  L.   Cranach,  Christ 
Blessing  Little  Children,  boy  in  red  supposed  to 
be  Luther,  151  guineas;  Botticelli,  Madonna,  and 
Child  in  her  arms,  circle,  2 10  guineas,  and  Madonna 
adoring   Infant,   St.    John  behind,    520   guineas; 
Masaccio,  Madonna  dictating  to  St.  Bernard,  three 
angels,  460  guineas  ;  Era  Angelico,  the  Last  Judg- 
ment, 600  guineas  (both  bought  in) ;  and  Duccio 
di    Buoninsegna,    the    Crucifixion,    265    guineas 
(Davenport  Bromley). 




R.  RALPH  BERNAL'S  sale,  in 
1855,  marks  an  epoch  in  the  history 
of  such  events.  The  collection  com- 
prised 4,294  lots,  it  occupied  32  days 
in  selling,  and  realized  the  grand  total 
of  ,£62,690  i8j.  whilst  the  prints,  books,  and  fur- 
niture brought  it  up  to  ,£70,954  45-.  In  a  note  pre- 
fixed to  the  sale  catalogue  of  Messrs.  Christie  and 
Manson,  J.  R.  Planche  wrote:  "  Distinguished 
amongst  English  antiquaries  by  the  perfection  of 
his  taste,  as  well  as  the  extent  of  his  knowledge,  the 
difficulty  of  imposing  upon  him  was  increased  by 
the  necessity  of  the  fabrication  being  fine  enough  in 
form,  colour  or  workmanship,  to  rival  the  master- 
piece it  simulated  :  to  be,  in  fact,  itself  a  gem  of  art 
which  it  would  not  pay  to  produce  as  a  relic  of 


antiquity.  Mr.  Bernal  could  be  tempted  by  nothing 
that  was  inferior.  Even  his  pictures,  though 
avowedly  not  selected  for  their  value  as  paintings, 
but  for  their  illustration  of  costume,  have  probably, 
taken  as  a  whole,  more  merit  in  them  than  any 
similar  collection  in  Europe." 

Ralph  Bernal,  who  was  of  Hebrew  descent, 
was  born  about  1783,  and  was  educated  at  Christ's 
College,  Cambridge,  where  he  graduated  B.A., 
1806,  and  M.A.,  in  1809;  he  was  called  to  the 
Bar  at  Lincoln's  Inn,  February  5th,  1810.  Not 
being  a  Jew  by  religion  he  was  eligible  for  Parlia- 
ment, which  he  entered  as  member  for  Lincoln  in 
1818,  and,  in  1820,  for  Rochester,  which  he  repre- 
sented in  nine  Parliaments;  in  1841  he  stood  for 
Weymouth,  and  was  seated  on  petition  :  at  the 
dissolution  of  1852  he  retired  from  Parliament. 
In  1830  Mr.  Bernal  was  appointed  Chairman  of 
Committees  of  the  House  of  Commons,  at  a  salary 
of  ^2,000  a  year,  and  this  office  he  filled  for  twenty 
years.  He  died  on  August  26th,  1854.  "  He 
lived,"  writes  Mr.  Humphry  Ward,  "at  a  time 
when  no  one  either  knew  or  cared  about  the  choice 
things  which  nowadays  ten  thousand  collectors  seek 
for  with  frenzy.  No  one  of  his  contemporaries 
in  England — though  Sauvagest  and  others  were 
equally  fine  judges  in  France — knew  so  much 
as  he  about  old  armour  or  mediaeval  goldsmiths' 
work,  or  the  steel  inlaying  of  the  Milanese,  or  the 
makers  and  the  decorators  of  the  pate  tendre  of 
Sevres,  or  about  majolica,  or  those  infinitely  delicate 
kinds  of  Chinese  porcelain  for  which  English 



and  American  connoisseurs  are  prepared  to  pay 
any  price.  What  times  those  were  for  the  collec- 
tor! one  is  tempted  to  say  as  one  looks  through 
the  priced  Bernal  catalogue  with  its  pretty  engrav- 
ings by  Mason  after  Fitzcook's  drawings.  The 

(Bernal  Sale.     See  p.  172.) 

things  sold  for  what  we  should  consider  literally 
nothing,  though  in  almost  every  case  they  marked 
a  considerable  advance  on  the  price  Mr.  Bernal 
paid.  As  you  walk  through  the  South  Ken- 
sington Museum,  you  can  discover  numbers  of 
specimens  of  Limoges  enamel,  or  of  the  "  ruby- 
backed"  oriental  plates,  or  of  a  score  of  other 


curiosities  with  labels  marking  the  prices  at 
which  they  were  obtained  in  the  Bernal  sale:  £$ 
for  the  plates,  ^50  or  £60  for  the  pieces  of 
Limoges,  and  so  forth — in  every  instance  about 
one-tenth  or  one-twentieth  part  of  what  would  be 
paid  now,  so  tremendous  has  been  the  effect  of 
the  spread  of  education,  the  diffusion  of  wealth 
and  the  desire  to  possess  at  least  some  of  the 

choice  works  of  the  past. 
What  was  remarkable, 
however,  in  the  Bernal 
collection,  was  not  the 
low  prices  at  which  things 
had  been  bought  and 
were  sold,  but  the  fault- 
less taste  that  had  pre- 
sided over  their  acquisi- 
tion. Mr.  Woods,  the 
present  well-known  and 
accomplished  head  of 
Christie's  firm,  is  fond  of 
quoting  this  Bernal  sale 
as  the  supreme  instance 
of  a  perfect  collection ; 
there  was  nothing,  out  of  all  the  4,294  objects  that 
was  not  good,  genuine,  and,  it  may  almost  be  said, 
in  intact  condition." 1 

The  sale  began  on  Monday,  March  5th,  1855, 
and  concluded  on  April  3Oth.  As  a  cheap  edition, 
with  illustrations,  of  the  catalogue  is  published 

(Bernal  Sale.     See  p.  171.) 

Scri&ner's,  December,  1890. 



in  Bohn's  Illustrated  Library,  anything  like  an 
exhaustive  analysis  of  the  sale  is  unnecessary, 
and  we  must  content  ourselves  with  enumerating 
a  few  of  the  more  interesting  or  important  items. 
Dresden  porcelain  :  a  pair  of  small  sceaux  scalloped, 
each  with  eight  small  subjects  of  figures,  ^40— 
these  beautiful  speci- 
mens were  purchased 
by  Mr.  Bernal  for 
^•5;  an  egg-shaped 
scalloped  vase,  with 
two  subjects  after 
Watteau,  flowers  on 
gold  ground,  40 
guineas  ;  a  clock  in 
the  form  of  a  temple, 
with  pilasters  at  the 
angles,  and  dome  top, 
surmounted  by  two 
female  figures,  dated 
1727,  18  in.  high, 
£120  (Sir  A.  de 
Rothschild),  see  illus- 
tration p.  1 70  ;  a  pair 
of  superb  candelabra, 
each  formed  of  a 
female  draped  figure  bearing  several  branches  for 
five  lights,  24  in.  high,  2  2oguineas  ( Marquis  of  Bath), 
see  illustration  above ;  a  pair  of  two-handled  vases 
and  ewers,  painted  with  Chinese  figures,  and 
colours,  ^54  (Baron  M.  Rothschild).  Old  Chelsea  : 
a  pair  of  beautiful  globular  scalloped  vases  and 

(Bernal  Sale.) 



covers,  deep  blue,  painted  with  exotic  limes,  105 
guineas  (S.  Addington) ;  and  an  ecuelle,  and 
cover  and  stand,  with  pink  scalloped  edges,  26 
guineas  (F.  Baring).  Gres  de  Flandres  :  a  blue 
and  white  pilgrim-shaped  bottle,  with  perforated 
ridges  at  the  sides,  inscriptions  relating  to  the 
shield  and  arms  of  the  Prince  of  Orange,  and 
medallion  of  a  helmeted  head,  date  1590,  £18 

(British  Museum),  see 
illustration,  p.  169. 

Faenza  and  Raf- 
faelle  ware :  a  salt- 
cellar of  Raffaelle 
ware,  of  triangular 
form,  painted  with 
rich  ornaments  of 
cupids  and  negroes' 
heads,  date  1532, 
2|-  in.  high  by  6  in. 
l°ng»  ;£6i  (British 
Museum) :  a  tazza- 
shaped  dish,  deep 
blue,  with  ten  cupids, 
supporting  banners, 
date  1520,  loin,  diameter,  £6\  (A.  Fountain);  a 
flat-shaped  pilgrim's  bottle,  with  cover,  snake 
handle,  embellished  with  arabesque  ornaments, 
camei,  and  subjects  of  Hercules  and  the  Centaur, 
date  about  1540,  12^  in.  high,  n  in.  wide, 
40  guineas  (Baron  A.  de  Rothschild), — see  illus- 
tration above  ;  and  a  plate  of  the  most  rare  and 
interesting  character,  in  very  strong  colours  :  the 


(Bernal  Sale.) 


subject  believed  to  be  Raffaelle  himself  and  the 
Fornarina  seated  in  the  studio  of  an  artist,  who 
is  occupied  in  painting  a  plate ;  9^  in.  diameter, 
^120  ( Marlboro  ugh  House),  see  illustration,  p.  141 
—this  lot  realized  at  the  Stowe  sale,  August  i  ;th, 
1848,  only  ^4,  and  it  was  afterwards  sold  to 
Mr.  Bernal  for  ,£5.  Palissy  ware  :  a  circular  dish, 
on  a  foot,  a  lizard  in  the  centre  and  with  very  rich 
border,  \2\  in.  diameter,  ^"162  (Baron  G.  de 
Rothschild), — a  true  specimen  of  the  extremely 
rare  Palissy  ware,  purchased  in  a  broken  state  in 
Paris  for  12  francs,  and  after  being  admirably 
restored,  sold  to  Mr.  Bernal  for  ^"4. 

Sevres  :  an  ecuelle,  cover  and  stand,  gros-bleu, 
painted  with  six  subjects  of  cupids  by  Chabry,  1771, 
^"125  (Marlborough  House);  an  elegant  vase,  with 
handles  of  goats'  heads,  gros-bleu,  with  frieze  and 
gold,  with  an  exquisite  medallion  of  Fame  recording 
the  events  of  Time,  14  in.  high,  121  guineas 
(S.  Addington), — this  article  cost  Mr.  Bernal  17 
guineas ;  a  gros-bleu  vase  and  cover  of  beautiful 
form,  with  two  handles,  and  festoons  and  leaves 
falling  from  the  centre  of  the  neck  to  the  bottom  of 
the  handles,  painted  with  Venus,  Adonis,  and  Cupid 
in  front,  and  bouquet  of  flowers  on  reverse,  i6|-in. 
high,  213  guineas  (S.  Rucker) ;  a  magnificent 
cabaret,  of  the  finest  gros-bleu,  with  wreaths  of 
gold,  consisting  of  plateau,  teapot,  sucrier  and 
cover,  milkpot,  and  two  cups  and  saucers,  painted 
by  Leguay,  1775-6,^465  (Marquis  of  Bath),— 
said  to  have  cost  Mr.  Bernal  65  guineas ;  a  pair 
of  fine  vases  and  covers,  green  ground  pencilled 



(Bernal  Sale.) 

(Bernal  Sale.) 


with  gold,  each  with  two  bou- 
quets with  flowers  in  medal- 
lions by  Dodet,  17  in.,  305 
guineas  (C.  Mills)  ;  a  pair  of 
oval  jardinieres,  a  very  fine 
bleu  de  Vincennes  ground, 
with  children  after  Boucher, 
1 754,  ^100  (Lord  Falmouth) ; 
a  pair  of  vases  rose  du  Barri, 
each  painted  with  two  groups 
of  cupids  in  medallions,  the 
curved  leaf-shaped  lips  form- 
ing handles,  14.^  in.,  ,£1,942 
i  os.  (Hertford) — see  adjoin- 
ing illustration ;  this  magni- 
ficent pair  of  vases  were 
formerly  in  the  possession  of 
Henry  Baring,  who  sold  them 
to  Mr.  Bernal  for  about  ,£200  ; 
a  pair  of  vases,  of  very  elegant 
form,  turquoise,  with  oval 
medallions  of  a  shepherdess, 
and  a  girl  bathing  her  feet, 
by  Dodet  and  Drand,  18  in. 
,£1,417  i os.  (the  same) ;  a  noble 
oviform  vase  and  cover,  green 
with  gilt  busts  forming  the 
handles,  exquisite  painting  of 
a  peasant  family,  in  the  manner 
of  Greuze,  18  in.  high,  ,£388 
los.  (the  same),  see  adjoin- 
ing illustration  ;  a  pair  of  tall 

OLD    SfcVRES. 


vases,  and  covers,  of  rare  form,  gros  bleu,  deli- 
cately pencilled  with  gold  stripes,  with  medallion  of 
a  sacrifice  to  Venus  and  Bacchus,  14  in.  high,  ,£700 
(S.  H.  Sutherland) ;  a  centre  vase  and  cover,  gros- 
bleu  with  upright  handles,  the  centre  with  an 
exquisite  painting  of  a  peasant  and  two  girls 
gathering  cherries,  donkey 
with  panniers  at  their  side, 
1 8  in.  high,  ,£871  los. 
(Marquis  of  Hertford);  a 
pair  of  vases  and  covers  of 
equally  high  quality,  gros- 
bleu,  on  the  necks  are  two 
exquisite  paintings  by  Gre- 
mont  of  a  nymph  at  the 
bath,  15^  in.  high,  ,£900 
(Sir  A.  de  Rothschild)- 
see  adjoining  illustration ; 
and  a  pair  of  oviform  vases 
and  covers  of  equally  high 
quality,  gros-bleu,  with  flat 
handles,  the  front  nearly 
covered  with  an  exquisite 
painting  of  Bacchus  seated, 
with  a  nymph  presenting  a 
wreath  to  Cupid  in  landscapes,  13  in.  high,  ,£590 
(Marquis  of  Bath). 

The  antique  jewellery,  rings,  crosses,  brooches, 
and  ornaments  included  an  ancient  Gaelic  brooch, 
of  silver,  of  circular  form,  scalloped  and  surrounded 
by  small  upright  obelisks,  each  set  with  a  pearl  at 
top;  in  the  centre  is  a  round  crystalline  ball,  con- 


(Bernal  Sale.) 


sidered  a  magical  gem,  4f  in.  diameter  (see  illustra- 
tion, p.  53),  £71  (British  Museum).    This  Scottish 
brooch  is  traditionally  said  to  have  been  made  by 
a  tinker  on  the  estate  of  Lochbury  in  Mull,  from  a 
silver  one  found  there  in  or  about  the  year  1 500, 
and  it  was  successively  the  property  of  Dr.  Lort, 
at  the  sale  of  whose  effects,  July  I5th,  1791,  it  was 
purchased   by   Samuel    Tysson ;    from    them,    at 
Tysson's  sale,  May  i8th,  1802,  it  was  purchased 
by  Mr.  Bindley,  and  at  his  sale  by  Mr.  Thomas, 
and  again  at  Thomas's  sale  by  Mr.   Bernal,  for 
10  guineas.     The   armour   and   arms  comprised 
complete    suits,    cross-bows,    daggers,    gauntlets, 
guns,  pistols,  halberds,  helmets,  swords,  shields, 
bucklers,    and    so   forth.     The    Byzantine    metal 
work,  included   King  Lothaire's  magic  crystal,  a 
highly  interesting  relic,  engraved  with  the  whole 
history  of  Susannah,  in  copper  gilt,  gothic  frames 
set  with  imitations  of  precious  stones,  the  crystal 
4|-   in.    diameter,  ^267    (British    Museum) — this 
object  was  purchased  in  the  Low  Countries  for  12 
francs,  and  sold  to  Mr.  Bernal  for  £10.    The  more 
interesting  examples  of  mediaeval  metal  work  in- 
cluded   Sir   Thomas    More's   brass   candlesticks, 
or   rather  flower  vases,  with   flowers   and  leaves 
enamelled  in  blue  and  white  (see  illustration,  p.  1 38), 
221  guineas  (Duke  of  Hamilton);  the  celebrated 
copper  formed  Reliquaire  of  the  kings,  copper  gilt 
enamelled  with  blue  and  turquoise,  presented  by 
Pope  Eugenius  IV.   to   Philip  le  Bon    Duke  of 
Burgundy,  containing  at  the  time  the  relics  found 
in  the  Chatreux  at  Dijon  in   1430,  £66  (British 



Museum) ;  and  the  St.  Thomas  a  Becket  Reliquaire, 

a  small  copper  of  copper  gilt,  richly  enamelled  with 

blue ;  on  the  front  is  represented  the  martyrdom  of  the 

saint,  4f  inches  long,  nearly  2^  inches  wide  and  6£ 

inches  high  (see  illustration  below),  ^28  17^.  6d. 

(Col.  Sibthorp,  M.P.) — this   is  said  to  have  cost 

^12.     Of  the  large  number  of  Limoges  enamel  we 

can  only  mention  an  elegant  ewer,   with  a  fine 

subject  of  an  equestrian  combat  around  the  body, 

and  with   busts  in 

medallions  of  Henri 

II.  or  Francis  I.,  10 

inches  by  4  inches, 

130     guineas     (S. 

Addington);  and  a 

beautiful  casket  in 

original    silver  gilt 

chased     mounting, 

highly  embellished 

with   gems,  camei, 

etc.,  and  composed 

of  five    plaques   of    ST.  THOMAS  A  BECKETT  RELIQUAIRE. 

enamels   in   panels  (Bernai  Sale.) 

representing  the   sibyls   in  black  and  white,   4^ 

inches  long  by  5^  inches  wide   (see  illustration, 

p.  178),  240  guineas  (Mr.  T.  Smith,  M.P.). 

Finally,  the  pictures  included  :  Largilliere,  Pre- 
tender, in  red  dress  wearing  the  Order  of  the 
Garter,  and  his  sister  in  white  satin  at  his  side, 
26x21,  in  guineas  (Farrer) ;  Mignard,  Madame 
de  Maintenon,  in  a  yellow  damask  dress  and  blue 
robe  lined  with  ermine,  52  x  40,  80  guineas  (Duke 

I.  N 


of  Hamilton) ;  and  Princess  Henrietta,  Duchess  of 
Orleans,  in  a  blue  and  white  dress,  ornamented  with 
fleurs-de-lys,  40  x  33,  78  guineas  (Vardon),  "  this 
beautiful  portrait  is  one  of  the  last  works  of  the 
master;"  Drouais  (not  Greuze  as  catalogued), 
Madame  de  Pompadour  in  a  white  flowered  dress, 
with  a  muff,  oval,  185  guineas  (S.  Lyne  Stephens)  ; 

(Bernal  Sale.     See  p.  177.) 

Mytens,  Charles  I.,  in  a  pink  silk  dress  with  slashed 
sleeves,  with  lace  collar,  and  the  ribbon  and  badge  of 
the  Garter,  46  x  36, 80  guineas  (Duke  of  Hamilton) ; 
Sir  Peter  Lely,  Nell  Gwynne,  in  a  white  dress  and 
blue  mantle,  seated  on  a  bank  in  a  landscape, 
49x40,  62  guineas  (J.  Neeld,  M.P.)  ;  Cuyp, 
William  II.,  Prince  of  Orange,  in  a  white  dress, 
edged  with  gold,  on  a  brown  horse,  19  x  13,  100 
guineas  (Marquis  of  Londonderry)  ;  Primaticcio, 


the  Cardinal  of  Chantillon,  in  a  crimson  damask 
dress  and  cloak,  with  a  broad  front  of  ermine,  a 
small  red  cap  on   his  head,  half-length,    36  x  28, 
dated     1531     (H.R.H.     the     Due     d'Aumale); 
S.   Coello,    Anna    Maria   of    Austria,    Queen   of 
Philip   II.   of  Spain,   in    white   silk  dress,   orna- 
mented with  broad  gold  bands  of  arabesque  pat- 
tern, "  a  noble  chef-dceuvre  of  the  great  Spanish 
portrait  painter,"  signed,  205  guineas  (Sir  H.  H. 
Campbell)  ;  W.  Mieris,  Portrait  of  the  artist,  in  a 
yellow  silk  dress  and  crimson  velvet  cloak,  fastened 
by  a  jewel,    oval,    34  inches    high,    62  guineas  ; 
Palomino,  Isabella  de  Valois,  wife  of  Philip  II.,  in 
a  black  dress,  with  pink  sleeves,  with  necklace  of 
pearls  and  jewels,  75  x  43,  1 10 guineas  (C.  Mills)  ; 
Janet,  Elizabeth  of  Austria  (not  Isabel),  Queen  of 
Charles  IX.  of  France,  in  white  dress,  beautifully 
ornamented    with    jewels,    three-quarter    length, 
14  x  10,   147  guineas  (Due  d'Aumale);  Janet,  or 
more  probably   Bernard   Van  Orley,   Eleanor  of 
Portugal,  Queen  of  Francis   I.,  in  a  black  dress 
with      slashed      sleeves,     three-quarter      length, 
I5^x  12,  212  guineas  (the  same);   Holbein,  Anne 
of  Cleves,  in  a  black  dress  ornamented  with  broad 
stripes  of  gold    damask,  gold  chain  around   her 
neck,  a  flat  gold  cap  on  her  head,  half-length  (see 
illustration),  15^  inches  x  14  inches,  "an  exquisite 
portrait  on  vellum,"  175  guineas  (Morant);  Hol- 
bein, Lady  Johanna  Abergavenny,  in  a  crimson 
dress  with  yellow  sleeves,  a  gold  head  dress  em- 
broidered  with    initials,    A.    i.,    half-length,    from 
Strawberry  Hill,  16x12,  52  guineas  (R.  Neville)  ; 


and  the  Portrait  of  Nicholas,  Lord  Vaux,  the  poet 
and  musician,  in  a  black  dress  and  cap,  seated  at 
a  table,  an  open  book  before  him,  he  holds  a  viol 
de  gambe  in  his  left  hand,  green  drapery  behind, 
j  ^1.  x  i  jf  «  a  most  beautiful  portrait  of  the  highest 
interest,"  100  guineas  (Morant)  ;  and  a  Portrait 
by  an  unknown  artist  of  Edward  IV.,  in  a  gold 
dress  and  crimson  cloak  edged  with  fur,  150 
guineas  (Duke  of  Newcastle). 

The  echoes  of  the  great  Bernal  Sale  had 
scarcely  died  away  ere  the  death  of  Samuel 
Rogers,  the  Banker  Poet,  on  December  i8th, 
1855,  was  followed  almost  immediately  by  the 
announcement  of  the  sale  of  his  numerous  art 
treasures.  Rogers  was  born  in  1763,  and  was  a 
man  of  wealth,  as  well  as  one  of  fine  critical  taste. 
For  about  three-quarters  of  a  century  he  knew 
every  person  worth  knowing  in  the  political, 
literary  and  artistic  world,  and  his  breakfasts  at 
22,  St.  James's  Place  were  as  famous,  in  their 
way,  as  the  celebrated  receptions  at  Holland 
House.  He  was  a  constant  attendant  at  art  sales 
from  the  early  part  of  the  century,  but  his  pur- 
chases were  never  showy — he  depended  upon  his 
own  judgment,  and  was  not  led  away  by  outside 
enthusiasm,  or  public  excitement.  Nearly  every 
picture  in  his  collection  realized  two  or  three  times 
more  than  he  originally  paid  ;  and  the  eighteen 
days'  sale,  from  April  28th,  1856,  realized  a  total  of 
,£42,367 — the  233  pictures  alone  brought  ^30, 1 80. 
Innumerable  friends  and  associates  of  Rogers  have 
left  permanent  records  of  their  impressions  of  his 

ROGERS    AT    ST.    JAMES'S    PLACE.  l8l 

famous  house.  Byron,  who  quarrelled  with 
Rogers,  as  he  quarrelled  with  nearly  everybody 
else,  except  Shelley,  wrote  in  his  diary:  "  If  you 
enter  his  house — his  drawing-room — his  library— 
you,  of  yourself,  say,  this  is  not  the  dwelling  of  a 
common  mind.  There  is  not  a  gem,  a  coin,  a 
book,  thrown  aside  on  his  chimney-piece,  his  sofa, 
his  table,  that  does  not  bespeak  an  almost  fas- 
tidious elegance  in  the  possessor."  Macaulay, 
writing  in  June,  1831,  says,  "I  breakfasted  with 
Rogers  yesterday.  What  a  delightful  house  it  is  ! 
The  furniture  has  been  selected  with  a  delicacy  of 
taste  quite  unique.  In  the  drawing-room  the 
chimney-pieces  are  carved  by  Flaxman  into  most 
beautiful  Grecian  forms.  The  bookcase  is  painted 
by  Stothard  in  his  very  best  manner  with  groups 
from  Chaucer,  Shakespeare,  and  Boccaccio.  In 
the  dining-room  are  some  beautiful  paintings,  a 
cast  of  Pope  taken  after  his  death  by  Roubiliac, 
and  a  mahogany  table,  in  which  stands  an  antique 
vase.  Chantrey  asked  Rogers  who  made  the 
table.  '  A  common  carpenter/  said  Rogers. 
1  Yes/  said  Chantrey,  '  I  was  the  carpenter.' ' 

A  description  in  the  Athen&um  of  December 
29th,  1855,  gives  such  a  vivid  picture  of  the  con- 
tents of  the  house  as  they  were  arranged  by  the 
owner,  that  we  must  be  excused  for  quoting  it  at 
length,  and  to  avoid  the  necessity  of  going  over 
the  same  ground  twice,  we  give  the  prices  which 
the  articles  alluded  to  realized  in  brackets  :— 
1  The  poet's  house  consists  merely  of  a  front  and 
back  room  on  each  floor,  separated  by  the  stair- 

1 82  ROGERS    AT    ST.    JAMES'S    PLACE. 

case,  and  is  a  narrow  strip  extending  from  St. 
James's  Palace  to  the  Green  Park,  where  its  con- 
tracted frontage  is  distinguished  by  a  triple  bow 
window  and  carved  gilt  balcony.  The  street 
entrance  conducts  by  a  long  narrow  passage  by 
the  side  of  the  staircase  direct  to  the  dining-room 
door.  On  entering  this  apartment,  the  large 
window,  shaded  by  evergreens,  at  once  removes 
the  confined  feeling  connected  with  a  town  house. 
In  front  of  the  window  rises,  dark  and  monumental, 
a  handsome  mahogany  pedestal,  surmounted  by  a 
beautiful  vase  ;  the  latter  is  antique,  the  former 
the  work  of  Chantrey  when  a  journeyman.  Viewed 
from  the  window,  the  pedestal  has  a  stone-like  ap- 
pearance. To  the  right  of  the  door  on  entering  is 
a  sideboard  supporting  ancient  painted  Greek 
vases,  and  Roubiliac's  terra-cotta  model  of  the 
head  of  Pope.  Above  the  glass  is  a  portion  of  a 
fresco  from  the  Carmine  at  Florence,  by  Giotto 
[75  guineas,  National  Gallery].  In  the  corner  to 
the  left,  and  towards  the  fireplace,  is  the  original 
terra-cotta  model  by  Michael  Angelo  for  his  well- 
known  statue  of  the  Duke  Lorenzo  dei  Medici. 
Over  the  chimney-piece  is  the  sketch  by  Velasquez 
of  the  Infant  Don  Balthazar  [1,210  guineas,  Sir 
Richard  Wallace,  purchased  in  Spain,  in  1827, 
for  Rogers].  Between  the  fireplace  and  the 
window  is  the  poet's  writing  table,  and  immedi- 
ately on  a  level  with  his  eye  are  three  small 
pictures.  The  right  hand  one,  Christ  on  the 
Mount  of  Olives  [450  guineas,  Baroness  Burdett- 
Coutts,  from  the  Orleans  Gallery],  was  painted 


when  Raphael  was  about  two-and-twenty.  It  is 
one  of  a  series  of  pictures  that  ornamented  the 
prcdella  or  step  of  the  great  altarpiece  executed 
by  Raphael  for  the  nuns  of  St.  Antonio  at 
Perugia.  The  large  picture  is  in  the  Royal 
Palace  at  Naples  :  the  other  compartments  of  the 
predella  belong  to  Mr.  Miles  of  Leigh  Court 
[sold  in  1884],  and  Mrs.  Whyte  of  Barron  Hill. 
The  remaining  subjects  over  Mr.  Rogers'  writing 
table  are  a  Virgin  and  Child,  worshipped  by  six 
saints,  by  Ludovico  Carracci,  and  a  lonely  land- 
scape, The  Mill,  by  Claude  [660  guineas,  Baroness 
Burdett-Coutts],  No.  1 1  of  the  "  Liber  Veritatis." 
On  this  side  of  the  room  is  the  magnificent  sketch 
by  Tintoretto  for  his  celebrated  picture  of  the 
Miracle  of  the  Slave  [410  guineas,  the  same].  It 
formerly  belonged  to  Pilkington.  Near,  on  the 
same  wall,  hangs  a  fine  original  study  by  Titian, 
of  Charles  V.  on  horseback.  Low  down,  next  the 
window,  is  one  of  the  most  powerfully  painted 
heads  by  Rembrandt,  being  his  own  portrait 
[310  guineas — it  cost  Rogers  ^"69  at  Lord  Carys- 
foot's  sale].  The  touches  and  texture  are  truly 
marvellous.  On  the  wall  facing  the  fireplace  is 
the  large  study  by  Paul  Veronese  for  the  cele- 
brated picture  in  the  Durazzo  Palace,  from  which  it 
differs  in  many  respects.  Mr.  Rogers  purchased 
it  from  the  Hope  Collection  in  1816  for  ^90 
[380  guineas,  Baroness  Burdett-Coutts].  This  is 
the  picture  which  he  actually  crawled  on  his  hands 
and  knees  to  obtain.  Near  it  are  a  superb  sketch 
by  Rubens  for  the  picture  of  the  Horrors  of  War 


in  the  Pitti  Palace  at  Florence  [200  guineas, 
Bentley  for  the  National  Gallery],  and  the  Head 
of  our  Saviour,  by  Guido  [cost  25  J  guineas, 
bequeathed  to  the  National  Gallery],  one  of  the 
three  destined  to  grace  our  National  Gallery. 
Many  of  the  largest  pictures  in  the  room  are  con- 
trived by  very  simple  machinery  to  advance 
from  the  wall  and  turn  in  almost  every  possible 
direction.  Immediately  from  the  dining-room 
door,  to  the  left,  the  staircase  leads  by  a  curved 
and  unbroken  flight  of  steps  to  the  first  floor, 
opening  by  a  door  upon  a  covered  gallery,  con- 
necting the  drawing-room  with  the  small  square 
apartment  in  front,  which  is  the  poet's  celebrated 
library.  The  gallery  is  lighted  by  a  glazed 
window  from  the  staircase,  the  walls  of  which  are 
relieved  by  choice  casts  from  the  marbles  of  the 
Parthenon.  Here,  scarcely  to  be  seen,  is  hung 
the  sketch  by  Titian  for  the"  famous  Gloria  at 
Madrid  [270  guineas,  Lord  H.  Vane].  Here,  in 
semi-darkness,  are  some  of  the  choicest  painted 
Greek  vases  and  Egyptian  sculptures.  Some  of 
the  rarest  objects  of  vertu  are  laid  out  on  a  table, 
including  an  especially  fine  specimen  of  a  Greek 
Rhyton.  The  library  is  lined  with  bookcases 
surmounted  by  Greek  vases,  each  one  remarkable 
for  its  exquisite  beauty  of  form.  Upon  the  gilt 
lattice-work  of  the  bookcases  are  lightly  hung  in 
frames  some  of  the  finest  original  sketches  by 
Raphael,  Michael  Angelo  and  Andrea  del  Sarto, 
and  finished  paintings  by  Angelico  da  Fiesole  and 
Fouquet  of  Tours.  Modern  works  also,  by 


Turner,  Wilkie,  and  Mulready  are  there.  The 
large  painting,  by  Reynolds,  of  Cupid  and  Psyche, 
is  over  the  fireplace  in  the  same  apartment  [400 
guineas,  Mr.  Rogers  gave  250  guineas  for  it]. 
Over  the  drawing-room  fireplace,  sculptured  by 
Flaxman,  is  the  study  of  Rubens  [1,050  guineas, 
for  the  National  Gallery],  from  Andrea  Man- 
tegna's  Triumphal  Procession  of  Julius  Caesar, 
now  at  Hampton  Court.  Beneath  this  picture  is 
a  range  of  interesting  miniatures  and  various 
relics,  including  orange  blossoms  under  glass. 
The  chief  picture  towards  the  window  is  the 
beautiful  '  Noli  me  Tangere/  by  Titian.  It  is  for- 
tunately destined  to  pass  to  the  National  Gallery 
[to  which  Mr.  Rogers  bequeathed  it].  Over  the 
sofa  hang  pictures  by  Watteau,  Le  Nain,  and  Jan 
Van  Eyck,  the  latter  a  most  exquisitely  painted 
figure  of  Madonna  and  Child,  surmounted  by  the 
richest  ornamental  architecture.  Facing  the 
window  is  a  bold  allegorical  picture  by  Rem- 
brandt, and  a  mellow  Moonlight  scene  by  Rubens 
[310  guineas,  Lord  Ward,  from  Sir  Joshua  Rey- 
nolds's  Sale].  Opposite  the  chimney-piece,  a 
cabinet  of  light  wood  is  panelled  with  pictures  by 
Stothard.  The  subjects  are  the  characters  of 
Shakespeare,  the  Canterbury  Pilgrims,  the  char- 
acters of  the  Decameron,  and  the  Sans  Souci. 
In  the  centre  of  this  side  of  the  room  is  a  fine 
picture  of  Annibal  Carracci  of  the  Coronation  of 
the  Virgin  ;  another  repetition  of  this  subject 
hangs  to  the  right,  but  is  very  different  in  treat- 
ment. It  is  a  small  altarpiece  by  Lorenzo  di 


Credi  [380  guineas,  Lord  Overstone].  Near  this 
again  hangs  the  well-known  Madonna  and  Child, 
from  the  Orleans  Gallery,  attributed  to  Raphael, 
but  certainly  differing  in  feeling,  form,  and  tone  of 
colour  from  others  of  his  well-known  works  at  that 
period  [480  guineas,  Mackintosh,  cost  Mr.  Rogers 
£66  in  1816].  An  extraordinary  riposo  by  Cor- 
reggio,  remarkable  for  powers  of  handling  and 
incorrect  drawing,  is  possibly  one  of  his  early 
genuine  works  [240  guineas,  cost  Rogers  51 
guineas].  The  famous  Puck,  by  Sir  Joshua 
Reynolds,  graces  this  room,  and  the  collection 
possesses,  altogether,  seven  excellent  specimens 
of  this  English  master." 

So  far  the  Atkenmim.  There  were  nine  ex- 
amples of  Reynolds  in  the  collection.  Of  these 
the  highest  price  was  paid  for  the  celebrated 
Strawberry  Girl,  2,100  guineas,  purchased  for  the 
Marquis  of  Hertford,  and  now  in  Sir  Richard 
Wallace's  collection  at  Manchester  House ;  the 
next  in  importance  was  Puck  and  'Titania,  with 
Bottom  in  the  background,  sold  by  Reynolds  to 
Boydell  for  100  guineas,  purchased  by  Rogers  for 
210  guineas,  and  now  bought  by  the  Earl 
Fitzwilliam  for  980  guineas ;  Cupid  and  Psyche, 
Landscape  background,  400  guineas ;  A  Girl 
Sketching,  from  the  Thomond  sale,  350  guineas  ; 
View  from  Richmond  Hill,  from  the  same  collec- 
tion, 430  guineas  ;  The  Mob  Cap  in  the  "  Infant 
Academy,"  the  engraved  picture,  780  guineas 
( Windus) ;  Girl  with  a  Bird,  2  30  guineas ;  A  Woody 
Landscape,  105  guineas  ;  and  the  Sleeping  Girl, 

KlUlTINO    UI'I'I,    LA    SIMONETT  \. 

From  the  S.  K  ;    Ke\ .  1  )a\enport   Bromley,  1863 

460  gs.    :  A.  Barker,  and  Earl  Dudley.  1892    i,6oogs.). 

"This  j)ortrait  was  called  a  Vcrroi  hio  in  Mr.  S.  Ko^ers's  collection, 
till  Dr.  \\aa-en  pronounced  it  to  be  by  Antonio  I'ollajuolo.  The 
catalo-ur  of  Mr.  liromli  i  iliis,  but  that  nevertheless  'it  i.- 

generally  considered  that  the  treatment  agrees  entirely  with  that  of 
Filippino  Lippi.'  It  also  c|uoted  Ya>ari's  description  of  '  La  Simonetta  ' 
a-v  '  una  giovine  e  bella  donna  di  colla  notabilmente  lungo,'  which, 
however,  applies  to  the  well-known  portrait  in  the  Pitti  Gallery  by 
Botticelli,  which  is  always  called  'La  Bella  Simonetta'  (No.  353),  and 
is  said  to  he  the  portrait  referred  to  by  Vasari  in  his  life  of  that  painter 
as  one  of  two  profile  portraits  in  the  guardaroba  of  Duke  Cosimo  ;  one, 
he  says,  uas  Lucre/ia  Tornabuoni.  wife  of  Loren/o  Medici,  the  other 
was  'si  dichi  che  sia  1'innamorata  di  (iiuliano  cle'  Medici/'  The  I'itti 
catalogue  says  this  lady  \\-as  'chantee,'by  the  poets  Pulci  and  Poli/iano, 
and  tint  she  was  born  at  Porto-Venere,  of  a  Genoese  family,  and 
married  at  Florence  a  member  of  the  noble  house  of  the  Cattani.  But 
there  is  in  the  collection  of  which  the  Due  d'Aumale  has  recently  made 
the  magnificent  gift  to  the  French  nation  to  be  called  the  '  Musee 
Conde,'  a.  portrait  also  called  'La  Bella  Simonetta'  by  Antonio 
I'ollajuolo,  which  bears  inscribed  on  it  in  capitals,  'SIMONETTA 
JANUK.V--IS  VESPUCCIA.1  This  is  especially  noticed  in  an  article  in 
\\\t  Journal  des  Debats,  January,  1887,  by  M.  Fillet,  the  expert,  as  one  of 
the  pictures  purchased  by  the  Due  d'Aumale  of  M.  Reiset  in  1879.  The 
writer  also  says  that  some  of  these  pictures  were  from  the  collection 
of  M.  S.  Rogers,  the  poet.  It  is  remarkable  that  a  portrait  of  '  La 
Simonetta '  should  have  been  in  the  Rogers'  sale,  and  one  attributed 
to  Pollajuolo,  as  is  the  one  now  in  the  Muse'e  Conde.  The  question 
arises  whether  the  picture  in  the  Bromley  sale  above  recorded  is  not 
the  same  as  that.  If  so,  then  it  should  have  the  arms  of  the  Soderini 
family,  if  such  they  are.  on  the  background.  As  to  the  inscribed  name, 
nothing  is  said  either  in  the  catalogue  of  the  Rogers  sale,  nor  in  the 
Davenj.  iit  Bromley  sale.  Mr.  Barker's  collection  was  sold  in  1874 
and  1879  at  Christie's,  but  the  'Simonetta'  does  not  appear  in  either 
catalogue,  so  it  is  to  be  concluded  that  he  had  sold  it."—  (Redford, 
"Art  Sales,"  ii.  237.)  As  regards  Mr  Redford's  interesting  speculations, 
we  can  only  add  that  the  Dudley  picture  has  the  arms  of  the  Soderini 
family  emblaxoned  on  the  background,  and  that  there  can  be  no  ques- 
tion about  the  fact  that  this  identical  picture  was  successively  in  the 
possession  of  Rogers,  Davenport  Bromley,  and  Alexander  Barker. 
Dr.  Richter,  in  his  "Commentary"  on  Va>an  London,  1892),  em- 
phatically states  that  "the  portrait  in  the  I'itti  Palace  (No,  353,1  neither 
represents  La  bella  Simonetta.  nor  is  it  by  Botticelli."  (See  vol.  ii.. 



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150  guineas  (Bentley).  The  other  pictures  in- 
cluded three  by  C.  R.  Leslie,  the  Princes  in 
the  Tower  at  Prayer,  for  which  the  owner  paid 
the  artist  40  guineas,  now  brought  2 1 5  guineas  ; 
Sancho  and  the  Duchess  (a  replica  of  the  original 
now  in  the  National  Gallery),  for  which  Rogers 
paid  Leslie  200  guineas,  sold  for  1,120  guineas,  and 
The  First  Lesson,  320  guineas  ;  F.  Bassano,  the 
Good  Samaritan,  230  guineas  (National  Gallery — 
it  cost  Rogers  ^40);  Mazzolino  di  Ferrara,  Christ 
disputing  with  the  Doctors,  from  the  Ottley  sale  of 
1837  (115  guineas),  500 guineas  (Bentley) ;  Murillo, 
St.  Anthony  of  Padua  (wrongly  called  St.  Francis), 
and  the  Infant  Jesus,  cabinet  size,  230  guineas 
(Baroness  Burdett-Coutts),  and  St.  Joseph  and  the 
Infant  Jesus,  12  x  19^-,  from  the  Hope  sale  of 
1816  (27  guineas),  380  guineas  (the  same);  Teniers, 
the  Enchantress,  from  the  Reynolds  and  Thomond 
(115  guineas)  collections,  300  guineas  (Danby 
Seymour) ;  in  addition  to  the  two  examples  of 
Rubens  already  mentioned  there  were  a  Moonlight 
Landscape,  with  horses  grazing,  from  the 
Reynolds'  collection,  310  guineas,  a  Boar  Hunt, 
310  guineas,  both  purchased  by  Lord  Ward  ;  and 
the  Waggon,  6 10  guineas  (Bentley) ;  and  Watteau, 
a  Masquerade,  and  a  Concert,  the  companion,  a 
pair  from  Lord  Carysfoot's  collection  (at  the  sale 
of  which  they  were  purchased  for  60  guineas), 
330  guineas. 

The  dispersal  of  the  Rogers  collection  was  soon 
followed  by  that  of  Lord  Orford.  This  sale  was 
advertised  as  comprising  "  a  highly  important 


collection  removed  from  a  noble  mansion  in  the 
country,"  but  the  owner  of  the  collection  was  pretty 
generally  known  to  be  Lord  Orford.  The  seventy- 
one  pictures  sold  on  June  26th,  1856,  produced  a 
total  of  £  1 1,577.  By  far  the  most  important  work 
in  the  sale  was  the  celebrated  Rubens  known  as 
the  Rainbow  Landscape  ;  it  was  formerly  in  the 
Balbi  Palace  at  Genoa,  was  purchased  at  the 
Watson  Taylor  sale  in  1823  by  Lord  Orford,  and 
now  realized  ,£4,550.  There  were  also  four  by 
Canaletto,  Courtyard,  Venice,  160  guineas; 
Staircase,  Doge's  Palace,  bought  by  Lord  Orford 
in  181 2  at  St.  Petersburg  of  the  executors  of  Count 
Algarotti,  240  guineas  (Duke  of  Cleveland),  St. 
Mark's  Palace,  260  guineas,  and  St.  Mark's 
Church,  2 74 guineas;  Berghem,  Italian  Landscape, 
Peasant  in  red  dress,  two  Cows,  Horse,  and  Man, 
470  guineas  (Pennell) ;  Lo  Spagna,  Glorification 
of  the  Vigin,  70  x  3i|-,  with  arched  top,  from  the 
Ercolani  collection,  Bologna,  620  guineas  (National 
Gallery) ;  J.  Ruysdael,  Sea-Piece,  storm,  two  figures 
on  a  wooden  pier,  beacon,  300  guineas  ;  M. 
Grunenwald,  Altarpiece,  Virgin  standing  on  the 
moon,  130  guineas  (H.R.H.  Prince  Albert);  De 
Koning,  Landscape,  from  the  Pourtales  collection, 
390  guineas ;  Murillo,  Christ  bearing  the  Cross, 
from  the  Bishop  of  Tarento's  collection,  690 
guineas ;  Sasso  Ferrato,  Marriage  of  St.  Catherine, 
1,025  guineas  (Marquis  of  Hertford);  and  John 
Opie,  Peasant  Boy  and  Girl,  310  guineas. 

The    principal    sale    of    1857    comprised    the 
extensive   collection    of   pictures,   objects    of  art, 


armour,  and  old  decorative  furniture,  formed 
chiefly  by  Charles,  fifteenth  Earl  of  Shrewsbury, 
r.irly  in  the  present  century.  The  sale  was  held 
at  Alton  Towers,  in  the  valley  of  the  Churnet, 
Staffordshire,  and  the  entire  receipts  of  the  thirty 
days'  dispersal  of  3,981  lots,  from  July  6th, 
amounted  to  ,£42,198  i6s.  The  Times  published 
a  long  leading  article  on  the  event,  commenc- 
ing it  with  the  following  sentence  : — "  One  of  the 
noblest  families  in  the  English  peerage  is  extinct, 
its  effects  for  sale,  and  the  manor  over  which  the 
premier  Earls  of  England  have  held  right  of 
jurisdiction  since  the  days  of  Henry  II.,  is  about  to 
pass  into  the  keeping  of  strange  hands."  Redford 
observes  :  "  As  regards  pictures,  the  collection  was 
by  no  means  of  a  high  order,  although  most  of 
them  came  from  Rome,  and  were  purchased  in 
1829  by  the  Shrewsbury  family  in  one  lot  from 
Madame  Bonaparte,  the  mother  of  Napoleon. 
These  had  been  obtained  by  her  son  Lucien,  who 
had  many  fine  pictures,  the  best  of  which  were  sold 
in  London  ;  and  it  is  evident  that  Madame  Mere 
must  have  made  a  very  successful  sale  of  pictures 
which  her  son  Lucien  knew  were  inferior  to  his 
own.  The  Earl  Charles  also  bought  pictures  by 
the  advice  of  Bryan  the  picture  dealer,  and  being  a 
strict  Roman  Catholic  the  subjects  were  all  in 
accordance  with  that  feeling."  The  collection  of 
708  pictures  occupied  six  days  in  selling,  and 
produced  a  total  of  £"12,940;  the  great  majority, 
indeed,  did  not  reach  ,£50,  and  the  best  of  those 
which  reached  three  figures  were  the  following :— 


Velasquez,  Philip  IV.,  full-length,  when  about  25 
years  of  age,  123  guineas  (probably,  according  to 
Curtis,  the  picture  now  in  the  Holford  collection)  ; 
the  best  of  the  several  Murillos  was  The  Virgin  in 
purple  robe  and  blue  drapery,  holding  the  Child  in 
her  arms,  206  guineas  ;  Sasso  Ferrato,  Virgin  and 
Child  sleeping,  131  guineas;  Carlo  Dolci,  St. 
Catherine,  her  cheek  resting  in  wheel,  1 2 1  guineas  ; 
G.  Bellini,  Circumcision,  signed,  162  guineas; 
Raphael,  Virgin  kneeling  in  a  Landscape,  holding 
a  book,  2 10  guineas  ;  Perugino,  Virgin,  seated,  with 
Infant  in  her  lap  on  a  cushion  in  Landscape,  205 
guineas ;  De  Heusch,  Landscape  with  waggon 
attacked  by  banditti,  120  guineas;  J.  Wynants, 
Landscape,  river  scene  with  fallen  tree,  130 
guineas ;  and  Gonzales  Coques,  Gentleman  and 
Lady,  with  three  children  and  servant  in  a  garden, 
165  guineas. 

Lord  Northwick's  celebrated  collection  of 
pictures,  and  objects  of  art,  by  some  curious  mis- 
chance, was  not  sold  at  Christie's,  but  by  Phillips 
of  Bond  Street  on  the  premises  at  Thirlestane 
House,  Cheltenham,  July  25th,  1859,  and  is  here 
referred  to  inasmuch  as  the  collection  is  frequently 
mentioned  in  the  course  of  this  work. 

The  principal  picture  sale  of  1860  comprised 
two  small  collections,  that  of  the  Rev.  Frederic 
Leicester,  and  of  the  Hon.  Percy  Ashburnham, 
May  1 9th.  The  former  consisted  of  twenty-nine 
pictures  which  realized  the  total  of  ,£4,565,  and 
among  them  were  :  Cuyp,  The  Ferry  Boat,  a  view 
on  the  Maes,  with  ferry-boat  full  of  figures  start- 

J.   B.   GREUZE. 

l-'rom  the  collections  of  the  Hon.  H.  M.  Pierpoint  ;  G.  T.  Braiiu.  KM.|. 
1857  (240  gs.)  ;  and  Adrian  Hope,  1894.  Exhibited  at  the  British 
<  iullery,  1835  :  Smith's  ''Catalogue  Raisonne,"  vol.  viii.  No.  69.  (See 
vol.  ii.,  p.  236,  where  the  price,  2,900  gs  ,  is  inadvertently  omitted.) 

r  lap  c  in  Lui 

janditti,    i  : 

scene    with    fallen 

'KJ  .H   ,(    ant  in  a 
.IfllO    OKUOY    A   HO   TIA^TtfO'i 


;  ,-t-K^    •: 

)     .pd  .t)/  .iirv  .:    .     .  ' 

imo\ltiten}tii)KM'&\  a^oM 

Boftd    Street  on  the  pn  at   Thi 

l^eltenham,  July  .  and 

i  to  inasmuch  as  the  collection  is  fre 
u>!*eil  in  the  course  of  this  work. 
-  principal   picture  >f   1860 

Elections,  that  of  the  Re 
ami  of  the  Hon;   Percy  A 
The  former  of  twer, 

h  realized 
w-^re  ;  Cir 
wit*:  ferr\ 

THE    REV.    F.    LEICESTER  S   COLLECTION.         19 1 

ing  from  a  wooden  jetty,  22^-  x  28,  from  the  col- 
lection of  Sir  Robert  Price  (dispersed  in  1854),  810 
guineas ;  W.  Mieris,  The  Greengrocer,  at  a  stone- 
arched  window  a  young  lady,  the  wife  of  the 
artist,  in  a  brown  silk  dress,  choosing  a  melon 
from  a  basket,  1731,  15^  x  13,  from  the 
Saltmarshe  collection,  255  guineas;  Canaletto, 
Piazza,  di  San  Marco,  Venice,  looking  towards  the 
front  of  the  Church  of  the  Campanile,  from  Mr. 
Cankrien's  collection,  350  guineas  ;  Gonzales 
Coques,  Henry  III.,  Stadtholder,  in  a  green  silk 
dress,  with  portraits  of  his  Secretary,  Chancellor 
De  Witte,  his  Consort,  and  others,  380  guineas  ; 
Teniers,  his  own  Chateau,  with  portraits  of  himself 
in  a  red  cloak,  his  two  daughters  and  son,  stand- 
ing on  the  bank  of  a  river,  24  x  20,  from  Sir 
George  Warrender's  collection,  465  guineas  ;  J. 
and  A.  Both,  The  Ferry  Boat,  known  as  "  The 
Courteney  Both,"  Cavalier  and  Lady  on  horseback 
in  conversation  with  peasants  in  a  ferry  boat,  in 
which  are  two  cows,  Roman  ruins  on  the  woody 
bank,  from  the  Acraman  and  French  collections, 
360  guineas ;  Murillo,  The  Virgin  in  a  crimson 
and  blue  drapery,  pressing  the  Infant  to  her 
bosom,  from  the  Joseph  Bonaparte  collection,  220 
guineas ;  and  J.  Ruysdael,  Solitude,  a  Grand 
Landscape  with  ruined  chateau,  seen  between  the 
stems  of  a  group  of  venerable  oaks  and  backed  by 
a  wood,  305  guineas. 

The  collection  of  the  Hon.  P.  Ashburnham  con- 
sisted of  about  thirty  pictures  which  realized  a  total 
of  close  on  ,£7,600.  The  principal  pictures  were 

I Q2        THE    HON.    P.    ASHBURNHAM  S    PICTURES. 

the  following : — Teniers,  The  Enchantress  quitting 
the  infernal  regions,  formerly  the  property  of  Sir 
Joshua  Reynolds,  who  gave  Dr.  Chauncy  three  of 
his  own  productions  and  two  others  by  old  masters 
in  exchange,  230  guineas ;  J.  and  A.  Both,  a  Grand 
Italian  Landscape,  representing  a  rocky  and  highly 
picturesque  scene  upon  the  aspect  of  a  sultry  day, 
from  the  Earl  of  Shaftesbury's  collection,  300 
guineas;  Paul  Veronese,  the  Vision  of  St.  Helena, 
empress  in  robe  of  delicate  crimson  hue  reclining 
in  sleep  before  a  stone  cornice,  formerly  in  the 
collections  of  the  Duke  of  Marlborough  and  the 
Duke  of  Leeds,  270  guineas;  and  Andrea  del 
Sarto,  Carita,  a  noble  female  figure,  seated, 
surrounded  by  a  group  of  children  in  a  grand 
Landscape,  1529,  formerly  the  property  of  W.  Y. 
Ottley,  500  guineas. 

The  Scarisbrick  collection,  formed  by  Charles 
Scarisbrick  at  Scarisbrick  Hall  and  Wrightington 
Hall,  Lancashire,  constituted  the  chief  sale  of 
1 86 1 .  The  dispersal  of  this  exceedingly  extensive 
collection  commenced  on  November  7th,  1860, 
with  the  carved  oak  furniture  and  valuable  carvings, 
the  172  lots  realizing  ,£2,001  ;  on  November  26th, 
and  five  following  days,  the  sale  of  the  library 
realized  ,£3,82 1,  and  included  a  probably  unrivalled 
set  of  the  original  editions,  in  seventy-nine  volumes, 
of  the  works  of  Daniel  Defoe,  which  sold  for  ,£76. 
The  first  portion  of  the  pictures  was  sold  on  May 
nth  and  i3th,  243  lots,  bringing  ,£20,373  7s-'>  tne 
second  portion  was  sold  on  May  i7th  and  i8th, 
bringing  a  total  of  ,£5,437  1 is. ;  and  the  third  and 


final  portion  on  May  24th  and  25th,  ,£3,409;  in 
all  there  were  760  lots.  In  the  intervals  between 
the  sales  of  the  pictures,  Messrs.  Christie  sold  on 
May  1 3th  and  i4th,  the  Scarisbrick  engravings, 
,£1,149  95-.  6d\  on  May  I5th  and  i6th,  the  objects 
of  art  and  vertu,  ,£4,852  8^.;  on  May  2Oth  and 
2ist,  the  drawings  by  ancient  and  modern  masters, 
,£469  ijs.;  and  on  May  22nd,  the  armour,  arms, 
curiosities,  and  cigars,  ,£799  6^.  The  grand  total 
of  the  property  amounting  to  over  ,£42,347. 

There  were  a  few  important  pictures,  including 
Hobbema,  Landscape  with  winding  road,  cottage 
and  figures,  from  Dawson  Turner's  collection,  440 
guineas  ;  eight  good  examples  of  Berghem,  among 
them  a  Landscape,  with  two  women,  one  milking 
a  goat,  300  guineas  (Lord  Dudley);  another,  with  a 
Lady  on  a  white  horse,  farrier  shoeing  a  mule, 
490  guineas  ;  another  with  Italian  woman  nursing 
child,  one  milking  cow,  peasants,  goats,  etc.,  signed 
and  dated,  1649,  250  guineas  ;  and  another,  Peasant 
nursing  child,  man  playing  hurdy-gurdy,  goats,  etc., 
231  guineas;  P.  de  Hooghe,  Interior,  lady  in  red 
dress,  child  in  open  door,  420  guineas  ;  W.  Van 
de  Velde,  A  Calm,1  fisherman  putting  off  in  boat, 
from  the  Vernon  and  Redleaf  collections,  620 
guineas  (Marquis  of  Hertford)  ;  and  A  Fresh 
Breeze,  with  man-of-war,  232  guineas;  J.  Wynants, 
Landscape,  with  figures  at  a  ford,  cattle  crossing, 
350  guineas  (the  same)  ;  Baroccio,  "  Noli  me 
Tangere,"  engraved  by  R.  Morghen,  7  20  guineas  ; 

1  This  was  sold  at  Robinson  and  Fisher's,  June  4th,  1896,  for 
430  guineas. 

I.  O 


A.  Ostade,  View  at  cottage  door,  man  playing 
hurdy-gurdy,  little  girl  and  three  other  figures, 
from  the  Capron  collection,  470  guineas  (Lord 
Dudley) ;  Velasquez,  Portrait  of  Olivares,  in  black, 
standing,  left  hand  on  rapier,  from  Altamira  and 
Baillie  collections,  240  guineas  ;  Guido,  St.  James, 
green  and  orange  dress,  from  Louis  Philippe's 
collection,  1,250  guineas  (Graves);  the  most  im- 
portant of  nearly  a  dozen  examples  of  J.  Ruysdael 
was  a  Landscape,  stream,  lofty  hill,  and  fallen 
beech  tree,  1,250  guineas  ;  another  good  example 
of  this  master  was  a  Landscape  with  a  Chateau, 
cascade,  and  peasants  and  sheep  crossing  a  bridge, 
340  guineas ;  L.  da  Vinci,  Herodia's  Daughter, 
crimson  dress  edged  with  blue  and  pearls,  wreath 
of  leaves  on  her  head,  an  alabaster  tazza,  from 
the  Barbarini  Palace,  370  guineas  (Davenport 
Bromley) ;  Murillo,  Annunciation,  from  the  Church 
of  St.  Trinidad,  Seville,  ^222  i  of  several  works  by 
John  Martin,  we  may  mention  Joshua  commanding 
the  Sun  to  stand  still,  the  engraved  picture,  450 
guineas ;  The  Fall  of  Nineveh,  205  guineas  ;  and 
The  Deluge,  150  guineas.  The  objects  of  art 
included  the  Aldobrandini  Caesar  Tazzas  attri- 
buted to  Cellini,  ,£1,280;  and  a  pair  of  etageres 
of  Cellini  design,  19  inches  high,  from  the  Stowe 
collection,  £iJ2.  Two  drawings,  apparently  not 
included  in  either  of  these  sales,  were  sold  at 
Christie's  on  March  25th,  1872,  J.  Martin,  A 
Classical  Landscape,  33  guineas;  and  Copley 
Fielding,  Landscape,  with  cattle  on  a  road,  and 
figures  seated  under  a  group  of  trees,  410  guineas. 


A  large  number  of  "  English  pictures  of  the 
highest  class,  many  of  which  have  never  been  ex- 
hibited," the  "property  of  Mr.  L.  V.  Flatou,  who 
in  future  intends  to  confine  his  attention  to  the 
Publication  of  an  important  work  which  is  now 
being  printed  for  him,"  came  up  for  sale  on  March 
23rd,  1861.  But  a  very  large  proportion  of  these 
pictures  were  bought  in;  those  which  were  actually 
sold  included  E.  W.  Cooke,  Entrance  to  Calais 
Harbour,  from  the  Redleaf  sale,  350  guineas;  W.  E. 
Frost,  Wood  Nymphs  surprised  Bathing,  "one  of 
the  finest  of  the  artist's  productions,"  360  guineas  ; 
F.  R.  Lee,  Canterbury  Meadows,  with  group  of 
cows  painted  in  by  T.  S.  Cooper,  400  guineas ; 
and  Clarkson  Stanfield,  View  on  the  Irish  Coast, 
410 guineas;  and  Cittara  in  the  Gulf  of  Salerno- 
rough  weather,  500  guineas. 

The  great  china  sales  may  almost  be  said  to  date 
from  this  year,  June  I4th,  as  the  prices  realized  far 
exceeded  anything  which  had  hitherto  been  paid 
for  similar  articles.  The  sale  was  made  up  of  a 
number  of  properties  ;  and  the  principal  prices 
were  the  following :  Sevres :  a  pair  of  Campana- 
shaped  Vases  and  covers,  presumably  unique, 
green  ground  richly  pencilled  with  gold,  with 
flattened  handles  and  ornaments  in  slight  relief  in 
pure  white  and  gold,  painted  with  miniatures  of 
Venus  and  Cupid,  and  flowers  in  colours  on  white 
ground,  500  guineas  ;  a  pair  of  eventail  jardinieres 
on  stands,  of  the  first  quality,  green  ground  richly 
pencilled  with  gold,  painted  with  exquisite  minia- 
tures after  Teniers,  355  guineas  ;  a  jardiniere  of 


oblong  shape,  with  white  and  gold  scroll-foliage 
handles,  the  ground  apple-green,  white  and  gold, 
painted  with  subjects  after  Teniers,  106  guineas  ;  a 
beautiful  cabaret,  deep  blue,  pencilled  with  gold, 
exquisitely  painted  with  figure-subjects  after  Teniers 
in  medallions,  consisting  of  plateau,  teapot,  milk- 
pot,  sucrier  and  cup  and  saucer,  137  guineas.  An 
oviform  Vase  of  the  finest  old  Chelsea,  white  and 
gold  scroll- pattern  handles,  deep  blue  ground 
beautifully  pencilled  and  exquisitely  painted  with 
the  subject  of  Leda  and  the  Swan,  ^129;  a  pair  of 
very  fine  Vases  of  the  same,  deep  blue  ground 
beautifully  pencilled  with  Chinese  figures  in  land- 
scape, 406  guineas.  This  porcelain  sale  was 
followed  on  the  next  day  by  one  of  pictures 
which  included  those  collected  by  Sir  John  Swin- 
burne. Among  these  were  Peter  Nasmyth,  Woody 
Landscape,  with  figures  on  road,  river  beyond  and 
open  distance,  warm  effect  of  evening,  "  a  charming 
work  selected  for  Sir  John  by  Mulready,"  220 
guineas;  David  Wilkie,  The  Errand  Boy,  the 
celebrated  engraved  picture,  purchased  direct  from 
the  artist,  435  guineas  ;  Sir  A.  W.  Callcott,  South- 
ampton Water,  a  grand  gallery  picture,  executed 
for  Sir  John  Swinburne  in  1812,  1,205  guineas 
(Flatou)  ;  and  W.  Mulready,  Punch,  a  fine  com- 
position of  thirty  figures,  purchased  direct  from 
the  easel  in  1812,  955  guineas. 

Pre-Raphaelite  pictures  formed  the  great  collec- 
tion sold  during  1862.  The  premature  death  of 
T.  E.  Plint,  of  Leeds,  threw  on  the  market  a  large 
assemblage  of  works  almost  exclusively  executed 


by  the  small  band  of  men  who  were  distinguished 
as  constituting  the  Pre-Raphaelite  school — Sir 
John  (then  Mr.)  Millais,  Holman  Hunt,  Ford 
Madox  Brown,  and  Henry  Wallis.  The  sale,  which 
took  place  on  Friday  (drawings)  and  Saturday 
(pictures),  March  2nd  and  3rd,  realized  a  total  of 
,£5,269  19^.  6d.  and  .£13,121  us.  6d.  respectively. 
The  most  important  of  the  pictures  and  drawings 
are  included  in  the  following  list :  Arthur  Hughes, 
The  Knight  of  the  Sun,  38  x  5 1,  200  guineas ;  The 
King's  Orchard,  26  x  20,  ^103  ;  and  three  others 
which  realized  from  25  1042  guineas  ;  W.  Holman 
Hunt,  Claude  and  Isabella,  8x5,  the  finished 
study,  200  guineas  ;  and  a  scene  from  "  The  Two 
Gentlemen  of  Verona,"  10  x  13,  140  guineas; 
this  artist's  drawings  included  the  Plain  of  Rephaim, 
*3i  x  T9a>  I2°  guineas;  Nazareth,  ^151;  the 
Dead  Sea  from  Siloam,  63  guineas ;  Jerusalem 
during  Ramazan,  100  guineas,  and  Cairo,  sunset  in 
Gebel  Mokatum,  100  guineas  ;  J.  C.  Hook,  Arming 
Christian,  29  x  35^,  260  guineas;  J.  F.  Lewis, 
Street  in  Cairo,  14^  x  21^,  170  guineas;  J.  W. 
Luard,  "  A  Welcome  Arrival,"  the  Crimea, 
29  x  37,  200  guineas ;  Sir  John  E.  Millais, 
Wedding  Cards,  1 20  guineas ;  The  Bridesmaid, 
1 20  guineas ;  The  Proscribed  Royalist,  525  guin< ;as ; 
The  Carpenter's  Shop,  525  guineas,  and  the 
Black  Brunswicker,  780  guineas ;  six  drawings 
for  Trollope's  "  Framley  Parsonage "  realized 
from  20  to  40  guineas  each,  and  some  other 
drawings  varied  from  iij  guineas  to  31  guineas; 
J.  W.  Oakes,  The  Warren,  180  guineas;  Sir 


J.  Noel  Paton,  P.R.S.A.,  The  Dead  Lady,  170 
guineas  ;  H.  W.  Pickersgill,  Christiana  and  Com- 
panions, 1 80  guineas  ;  D.  G.  Rossetti,  Dr.  Johnson 
and  his  Lady  Disciples  at  the  Mitre,  14  x  14,  72 
guineas;  Clarkson  Stanfield,  The  Shipwreck,  250 
guineas ;  Henry  Wallis,  Gondomar  at  the  Execu- 
tion of  Sir  Walter  Raleigh,  190  guineas;  The  Re- 
turn from  Marston  Moor,  135  guineas;  Martin  in 
Chepstow  Castle,  221  guineas;  Elaine,  the  sketch, 
7  x  14,  no  guineas,  and  the  finished  picture,  475 
guineas;  W.  L.  Windus,  Burd  Helen,  353  guineas 
(bought  in). 

About  six  weeks  after  the  dispersal  of  the  re- 
markable collection  of  pictures  by  artists  of  the  Pre- 
Raphaelite  school,  a  much  more  comprehensive 
sensation  was  provided  by  Messrs.  Christie.  This 
was  the  collection  of  modern  pictures  formed  by 
Elkanan  Bicknell.  Bicknell  was  the  son  of  a 
schoolmaster  at  Ponder' s  End,  and  a  partner  with 
Mr.  Langton,  an  oil  merchant  and  refiner  of  waste 
spermaceti,  at  Newington  Butts,  from  which  a 
large  fortune  was  derived.  His  house  at  Herne 
Hill  was  a  complete  gallery  of  pictures  and  sculp- 
ture ;  in  an  obituary  notice  the  Athenceum  re- 
ferred to  his  death  as  a  great  loss  to  the  arts,  and 
claimed  him  with  Mr.  Vernon,  Mr.  Wells,  and  Mr. 
Sheepshanks,  as  the  four  principal  collectors  of 
modern  art — "men  who,  unimpelled  by  the  motive 
of  investment  for  profit,  collected  for  the  pleasure 
and  instruction  they  derived  from  contemplation 
and  love  for  the  art  exhibited  in  the  painter's  works." 
Mr.  Bicknell  was  born  December  2ist,  1788,  in 


Blackman  Street,  London,  his  father  at  that  time 
beinga serge  manufacture  there.  In  1808,  Elkanan 
was  sent  to  Cause,  near  Shrewsbury,  to  learn  farm- 
ing, but  at  the  end  of  a  year  he  abandoned  the 
project  and  returned  to  London.  He  commenced 
to  form  his  celebrated  gallery  in  1838.  His  second 
wife  was  a  sister  of  Hablot  K.  Browne,  "  Phiz  "  ; 
and  one  of  his  sons  married  a  daughter  of  David 
Roberts,  R.A.  Mr.  Bicknell  died  on  November 
2;th,  1 86 1.  About  one-third  of  his  collection  is 
said  to  have  been  purchased  by  the  Marquis  of 
Hertford  at  the  sale.  The  Star  of  that  period 
(not  to  be  confounded  with  the  Star  of  to-day), 
contained  in  its  issue  of  April  28th,  a  very  interest- 
ing article  on  the  sale,  and  as  that  article  may  be 
taken  as  recording  an  epoch  in  the  History  of 
English  Art,  we  need  not  apologize  for  quoting  it 
at  length.  It  runs  as  follows  : 

"  There  took  place  last  Saturday  an  event  in 
London,  such,  as  we  venture  to  think,  could  scarcely, 
in  the  same  time  and  under  the  same  conditions, 
have  happened  in  any  other  city  in  the  world.  It 
was  not  a  great  national  event — a  royal  reception, 
or  a  popular  demonstration.  It  was  not  any- 
thing attacking  or  symbolizing  institutions  or 
sentiments  peculiarly  British.  It  had  nothing 
to  do  with  our  glorious  constitution,  our  Lords, 
our  Commons,  our  free  press,  our  meteor  flag, 
our  climate,  our  racecourse,  or  our  bitter  beer. 
It  was  just  something  which  might  have  happened 
anywhere  else,  and  yet  which  we  venture  to  affirm 
could  not  be  paralleled  out  of  London.  It  was 


merely  a  sale  of  pictures.    The  collection  of  paint- 
ing thus  sold   had  been   gathered  together  by  a 
private  Englishman,  a  man  of  comparatively  ob- 
scure position,  a  man  engaged  at  one  time  in  mere 
trade ;  a  man  not  even  pretending  to  resemble  a 
Genoese  or  Florentine  merchant  prince,  but  simply 
and  absolutely  a  Londoner  of  the  middle  class, 
actively  occupied  in  business.     This  Englishman, 
now   no    more,   had   brought   together  a  picture 
gallery  which  would  have  done  no  discredit  to  a 
Lorenzo  the  Magnificent,    although  his  name  is 
probably  still  hardly  known  to  the  general  public  of 
the  very  city  in  which  he  lived.     He  had  been  the 
patron  of  some  of  the  greatest  of  modern  artists,  and 
had  formed  a  collection  which  would  have  brought 
tourists  from  all  parts  of  the  world  to  the  dingiest 
and  most  decaying  of  Italian  towns.     Offered  for 
sale  in  an  auction  room  on  Saturday,  to  that  select 
section  of  the  London  public,  who  both  care  about 
and  can  pay  for  pictures,  and  who  found  it  con- 
venient to  be  at  the  time  in  Messrs.  Christie  and 
Manson's  establishment,  the  collection  realized  a 
sum  of  money  only  wanting  a  few  hundreds  of  sixty 
thousand  pounds.     The  artists  whose  works  were 
thus  purchased,  were  for  the  most  part,  too,  our 
own.     It  was  no  mere  competition  of  fashionable 
pretenders,  feeling  themselves  secure  to  praise  and 
purchase  so  long  as  your   '  Raphaels,  Correggios 
and  stuff'  were  in  question.     English  money  was 
spent  upon  English  art. 

"  But;  as  a  whole,  the  collection  was  a  magnificent 
display  of  English   art.     Painted  (with  very  little 


exception)  by  English  artists,  gathered  together  by 
an  English  collector,  it  appears  from  the  names 
which  we  have  seen  to  have  been  purchased  almost 
altogether  by  Englishmen.  We  were  slow  to  obtain 
a  name  as  a  nation  possessing  artists.  Long  after 
the  world  had  consented  to  acknowledge  that 
Britons  could  write  poems  and  construct  dramas, 
foreign  nations  were  entirely  incredulous  as  to  our 
capacity  to  paint  pictures.  Boileau  professed  to 
have  never  heard  of  Dryden  ;  but  it  is  only  in  our 
own  time  that  Boileau's  countrymen  are  beginning 
to  hear  and  to  care  anything  about  Gainsborough 
and  Turner.  Nor  was  the  reputation  which  we 
enjoyed  as  collectors,  which  is  of  a  good  deal  older 
date,  very  honourable  in  its  character.  The  rich 
Englishman  was  supposed  to  go  about  the  world 
staring  with  lack-lustre,  unappreciating  eyes,  at 
the  wonderful  productions  of  Italian  and  Spanish 
pencils — productions  which  he  pretended  to  admire 
because  he  thought  it  genteel  to  do  so,  and  which 
he  consented  to  purchase  because  he  supposed  it 
due  to  his  social  state  to  display  expensive  paintings 
to  his  guests.  This  was  the  continental  notion  of 
an  English  art-patron. 

"  Voltaire  embodied  it,  and  fifty  others  since  his 
time  gave  it  what  new  colouring  their  natures  could. 
Many  a  Frenchman  who  came  over  to  last  year's 
Exhibition,  frankly  acknowledged  himself  amazed 
at  the  pictorial  collection  which  our  British  court 
had  to  show,  and  returned  impressed  with  the 
belief  that  John  Bull  was  a  better  judge  of  pictures 
than  his  neighbours  had  supposed.  We  have 


plenty  of  picture-fanciers  indeed,  who  purchase 
and  criticise  still  upon  just  the  same  principles  as 
the  honest  Briton  in  '  Peregrine  Pickle ; '  but  it 
would  be  impossible  to  deny  that  the  taste  for  art 
has  immensely  progressed  in  England  during  the 
past  two  or  three  generations.  Some  of  the  finest 
collections  of  pictures  to  be  found  in  Europe  are  at 
present  the  property  either  of  the  English  nation, 
or  of  individual  Englishmen.  Those  who  are  not 
disposed  to  render  us  full  credit  in  this  respect, 
might  have  been  better  able  to  appreciate  the  fact 
had  they  attended  the  sale  on  Saturday,  and  ob- 
served the  artistic  wealth  accumulated  in  one 
English  collection,  which  did  not  claim  to  be  among 
the  foremost." 

The  sale  took  place  on  April  25th,  1863,  the  145 
lots  realizing  ,£58,639  i2s.,  and  included  the  follow- 
ing pictures :  Sir  A.  W.  Callcott,  View  near  South- 
ampton, i oo  guineas;  and  an  "English  Landscape 
with  cattle  introduced,  by  Sir  E.  Landseer,  72  x  54, 
2>95°  guineas  (Fletcher) ;  G.  Chambers,  Sheerness, 
1 10  guineas,  and  Boats  and  Shipping,  295  guineas ; 
W.  Collins,  Selling  Fish,  the  etched  picture, 
33^-  x  46j(costBicknell  32oguineas),  1,130 guineas, 
and  Early  Morning  on  the  Sussex  Coast,  34^  x  47^, 
960  guineas;  T.  S.  Cooper,  Interior,  cow  and 
sheep,  22  x  30^,  250  guineas;  T.  Creswick,  land- 
scape known  as  "  The  Stepping  Stones,"  28  x  35, 
250  guineas;  W.  Dyce,  King  Joash  with  Elisha, 
an  Art- Union  Prize  of  ^140,  220  guineas;  W. 
Etty,  Venus  and  Cupid,  98  guineas  (H.  Bicknell) ; 
Copley  Fielding,  Dunstaffnage  Castle,  lox  13,  102 

THE    BICKNELL    SALE.  203 

guineas;  W.  E.  Frost,  Naiad,   in  guineas,  and 
Musidora,  105  guineas,  both  small  ovals  about  8x6; 
The  Sirens,  iijx  15^,  280  guineas,  and  Euphro- 
syne,  36^  x  71^,  781  guineas;  T.  Gainsborough, 
Landscape  with  sheep,  47  x  58,38oguineas,and  Re- 
pose, 47  x  58,  781  guineas — the  celebrated  picture 
sold  again  in  the  James  Price  collection,  1895  5  F- 
Goodall,  Raising  the  May  Pole,  the  sketch,  16x27, 
600  guineas  ;  Louis  Haghe,  Santa  Maria  Novella, 
Florence,  42   x  60,  290  guineas  (Holloway),  and 
An  Artist  in  his  Studio,  175  guineas  ;  W.  Hilton, 
Triumph  of  Amphitrite,  54  x  89,  270  guineas  ;   H. 
Jutsum,  a  Cornfield,  34  x   53,    130  guineas;  Sir 
Edwin  Landseer,  The  Prize  Calf,  26  x   20,  1,800 
guineas  ;  Two  Dogs  looking  for  Crumbs,  25  x  30, 
2,300  guineas,  and  Highland  Shepherd,  57   x   31, 
2,23oguineas;  C.  R.  Leslie,  The  Heiress,  33^  x  28, 
1,200  guineas;  J.  Linnell,    Christ  and   the   Two 
Disciples    at    Emmaus,  45    x    60,   275    guineas  ; 
W.  J.    Muller,    Devonshire  Watermill,  20  x  33, 
300  guineas,  and  Gillingham,  29  x  24,  390  guineas  ; 
P.  Nasmyth,  a  view  near  Edinburgh,  171  x   23 J, 
!^5  guineas,  and  a  Lane  near  Epping,   17  x  24, 
195  guineas  ;  David  Roberts,  ten  highly  important 
works,   Chapel    of    Ferdinand    and     Isabella    at 
Granada,   i8|-  x    14!,    260  guineas    (Marquis    of 
Hertford) ;  Interior  of  St.  Miguel,  Xeres,  30  x  25, 
570  guineas — said  to  have  cost  Mr.  Bicknell  100 
guineas  ;  the  Ravine  Petra,  49   x  38,  280  guineas 
(Holloway);  Tyre,  22  x  44,  350  guineas  (Rhodes) ; 
Sidon,  360  guineas  (the  same) ;   Street  in  Cairo, 
30  x   24— said  to  have  cost  ,£50— 525  guineas; 


Melrose  Abbey,  24  x  20,  260  guineas  ;  Karnac, 
56  x  43,  320  guineas;  Baalbec,  61  x  51,  750 
guineas,  and  Interior  of  St.  Gomar,  Lierre,  47  x  36, 
said  to  have  cost  Mr.  Bicknell  £"300,  and  now 
purchased  by  the  Marquis  of  Hertford  for  1,370 
guineas ;  Clarkson  Stanfield,  Shipping  near  St. 
Malo,  28  x  43,  1,230  guineas;  Beilstein  on  the 
Moselle,  45  x  64,  1,500  guineas;  Pic  du  Midi 
d'Ossau,  83  x  59,  2,550  guineas — according  to 
Mr.  Redford  these  three  pictures  cost  Mr.  Bicknell 
1,100  guineas;  and  Lagodi  Garda,  28x43,  820 
guineas.  The  unrivalled  series  of  pictures  by  J. 
M.  W.  Turner,  included  Helvoetsluys,  the  City  of 
Utrecht,  64,  going  to  sea,  exhibited  in  1832,  36  x  48, 
i, 600  guineas  (cost  270  guineas) ;  Antwerp,  Van 
Goyen  looking  for  a  Subject,  exhibited  in  1833, 
36  x  48  2,510  guineas  (cost  300  guineas)  ;  Ivy 
Bridge,  Devon,  36  x  48,  880  guineas  (bought 
in) ;  Wreckers,  Coast  of  Northumberland,  steamer 
assisting  ship  off,  exhibited  in  1834,  36  x  48, 
i, 890 guineas;  Calder  Bridge,  Cumberland,  36  x  48, 
500  guineas  (H.  Bicknell) ;  Venice,  Campo  Santo, 
exhibited  1842,  24  x  36,  ,£2,000;  Venice,  Giu- 
deca,  same  size  as  last,  exhibited  in  1841,  1,655 
guineas ;  Ehrenbreitstein  on  the  Rhine,  exhibited 
1841,  i, 800  guineas  ;  Port  Ruysdael,  36  x  48, 
exhibited  1827,  1,900  guineas  —  the  last  three 
pictures  are  said  to  have  cost  Mr.  Bicknell  less 
than  £1,000;  and  Palestrina,  exhibited  1850,  1,900 
guineas  (bought  in).  T.  Webster,  The  Disputed 
Title,  19  x  23,  270  guineas  ;  the  Impenitent, 
l%  x  15*  350  guineas;  and  Good  Night,  1,150 


guineas  (said  by  Mr.  Redford  to  have  cost  Mr. 
Bicknell  250  guineas),  and  The  Smile  and  The 
Frown,  a  pair,  n  x  24,  i, 600  guineas. 

The  drawings,  of  which  421  lots  brought 
,£15,950  i6s.,  were  sold  on  April  29th,  3Oth  and 
3ist,  and  the  more  important  of  those  which 
realized  ^100  and  upwards,  included:  Peter  de 
Wint,  Corn  Harvest,  101  guineas,  and  another  of 
the  same  subject,  250  guineas  ;  River,  Canterbury 
Meadows,  270  guineas;  Gleaners  Disturbed,  365 
guineas  ;  C.  Fielding,  Bridlington  Harbour,  530 
guineas  (Marquis  of  Hertford);  Rivaulx  Abbey, 
1 830, 460  guineas ;  the  same,  an  evening  effect,  1 842 , 
600  guineas;  Traelte  Mawr,  1850,  420  guineas; 
Loch  Katrine,  260  guineas ;  Bowhill  Downs,  392 
guineas ;  Langdale  Pikes,  350  guineas,  and  Crow- 
borough  Hill,  760  guineas  (Marquis  of  Hertford)  ; 
J.  D.  Harding,  Bern  Castle,  280 guineas;  W.  Hunt, 
Tambourine  Girl,  190  guineas;  and  Girl  seated  with 
basket,  183  guineas;  Samuel  Prout,  Amiens,  no 
guineas;  Cathedral  Porch,  102  guineas;  Interior 
of  Cathedral,  106  guineas  ;  Place  de  la  Pucelle, 
Rouen,  140  guineas,  and  Porch  of  Chartres,  120 
guineas;  David  Roberts,  The  Great  Square,  Tetuan, 
410  guineas,  and  the  Seminario  de  Santiago,  250 
guineas — Mr.  Redford  states  that  these  two  draw- 
ings cost  Mr.  Bicknell  45  guineas;  Clarkson 
Stanfield,  Sunderland,  135  guineas,  and  Honfleur, 
99  guineas;  and  J.  M.  W.  Turner,  Himalaya  Moun- 
tains, 1 70 guineas  ;  Lake  of  Geneva  from  the  Jura, 
141  guineas,  the  Righi,  296  guineas  ;  Castle  of  Elz 
on  the  Moselle,  1 60 guineas;  Rouen,  200  guineas; 

206  THE    BICKNELL    SALE. 

Lake  of  Lucerne,  680  guineas  ;  Scarborough  Castle, 
1809,  520  guineas;  Mowbray  Lodge,  Ripon,  510 
guineas ;  Grouse  Shooting,  with  portrait  of  the  artist, 
and  dogs  by  G.  Stubbs,  430  guineas ;  Woodcock 
Shooting  with  portrait  of  Sir  H.  Pilkington,  1813, 
510  guineas — "  these  were  the  Yorkshire  drawings 
done  for  Sir  H.  Pilkington  ;  they  cost  Mr. 
Bicknell  ^600  the  four"-  — Redford. 

Mr.  Bicknell's  engravings  were  sold  on  May  7th, 
of  the  same  year.  We  may  here  conveniently  in- 
clude the  sale  on  April  7th,  8th,  and  9th,  1881, 
of  the  pictures  and  drawings  of  Henry  Sanford 
Bicknell,  removed  from  Cavendish  House,  Clap- 
ham  Common.  This  sale  included  several  pictures 
which  had  been  sent  to  Christie's  in  1865,  some  of 
which  were  bought  in,  and  the  total  proceeds  of  the 
488  lots  amounted  to  ,£24,524  Ss.  6d.  Pictures  : — 
David  Roberts,  Rome,  Castle  and  Bridge,  with 
St.  Angelo,  10  x  24,  300  guineas ;  the  Dogana, 
Venice,  20  x  30,  490  guineas;  the  Forum,  18  x  36, 
440  guineas  ;  Interior  of  churches  of  SS.  Giovanni 
e  Paolo,  21  x  29,  500  guineas;  St.  Peter's, 
Christmas  Day,  42  x  53,  380  guineas;  Interior  of 
Church  of  St.  Gomar,  sketch,  45  x  36,  5 50  guineas; 
Ruins  of  Koom-Ombos,  330  guineas ;  and  St. 
Andrews  from  the  Sea,  220  guineas.  Clarkson 
Stanfield  was  represented  by  a  Jetty,  io|-  x  i6j, 
,£2,365,  and  Mouth  of  the  Humber,  280  guineas  ; 
W.  P.  Frith,  "  Beware,  Beware,"  29  x  19,  330 
guineas;  F.  Goodall,  six  examples,  of  which  the 
more  important  were  :  Arab  Mother  and  Child,  115 
guineas,  and  the  Palm  Offering,  sketch,  22  x  15, 

DRAWINGS    BY    DAVID    COX.  207 

260  guineas  ;  J.  M.  W.  Turner,  Off  Margate,  130 
guineas  ;  Ivy.  Bridge,  Devon,  800  guineas  (bought 
in  at  the  1863  sale  for  880  guineas),  and  Palestrina, 
3,000  guineas — this  fine  work  was  successively 
bought  in  in  1863  for  1,900  guineas,  and  in  1865 
for  2,100  guineas.  The  drawings  were:  David 
Roberts,  Holy  Sepulchre,  Jerusalem,  240  guineas, 
and  Luxor,  203  guineas. 

The  sale  of  John  Leech's  drawings  and  pictures 
took  place  after  his  death  (which  occurred  on  Oct. 
29th,  1864),  on  April  25th,  1865,  and  the  catalogue 
of  the  sale  contains  an  interesting  Preface.  The 
drawings  sold  at  extremely  good  prices,  which 
ranged  from  about  thirty  to  over  a  hundred  guineas. 
The  collection  of  pottery  and  porcelain  of  Joseph 
Marryat,  the  author  of  the  standard  work  on  these 
subjects,  was  sold  on  February  9th,  1867,  and 
seven  following  days,  realizing  a  total  of  about 

Although  the  collection  formed  by  Peter  Allen, 
of  Sedgley  Park,  Manchester,  was  small,  it  was  a 
choice  one;  it  was  sold  on  March  6th,  1869,  and 
eighty-three  lots  brought  ,£4,934.  There  were 
forty-six  fine  drawings  by  David  Cox,  including 
Windsor  from  Virginia  Water,  230  guineas;  Hay- 
maker, Vale  of  Carmarthen,  99  guineas ;  Windsor 
Castle,  Guards  exercising, 200 guineas;  Landscape, 
figures  in  road,  1834,  105  guineas;  Welsh  Land- 
scape, man  and  horse  crossing  a  stream,  24  x  34,  3 5  5 
guineas;  Landscape,  with  windmill  135  guineas; 
the  original  study  of  a  Welsh  Funeral,  1 09  guineas ; 
Landscape,  figures  near  stile,  1851,  150  guineas; 


Going  to  Harvest  Field,  1845,  200  guineas;  Broom 
Gatherers,  1854,  200  guineas  ;  Landscape,  pool  of 
water  and  horses  in  foreground,  1840,  226  guineas  ; 
Wind,  Rain,  and  Storm,  395  guineas,  and  the  Weald 
of  Kent,  345  guineas ;  ten  drawings  by  Peter  de 
Wint :  the  Shore  of  Morecambe  Bay,  stormy,  315 
guineas,  and  Landscape  with  windmill,  299  guineas ; 
two  by  J.  M.  W.  Turner  :  Inverary,  190  guineas, 
and  the  Temple  of  Jupiter  at  ^Egina,  210  guineas  ; 
and  others  by  Sir  A.  W.  Callcott,  Cattermole, 
Frere,  W.  Hunt,  M  tiller,  S.  Prout,  Uwins,  and 

The  two  great  sales  of  1870  were  the  collections 
of  Edwin  Bullock  and  Charles  Dickens.  "  Mr. 
Bullock,"  says  the  Daily  News  of  May  2Oth,  "  was 
well  known  as  one  of  the  most  liberal  amateurs  in 
the  Midland  Counties,  and  had  for  the  last  forty 
years  been  a  constant  purchaser  of  modern  pictures 
from  the  various  exhibitions,. and  by  many  com- 
missions given  directly  to  the  artists.  The  collec- 
tion is  particularly  remarkable  for  the  large  number 
of  drawings  and  oil  paintings  by  the  late  David  Cox, 
who,  it  will  be  remembered,  came  from  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Birmingham.  There  are  more  than  a 
hundred  works  of  this  highly  esteemed  painter  of  our 
water-colour  school,  all  of  great  interest,  and  some 
remarkable  examples.  They  illustrate  the  career 
of  the  artist  from  the  year  1813,  of  which  early 
time  there  is  one  very  bold  and  effective  drawing 
of  Hastings  Beach,  down  to  his  latest  period."  The 
sale  took  place  on  Saturday  and  Monday,  May  2  ist 
and  23rd,  and  the  total  realized  by  the  492  lots 


amounted  to  ^42,700.  The  principal  pictures 
were  the  following  :— Sir  A.  W.  Callcott,  Hamp- 
stead  Heath,  figures,  195  guineas;  W.Collins,  The 
Reluctant  Departure,  exhibited  in  1815,  1,400 
guineas ;  J.  Constable,  six  examples,  including 
Weymouth  Bay,  510  guineas  ;  River  scene,  with 
rustic  bridge,  100  guineas  ;  Hampstead  Heath,  two 
donkeys,  560 guineas;  Landscape, Salisbury  Marsh, 
with  bridge,  380  guineas  ;  Heath  scene,  cart,  cattle, 
and  donkey,  750  guineas  ;  and  the  Manor  House, 
130  guineas  ;  of  the  long  list  of  pictures  by  David 
Cox,  we  can  only  mention  those  which  ran  well  into 
three  figures,  and  these  are  as  follows :  Landscape, 
men,  white  horse,  and  dog  at  gate,  205  guineas  ; 
River  Scene,  North  Wales,  with  anglers,  150 
guineas  ;  Churchyard,  Darley  Dale,  200  guineas; 
River  Scene,  early  morning,  horses  watering,  200 
guineas ;  Landscape,  with  waggon,  man  on  bridge, 
1 840,  245  guineas ;  Going  to  the  Hayfield,  1853, 400 
guineas  ;  Windsor  Castle,  240  guineas  ;  Hayfield, 
425  guineas;  Collecting  Flocks  in  North  Wales, 
1 848,  400  guineas ;  and  a  Coast  scene,  192  guineas ; 
W.  Etty,  the  Grape  Gatherer,  the  Bacchante,  510 
guineas,  and  scene  from  Milton's  "  Comus,"  1,005 
guineas.  F.  Goodall,  a  replica  of  his  Charles  I.  and 
children  in  a  boat,  with  the  swans,  640  guineas  ; 
Sir  E.  Landseer,  The  Highland  Shepherd's  Home, 
1,000  guineas;  C.  R.  Leslie,  The  Rivals,  130 
guineas ;  The  Opera  Box,  260  guineas ;  Scene 
from  the  Twelfth  Night,  520  guineas,  and  the 
Rape  of  the  Lock,  1,300  guineas;  J.  Linnell,  The 
Woodlands,  woodcutters,  man  on  horseback,  and 
I,  P 


waggon,  1850,  1,300  guineas;  David  Maclise, 
Alfred  in  the  tent  of  Guthrum,  550  guineas  ;  W. 
J.  Muller,  Landscape,  peasants  and  sheep,  390 
guineas;  Port  of  Rhodes,  160  guineas;  Lago  Mag- 
giore,  590  guineas;  Gillingham,  On  the  Medway, 
360  guineas ;  Angers,  250  guineas ;  a  Savoyard  Boy, 
1 10  guineas  ;  and  Compton  Dando,  children  sailing 
boat,  1,250  guineas  ;  Peter  Nasmyth,  Landscape 
in  Hampshire,  cottage,  boy  fishing,  woman  and 
cows,  i, 1 60  guineas  ;  P.  F.  Poole,  May  Day,  235 
guineas  ;  David  Roberts,  Ruins  of  Koom-Ombos, 
evening  320  guineas,  and  Colleoni  Monument,  390 
guineas  ;  C.  Stanfield,  Gulf  of  Salerno,  near  Vietri, 
1846,  950  guineas;  J.  M.  W.  Turner,  Venice,  the 
Dogana,  and  St.  Maria  della  Salute,  exhibited  in 
1844,  2,560  guineas  ;  T.  Webster,  the  Playground, 
410  guineas;  and  A  Present  to  the  Lady  of  the 
Village,  250  guineas. 

The  more  important  of  the  water-colour  drawings 
were  the  following  :  David  Cox,  Cutting  the  Stick, 
135  guineas,  Welsh  Road,  cattle  and  ducks,  1846, 
230  guineas;  Cross  Roads,  1847,  370  guineas  ; 
The  Left  Road,  1854,  200  guineas;  Forest 
scene,  figures  and  white  horse,  1 70  guineas ; 
Bolton  Abbey,  130  guineas;  Malvern  Abbey, 
105  guineas;  Crossing  the  Downs;  1854,  105 
guineas ;  Landscape,  with  rustic  bridge  and  figures, 
295  guineas;  Stokesay,  Woman  and  Child,  130 
guineas ;  Bolsover  Castle,  man  and  pony,  340 
guineas  ;  Penmaen  Maur,  1858,  140  guineas  ;  Boys 
Bathing,  alarmed  by  a  bull,  3  30  guineas  ;  and  Picture 
Gallery,  Hard  wick  Hall,  300  guineas  ;  and  Copley 

MACLISE    AND    DICKENS.  2  I  1 

Fielding,  Off  Bridlington,  a  squally  scene,  280 

Between  the  Bullock  and  the  Dickens  sale  came 
the  dispersal  of  the  last  works  of  David  Maclise 
(who  died  April  25th  of  the  year  of  the  sale),  on 
June  24th.  The  principal  pictures  were  the  Earls 
of  Desmond  and  Ormonde, — at  the  time  of  sale  on 
show  at  the  Royal  Academy  Exhibition — 500 
guineas,  and  the  cartoon  in  black  chalk  of  the 
Meeting  of  Wellington  and  Blucher  at  Waterloo, 
300  guineas,  purchased  by  the  Royal  Academy.  A 
large  number  of  the  artist's  sketches  and  studies 
also  came  under  the  hammer. 

The  Dickens  sale,  which  took  place  on  July  gth, 
was  an  interesting  one  rather  from  the  eminence 
of  the  great  novelist  than  from  the  superlative 
quality  of  the  articles  which  it  contained.  The 
author  of  "  David  Copperfield  "  had  passed  away 
just  exactly  a  month  prior  to  the  sale  of  his  lares 
ct  pcnates,  and  the  suddenness  of  his  death  was 
still  uppermost  in  men's  minds  when  his  pictures 
were  offered  for  sale  under  the  hammer.  "  The 
room  is  full  of  mementoes,"  says  one  of  the  reports 
of  the  period,  in  its  "  private  view  "  notice  of  the 
sale.  The  more  notable  pictures  were  the  follow- 
ing: — P.  H.  Calderon,  The  Letter,  Hever  Castle, 
1 20  guineas,  and  Hide  and  Seek,  the  companion, 
131  guineas;  W.  Dobson,  portrait  of  Oliver 
Cromwell  in  armour,  36  guineas ;  A.  L.  Egg, 
portrait  of  Dickens  as  Sir  C.  Coldstream,  ^170  ; 
W.  P.  Frith,  Dolly  Varden,  25  x  20,  1,000 
guineas,and  Kate  Nickleby  at  Madame  Mantalini's. 


200  guineas — these  two  pictures  cost  Dickens  £20 
each;  W.  Gale,  Mr.  F.'s  aunt  ("  Little  Dorrit"), 
60  guineas  ;  R.  Hannah,  The  Novel,  100  guineas, 
and  The  Play,  60  guineas  ;  C.  R.  Leslie,  Pickwick 
and  Mrs.  Bardell,  8  x  6,  ,£131  ;  Daniel  Maclise, 
Girl  at  a  Waterfall,  610  guineas — purchased  by 
John  Forster,  who  refers  to  it  in  his  "  Life  of 
Dickens,"  and  who  bequeathed  it  to  the  South 
Kensington  Museum  ;  and  Portrait  of  Dickens, 
painted  in  1839,  and  presented  to  the  novelist 
by  the  publishers  on  the  completion  of  Nicholas 
Nickleby,  660  guineas  (Rev.  Sir  E.  Jodrell) ; 
David  Roberts,  The  Simoom,  ,£255  ;  Clarkson 
Stanfield,  Eddystone  Lighthouse,  103x101;- the 
drop-scene  for  the  play  by  Wilkie  Collins,  "The 
Lighthouse,"  990  guineas;  an  Arctic  scene,  150 
guineas, and  Man-o'-War,  175 guineas;  T.Webster, 
Dotheboy's  Hall,  a  sketch,  10x7,  510  guineas; 
D.  Wilkie,  Mother  and  Child,  a  water-colour  sketch 
given  to  Dickens  by  the  artist  in  1840,  130  guineas. 
The  miscellaneous  mementoes  included  Dickens's 
favourite  Raven  in  a  glass  case,  which  sold  for  1 20 
guineas.  The  sale  included  40  pictures  and  draw- 
ings, and  78  other  lots  were  decorative  objects 
generally  ;  the  total  proceeds  amounted  to  ,£9,410. 




have  already  had  a  number  of 
practical  proofs  of  the  origin  and 
growth  of  the  remarkable  develop- 
ment of  the  taste  for  pictures  by 
modern  masters,  but  the  crowning 
demonstration  of  all  occurred  in  1872,  when  the 
collection  formed  by  Joseph  Gillott  came  up  for 
sale.  Gillott  was  born  at  Sheffield  in  1799,  of 
poor  parents,  and  began  his  career  as  an 
operative  grinder,  chiefly  in  steel  toy  or  tool 
making.  He  soon  turned  his  attention  to  the 
manufacture  of  steel  pens,  which  were  then 
made  by  him  at  a  cost  of  3*.  6d.  each.  Gillott 
adapted  the  "press"  used  in  button-making  to 
turning  out  pens,  and  is  said  to  have  succeeded  by 
this  appliance  in  producing  more  pens  than  twenty 


pair  of  hands  could  do  in  the  time.  On  the 
morning  of  his  marriage  he  worked  before  break- 
fast, and  turned  out  a  gross  of  pens  which  he  sold 
at  once  for  £l  4^>  at  ls-  each.  Gillott  made 
money  with  great  rapidity,  and  by  1836  had 
erected  a  large  factory  at  Birmingham,  and  in  this 
year  is  said  to  have  produced  36,000,000,  which 
sold  at  less  than  a  shilling  per  gross;  by  1872 
the  annual  output  was  computed  at  150,000,000, 
and  the  number  of  workpeople  employed  450. 

At  the  very  beginning  of  his  prosperous  career 
Gillott  developed  a  passion  for  pictures.  In  a 
short  preface  to  the  Sale  Catalogue  Messrs. 
Christie,  Manson  and  Woods  wrote  :  "  The  noble 
collection  of  pictures  brought  together  by  the  late 
Mr.  Joseph  Gillott  has  enjoyed  so  world-wide  a 
fame,  and  has  been  so  long  regarded  by  connoisseurs 
—and  justly  so — as  a  complete  epitome  of  the 
English  School,  that  very  little  -comment  is  neces- 
sary in  bringing  it  before  the  public.  Being  the 
growth  of  so  many  years,  its  formation  has  been 
the  result  of  no  hasty  or  indiscriminate  purchase. 
Nearly  half  a  century  has  elapsed  since  Mr.  Gillott, 
then  a  young  man,  first  laid  the  foundations  of  it, 
and  during  the  whole  period  the  work — with 
him  a  very  labour  of  love — has  been  steadily  con- 
tinued upon  principles  of  thoughtful  and  judicious 
selection,  which  excluded  all  but  first-rate  pro- 
ductions. Enjoying  the  friendship  of  many  of 
those  whose  names  are  most  honoured  in  the  roll 
of  English  art — among  others,  of  Turner  and 
Etty  (in  the  works  of  both  of  whom  the  Gallery  is 


especially  rich) — of  Linnell  and  Miiller,  of  William 
Hunt  and  David  Cox,  and  himself  gifted  with  a 
refined  and  critical  taste,  and  with  a  true  artistic 
instinct  which  appears  never  to  have  been  at  fault, 
Mr.  Gillott  was  in  possession  of  advantages  rarely 
falling  to  the  lot  of  collectors.  Of  these,  his 
ample  means  enabled  him  fully  to  avail  himself, 
and  the  result  has  been  a  collection,  both  in  oil 
and  water-colour,  altogether  unrivalled  among 
private  galleries  as  embracing  all  the  highest  char- 
acteristics of  the  English  School.  Of  landscapes 
the  collection  boasts  many  among  the  greatest 
ever  executed  by  human  hand,  while  there  is 
scarcely  a  name  of  note  in  the  history  of  British 
art,  to  whatever  branch  devoted,  of  whom  one 
or  more  first-rate  and  characteristic  examples  will 
not  be  found." 

Gillott  died  on  January  5,  1872.  His  collec- 
tion consisted  of  525  pictures  and  water-colour 
drawings,  of  which  305  were  works  of  the  British 
School,  60  by  old  masters,  and  160  water-colour 
drawings.  "  The  pictures  were  hung  chiefly  in 
two  galleries  specially  built  in  Mr.  Gillott's  resi- 
dence at  Edgbaston,  the  west-end  suburb  of  Bir- 
mingham, some  being  in  the  entrance  hall,  which 
was  lit  by  a  top-light,  others  in  the  drawing  room, 
and  the  fine  Turner  drawings,  with  others,  in  the 
drawing-room  "  (Redford).  The  sale  was  in  three 
parts: — April  19  and  20,  modern  pictures  of  the 
late  English  School;  April  26  and  27,  pictures  of 
the  early  English  School ;  May  3,  Old  Masters  ; 
and  May  4,  water-colour  drawings.  The  com- 

2l6  THE   GILLOTT    SALE. 

mercial  value  of  the  collection  is  indicated  by  the 
following  tabulated  statement  of  the  results  of  the 
six  days'  sale  : 

LOTS.  £  S. 

First  day,  oil  pictures,  English  school     .     89  29,718  7 

Second  day        „                      „                -73  44,443  o 

Third  day          „                      „                .     76  i9>556  5 

Fourth  day        „                      „                .     58  36,830  12 

Fifth  day,  Old  Masters 58  6,559  o 

Sixth  day,  water-colour  drawings  .     .     .160  27,423  o 

.£164,530     41 

To  this  huge  total  may  be  added  the  amount  of 
,£4,195  realized  by  the  sale  of  his  choice  collection 
of  violins  (April  29th). 

It  is  not  possible  to  give,  as  we  should  like  to 
do,  a  complete  list  of  the  Gillott  pictures,  and  the 
amounts  which  they  realized,  but  all  the  more  im- 
portant examples  will  be  found  in  the  following 
enumeration.  It  should  be  mentioned  that  many 
of  the  works  were  commissioned  by  Gillott,  and 
some  of  them  sold  for  over  twenty  times  the  sum 
they  originally  cost. 

OIL  PICTURES  : — R.  P.  Bonington,  Landscape, 
with  woman  on  a  horse,  18  x  15,  200  guineas; 
View  on  the  Seine,  figures  in  a  boat,  n|-  x  16^, 
300  guineas,  and  Landscape  with  timber  waggon, 
20  x  38,  520  guineas  ;  Sir  A.  W.  Callcott,  Harvest 
Field,  9x12,  285  guineas;  The  Cow-boy,  51  x  42, 
410  guineas,  and  Coast  Scene  with  fishing  boat, 
22\  x  36,  1,400  guineas;  W.  Collins,  Barmouth 

1  A  slight  error  occurred  in  adding  up  the  amount  of  one  of 
the  pages,  and  the  correct  official  total  is  placed  at^  164,501  $s. 


Sands,  with  figures,  22  x  42,  1,780  guineas,  and 
Cromer  Sands,  40  x  47,  3,600  guineas  (both  these 
pictures  were  commissioned  by  Mr.  Gillott,  who 
gave  ^300  for  the  latter) ;  J.  Constable,  London, 
from  Hampstead,  8£  x  1 i£,  390  guineas  ;  Rustic 
Landscape,  2  ij-  x  17^,  350  guineas;  View  on  the 
Stour,  24  x  45,  650 guineas  (New  York  Museum), 
and  Weymouth  Bay,  700  guineas  ;  David  Cox,  A 
Hayfield,  ii£  x  16,  450  guineas;  Coast  Scene, 
figures,  cart,  and  boats,  8|-  x  12^,  275  guineas; 
Cottages  at  Brixton,  7^-  x  10,  205  guineas;  Pass  in 
Wales,  with  cattle  at  a  ford,  1849,  14  x  18,  510 
guineas ;  Peace  and  War,  troops  marching  near  a 
harvest  field  towards  Lancaster  Castle,  1846, 
1 8|-  x  24,  3,430  guineas ;  Outskirts  of  a  Wood,  with 
gipsies,  1847,  2^i  x  36^-,  2,205  guineas  (this  work 
was  sold  at  the  Potter  sale  in  1884  for  1,350 
guineas)  ;  Old  Mill  at  Bettwys-y-Coed,  geese  in 
foreground,  1847,28!-  x  36,  i, 500 guineas  ;  Wash- 
ing Day,  landscape  with  two  women  at  a  pool  and 
clothes  hung  out,  cottage  in  the  distance,  1843, 
1 8  x  25,  900  guineas,  and  Going  to  the  Mill, 
36  x  29,  i, 500  guineas  ;  John  Crome,  Rocky  River 
Scene,  15  x  24,  305  guineas;  Windmill,  Mouse- 
hold  Heath,  near  Norwich,  44  x  36,  360  guineas, 
and  Richly  Wooded  Landscape,  25  x  33,  700 
guineas ;  William  Etty,  Flowers  of  the  Forest, 
25  x  31,  215  guineas;  The  Bather,  26  x  20,  470 
guineas ;  The  Graces,  280  guineas  ;  The  Bather, 
48  x  35,  410  guineas;  Circe,  39  x  66,  arched,  600 
guineas;  Judgment  of  Paris,  57  x  78,  8 10  guineas; 
and  Pluto  and  Proserpine,  68  x  75,  1,000  guineas  ; 


Thomas  Faed,  Sir  Walter  Scott  surrounded  by 
his  Friends,  21  x  29,  910  guineas,  and  "  Seeing 
Them  Off,"  24  x  19^,  700  guineas  ;  W.  P.  Frith, 
Dolly  Varden  with  the  Bracelet,  22^-  x  18^-,  700 
guineas  ;  Thomas  Gainsborough,  a  grand  Land- 
scape, 57  x  62,  3 50 guineas;  The  Bullock- Waggon, 
signed,  and  dated  1787,  38  x  51,  500  guineas; 
Repose,  48  x  60,  900  guineas;  a  rustic  Landscape, 
48  x  59,  1,030  guineas;  a  pair  of  companion  pic- 
tures, Scottish  River  Scenes,  73  x  54,  formerly  in 
Lord  Coventry's  collection,  Morning,  2  TO  guineas, 
and  Evening,  305  guineas,  and  a  Portrait  of  the 
Artist,  29  x  24,  330  guineas  (now  in  the  New 
York  Museum) ;  F.  Goodall,  Scene  in  Brittany, 
14  x  21,  470  guineas;  Peter  Graham,  On  the 
Way  to  Castle  Tryst,  49  x  70,  1,480  guineas; 
J.  C.  Hook,  A  Passing  Cloud,  lovers'  tiff,  24  x  33, 
810  guineas;  The  Cowherd's  Mischief,  27  x  42, 
700  guineas;  Sea-Urchins,  7x11,  305  guineas; 
and  the  Sailor's  Holiday,  5x11,  205  guineas  ;  J. 
C.  Horsley,  Check-Mate  Next  Move,  Haddon 
Hall,  33  x  47,  1,630  guineas  ;  Sir  E.  Landseer, 
Lady  Rachel  Russell  reading,  14  x  10,  2  70  guineas; 
Waiting  for  Deer  to  Rise,  20  x  27,  1,345  guineas  ; 
St.  Bernard  Dogs,  18  x  24,  1,740  guineas;  and 
Pointers,  "To  Ho!"  53  x  73,  1,920  guineas — at 
the  W.  Wells'  sale  of  1877  this  picture  dropped  to 
950  guineas  ;  J.  Linnell,  River  Scene  with  figures, 
1826,  nj  x  16,  290  guineas;  Barley- Harvest, 
Evening,  36  x  44,  1,630  guineas;  Hampstead 
Heath,  figures,  donkey,  boy  and  cattle,  1850, 
50  x  72,  1,660  guineas;  Redstone  Wood,  600 


guineas;  Bayswaterin  1813,  13  x  1 8,  300  guineas; 
The  Woodlands,  woodcutters  and  timber-waggon, 
39  x  50,  2,500  guineas  ;  and  Eve  of  the  Deluge, 
animals  entering  the  ark,  1848,  58  x  90,  1,040 
guineas  ;  Daniel  Maclise,  Installation  of  Captain 
Rock,  1834,  66  x  94,  385 guineas;  The  Last  Sleep 
of  Duncan,  45  x  60,  375  guineas;  The  Author's  In- 
troduction to  the  Players,  45  x  72,  750  guineas, 
and  Bohemian  Gipsies,  72  x  168,  890  guineas; 
W.J.Miiller,  Port  of  Rhodes,  16  x  24,  350  guineas; 
Cottage  in  North  Wales,  old  man  smoking,  1 1  x  6, 
200  guineas;  Turkish  Burial  Ground,  13  x  20,  270 
guineas  ;  Dogana  and  S.  Maria  Salute,  10  x  18,  330 
guineas;  Landscape  with  Hagarandlshmael,  1842, 
25  x  40,  280  guineas  ;  The  Memnons,  24  x  40, 
315  guineas;  The  Treasure-Finders,  Egypt, 
30  x  54,  410  guineas;  Landscape  with  rainbow, 
boy  with  mice,  and  two  children  and  two  donkeys, 
30  x  48,  7 70  guineas;  The  Slave  Market,  15  x  25, 
1,510 guineas  ;  The  Chess  Players,  1843,  23  x  33, 
3,950  guineas  ;  Bay  of  Naples,  42  x  70,  2,000 
guineas,  and  Dolgarog  Mills,  55  x  70,  1,250 
guineas;  W.  Mulready,  The  Rattle,  15  x  13,  400 
guineas,  and  Baiting  Horses,  16  x  14,  620  guineas  ; 
Peter  Nasmyth,  Frith  of  Forth,  17  x  23,  1,070 
guineas;  River  Scene,  angler,  10^-  x  15,  285 
guineas ;  Landscape  with  view  of  Chislehurst, 
12  x  1 6,  365  guineas  ;  Landscape,  richly  wooded, 
10  x  14,  370  guineas  ;  Meadow,  with  figures  and 
sheep,  9  x  12,  180  guineas,  and  Landscape  with 
farmyard,  12  x  16^,  390  guineas;  G.  S.  Newton, 
Norman  Peasant  Girl  in  Church,  16  x  13,  400 


guineas ;  Erskine  Nicol,  The  Flyfisher,  560 
guineas;  An  Irish  Cabin,  15  x  21,  200  guineas  ; 
"  Both  Puzzled/'  30  x  22,  715  guineas  ;  and  The 
Country  Booking  Office,  45  x  58,  1,100  guineas; 
J.  Phillip,  "Cosas  de  Espafia,"  17  x  13,  870 
guineas;  "  El  Aqua  Bendita,"  24  x  17,  700 
guineas,  and  Castanette  Player,  25  x  18,  700 
guineas  ;  P.  F.  Poole,  Hide  and  Seek,  420  guineas ; 
Sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  Portraits  of  Lady  Galloway, 
60  x  45,  and  of  Mrs.  Yates,  50  x  40,  each  300 
guineas ;  C.  Stanfield,  The  Wooden  Walls  of  Old 
England,  27  x  45,  2,700  guineas,  and  Mouth  of 
the  Thames,  14  x  24,  790  guineas  ;  J.  M.  W. 
Turner,  Going  to  the  Ball,  San  Martino,  Venice, 
1,700  guineas ;  Returning  from  the  Ball,  St.  Marino, 
Venice,1  1,500  guineas  ;  Calais  Sands,  Coissards, 
low  water  (said  to  have  cost  Mr.  Gillott  ^350), 
28  x  42,  1,700  guineas — these  three  were  pur- 
chased by  Lord  Bective  ;  Coast  Scene,  with  boats, 
12^  x  17^-,  300 guineas;  Kilgarran  Castle,  23  x  29, 
600  guineas;  an  open  Sea  View,  13  x  18,  800 
guineas,  Kilgarran  Castle,  with  bathers,  36  x  48, 
2, 700  guineas  (New  York  Museum);  The  Junction 
of  the  Thames  and  the  Medway,  42  x  56,  4,350 
guineas,  and  Walton  Bridges,  37  x  49,  5,000 

1  This  pair  of  pictures  were  in  the  B.  G.  Windus  sale  of 
1853,  and  there  realized  520  guineas  and  610  guineas  respec- 
tively; they  came  up  again  for  sale  in  1878,  when  they  were 
bought  in  at  1,200  guineas  each  ;  they  eventually  passed  into 
the  collection  of  the  late  James  Price,  and  were  sold  with  his 
collection  in  June,  1895.  Both  these  pictures  were  exhibited 
at  the  Royal  Academy  of  1846,  and  again  at  the  Royal  Jubilee 
Exhibition  in  1887.  Neither  picture  has  been  engraved. 


guineas ;  T.  Webster,  Villagers  looking  at  Punch, 
8x  i5,3OOguineas;TheSeasons,asetof  four,  5 J  x  7, 
320  guineas;  The  Travelling  Jeweller,  18  x  16, 
530  guineas,  and  Roast  Pig,  30  x  48,  3,550 
guineas  (for  this  picture  it  is  said  that  Mr.  Gillott 
paid  the  artist  700  guineas)  ;  Sir  David  Wilkie, 
Digging  for  Rats,  7  x  5^,  215  guineas;  The  Penny 
Wedding,  20  x  33,  700  guineas,  and  Escape  of 
Queen  Mary,  48  x  65,  600  guineas  ;  R.  Wilson, 
Landscape  near  Rome,  310  guineas  (one  of  four- 
teen pictures  by  this  artist  in  the  Gillott  collec- 

WATER  COLOUR  DRAWINGS  :  David  Cox,  Lake 
Scene,  sheep  and  figures,  8x12,  260  guineas, 
and  Farm,  with  cows  and  ducks  at  a  pool,  10  x 
14,  430  guineas;  Peter  de  Wint,  River  Scene, 
bird's-eye  view,  13  x  22,  300  guineas;  William 
Hunt,  Nest  and  Wild  Rose,  8  x  1 1,  255  guineas,* 
Spring  Gatherings,  12  x  16,  590  guineas;  Prim- 
roses and  Hedge-sparrows'  Nests,  10  x  7,  250 
guineas;  Primrose  and  Cherry  Blossom,  12x9, 
255  guineas;  C.  Stanfield,  Fort  Roque,  Calais, 
12x11,  360  guineas;  J.  M.  W.  Turner,  On  the 
Thames,  450  guineas  ;  The  Source  of  the  Tamar, 
350  guineas;  Patterdale,  800 guineas;  Powis  Castle, 
i, 210  guineas;  Windermere,  1,950  guineas  (Lord 
Dudley);  Brinkburn(not  Brentburn)  Priory,  North- 
umberland, i, 060  guineas  ;  Zurich,  710  guineas, 
Hastings  Beach,  the  Fishmarket,  signed  and  dated 
1824,  1,100  guineas,  Heidelburg;  with  rainbow, 
2,650  guineas  (Lord  Dudley);  Ehrenbreitstein, 
2,650  guineas;  and  Bamborough  Castle,  20x28, 


3,150  guineas  (Lord  Dudley) :  with  the  exception 
of  the  last,  these  Turner  drawings  varied  from 
7!  x  10^  to  about  17$  x  26^. 

The  only  examples  of  the  OLD  MASTERS  which 
call  for  special  mention  are  the  following  :  Rubens, 
The  Family  of  the  Artist,  from  the  Balbi  Palace, 
Genoa,  and  Walsh-Porter  collection,  90  x  81,  en- 
graved, 1,230  guineas  ;  J.  Ruysdael,  Landscape  in 
Guelderland,  29  x  36,  300  guineas  ;  Teniers,  an 
Interior,  with  Alchemist,  16  x  25,  380  guineas, 
and  Wouverman,  The  Fortune  Teller,  13  x  15, 
600  guineas.  This  collection  also  contained 
two  works  by  Rosa  Bonheur,  the  principal  one 
being  a  Scene  in  the  Pyrenees,  27  x  40,  1,800 

The  dispersal  of  the  art  collections  of  Prince 
Napoleon  (Jerome),  or  rather  that  portion  of  them 
which  was  saved  from  the  fire  or  the  Communists 
in  May,  1871,  formed  the"  principle  event  at 
Christie's  of  May,  1872.  The  sale  commenced  on 
May  9,  and  was  continued  on  the  two  following 
days,  369  lots  realizing  ^14,168  2s.  In  addition 
to  some  pictures  there  were  other  works  of  art 
formed  by  the  Prince,  "  together  with  the  magni- 
ficent plate,  china,  and  bronze  candelabra,  all  made 
in  the  style  of  the  Greco- Roman  house  which  the 
Prince  furnished  in  the  Avenue  Montaigne.  .  .  . 


Many  of  these  objects  have  passed  through  fire, 
and  carry  marks  upon  the  surface,  while  some 
have  been  half  melted  and  broken/'  Some  of  the 
pictures  were  cleverly  restored,  but  the  following 
list  includes  all  the  examples  to  which  we  need 

DAVID  COX  THE  YOUNGER.         223 

call  attention : — Giovanni  Bellini,  Virgin  and  Child 
in  Landscape,  green  curtain,  600  guineas ;  G. 
Antonio  Beltraffio,  Profile  Portrait  of  a  Lady, 
404  guineas  (Holloway) ;  Paris  Bordone,  Girl  at 
Toilet,  700  guineas  (Lord  Dudley)  ;  Sandro 
Botticelli,  Virgin  and  Child,  seated,  250  guineas  ; 
Angelo  Bronzino,  half-length  portrait  of  Cosmo 
d'Medici,  in  armour,  325  guineas  (Holloway); 
Francia  (Francesco  Raibolini),  Portrait  of  a  youth 
in  black  dress  and  cap,  390  guineas;  Sebastian 
del  Piombo,  Christ  bearing  Cross,  with  Simon 
and  soldier,  Jerusalem  and  Calvary  in  the  back- 
ground, 240  guineas. 

It  may  be  here  mentioned  that  the  sale  of  May 
3rd  and  5th,  1873,  comprised  63  pictures  and  200 
drawings  of  David  Cox,  (which  had  been  in  the 
possession  of  David  Cox,  Jnr.,  since  the  death  of 
his  father  in  1859),  many  of  which  were  quite  un- 
known to  the  public.  A  few  of  the  best  pictures 
were  :  Boy  throwing  stones,  390  guineas ;  Lugg 
Meadow,  395  guineas ;  Rocks  on  the  Lledr,  460 
guineas;  Lancaster  Sands,  with  figures,  1,000 
guineas  ;  Going  to  the  Hayfield,  with  sketch  on 
the  back,  600  guineas  ;  View  of  Conway  Castle, 
1,000  guineas,  and  Welsh  Funeral,  730  guineas. 
The  drawings  included  :  Peat  Gatherers,  670 
guineas ;  Park  Scene,  540  guineas ;  Darley 
Churchyard,  360  guineas  ;  Going  to  the  Cornfield, 
330  guineas ;  Skirts  of  the  Forest,  420  guineas, 
and  Flock,  hill-side,  Bolton  Abbey,  330  guineas. 
The  271  lots  produced  a  total  of  ,£25,325. 

The  collection  of  the  late  Alexander  Barker,  of 


103,  Piccadilly,  formed  the  great  sale  event  of 
1874.  Mr.  Barker  was  an  excellent  all-round 
judge  of  art,  and  this  is  all  the  more  remarkable, 
perhaps,  from  the  fact  that  he  was  an  entirely  self- 
educated  man — his  father  kept  a  bootmaker's  shop 
in  the  west-end  of  London,  and  the  Daily  News 
of  the  period  grimly  pointed  out  that  it  was  in  the 
present  instance  a  matter  for  congratulation  that 
another  cobbler  defied  the  ancient  saw,  ne  sutor 
ultra  crepidam.  Keen  as  was  Mr.  Barker's  in- 
stinct in  the  matter  of  an  object  of  art,  he  was 
apparently  not  averse  to  parting  with  it  on  business- 
like terms.  Consequently  the  collection  which  was 
sold  after  his  death  did  not  include  the  whole  of 
the  hoard  of  treasures  which  he  gathered  from  the 
various  parts  of  Europe.  The  earlier  sale  was 
held  on  June  6th,  1874,  and  four  following  days, 
the  709  lots  realizing  the  total  of  ,£65,764  8^  6d. 
The  second  sale  took  place  on  June  iQth,  1879, 
and  two  following  days,  when  533  lots  showed 
a  total  of  ,£13,666  14^.  qd.  The  pictures  in- 
cluded the  following  : — G.  Bellini,  Madonna  and 
Child,  with  St.  Peter  and  St.  Helena,  half-length, 
from  the  Manfrini  Gallery,  720  guineas;  Ben- 
venuto  di  Sienna,  Madonna  and  Child,  enthroned, 
with  angels,  500  guineas  (National  Gallery)  ; 
Sandro  Botticelli,  The  Story  of  Nastagio  Degli 
Oneste,  from  the  "  Decameron  "  of  Boccaccio,  a 
composition  in  six  panels,  from  the  Gallery  of  the 
Pucci  family ;  the  panels  were  as  follows  :  the 
first  column  of  figures  representing  the  amounts 
at  which  they  were  respectively  bought  in  at  the 

THE    BARKER    SALE.  225 

1874  sale,  and  the  second  column  those  at  which 
they  were  sold  in  1879  : 


The  Feast  to  His  Friends     .     .     .  950  420 

The  Marriage  Feast 650  280 

A  Banquet  with  Centaurs     .     .     .  400  150 

„  „  ...  400  130 

Coast  Scene  with  Horsemen,  etc.  .  500  160 

•     •     •  5°°  i75 

The  other  pictures  in  the  1874  sale  by  Botticelli 
were,  Mars  and  Venus  reclining,  with  Cupids, 
1,000  guineas;  Venus  reclining  in  landscape, 
amorini  pelting  her  with  roses,  1,550  guineas 
(both  now  in  the  National  Gallery) ;  Portrait  of 
artist's  wife  in  profile,  with  figure  on  the  back  of 
the  panel,  225  guineas;  and  Madonna  and  Child, 
with  St.  John,  from  the  Bammeville  collection,  1,600 
guineas  ;  Carmona,  The  Wise  Virgins,  170  guineas, 
and  The  Foolish  Virgins,  100  guineas  (bought  in, 
and  sold  in  1879  for  50  guineas  and  45  guineas 
respectively)  ;  Correggio,  Juno  with  Peacock,  from 
the  Orleans  and  Baron  Rothschild  collections, 
42^-  x  23,  135  guineas  (bought  in  and  sold  in 
1879  for  41  guineas) ;  Lorenzo  di  Credi,  Madonna 
Kneeling  over  Infant,  with  St.  Joseph,  460 guineas; 
Madonna  Enthroned,  St.  Sebastian  and  vase  of 
flowers,  640  guineas  (Dresden  Gallery) ;  Madonna 
kneeling,  with  Infant  Saviour  and  St.  John,  cir- 
cular, 3 10  guineas;  Madonna  seated,  with  Infant 
Saviour,  300  guineas,  and  three  other  Madonnas 
attributed  to  the  same ;  Carlo  Crivelli,  a  pair,  St. 
Catherine  and  the  Magdalen,  210  guineas;  and 
I.  Q 

226  THE    BARKER    SALE. 

The  Madonna  in  Ecstasy,  Deity,  angels,  flowers, 
fruit,  etc.,  1492, 550  guineas  (these  three  pictures  are 
now  in  the  National  Gallery) ;  Gentile  da  Fabrino, 
Madonna  and  Child  with  pomegranate,  38oguineas ; 
Pietro  della  Francesca,  the  Nativity,  49  x  58,  on 
wood,  from  the  Marini-Franceschi  family,  descend- 
ants of  the  artist,  2,300  guineas  (National  Gallery), 
Francia,  Madonna  and  Child,  St.  John  and  angels, 
in  landscape,  650  guineas  ;  Domenico  Ghirlandaio, 
Madonna  and  Child  enthroned,  angels,  St.  John, 
Bonaventura,  Francis,  and  Catherine,  350  guineas 
(Lord  Bath) ;  Giorgione,  Portrait  of  the  Artist's 
Mistress,  from  the  Manfrini  Gallery,  380  guineas, 
and  Landscape,  with  Borso  d'Este  and  Lucretia 
Borgia,  580  guineas  ;  Filippino  Lippi,  Adoration 
of  the  Magi,  Portrait  of  the  Accajuoli  family,  700 
guineas  ;  B.  Pinturicchio,  a  companion  pair  of  pic- 
tures .1  long  panels,  Tent  and  Camp  scenes,  300 
guineas  (Lord  Bath),  the  Return  of  Ulysses,  from 
the  Pandolpho  Petrucci  Palace  at  Siena,  2,050 
guineas,  and  three  pictures  illustrating  the  story 
of  Griselda,  together  690  guineas  (these  four 
works  are  now  in  the  National  Gallery) ;  Antonio 
Pollajuolo,  Madonna  and  Child,  with  goldfinch, 
660  guineas ;  A.  Privitale,  Madonna,  Child,  and 
St.  John,  signed  and  dated  1510,  660  guineas 
(Dresden  Gallery);  Raphael,  portrait  of  a  Youth 
in  profile,  red  hair,  black  cap  and  badge,  17  x  11, 
380  guineas  (bought  in,  and  sold  in  1879  for  155 
guineas)  ;  Sasso  Ferrata,  Madonna  and  Child  with 
two  cherubs,  400  guineas  (apparently  bought  in, 
and  resold  in  1879  for  no  guineas)  ;  Luca  Sig- 


This  ifiirnf.'itrc  tie  clicinince  is  unquestionably  one  of  the  greatest 
triumphs  of  Sevres  work,  and  its  history  may  be  here  told.  Trie  set  is 
known  as  the  "  Coventry  Vases,"  and  these  unique  specimen^  <>t 
ceramic  art  were  made  in  1759.  They  were  purchased  by  G< 
William,  sixth  Earl  of  Coventry,  who  married  in  1752  one  of  the 
beautiful  Miss  Gunnings.  The  centre-piece,  which  is  modelled  to  re- 
present the  arms  ot  the  city  of  Paris,  is  14^  inches  high,  whilst  the  two 
jardinieres  are  8}  inches  high.  The  rose  du  Barri  ground  is  combined 
with  green,  and  is  a  perfect  example  of  this  scara  ^mbination  ;  the 
paintings  are  admirably  copied  from  Teniers'  well-known  stj  ;:ects-,  with 
-r.nips  of  exquisitely  painted  flowers,  by  Morin,  in  the  rev* 

Karl  of  Coventry's  sale,  June  12,  1874:  purchased  by  the  Earl  of 
Dudley,  by  whom  they  were  sold  privately  to  Mr.  J.  \V.  Goode  ;  at  the 
Goode  sale,  July  17,  1895,  the  reserve  price  not  being  reached,  they 
were  bought  in,  and  are  still  in  possession  of  Mr.  Goode's  executor^. 
In  addition  to  the  information  given  in  vol.  ii.  pp.  267-8,  it  may  In- 
here mentioned  that  the  late  Mr.  Goode  had  two  copies  made  of  them 
at  his  potteries,  and  the  extreme  similarity  of  the  copies  to  the  originals 
is  most  striking.  These  copies,  one  of  which  is  now  in  possession  of 
the  Dudley  family,  and  the  other  at  Messrs.  Goode's  warchoi: 
South  Audley  Street,  W.,  cost  about  ,£300  each  to  produce.  (See 
vol.  ii.,  pp.  267-8.) 

f)eity,  ang 

three  pictu 
'  entile  da  Fabr 

:vity,  49  x 
«:hi  family,  < 
National  G 
t,  John  and  am 
Qomenico  Ghirlan 
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.1   and   dated    1510,  < 
v)  ;  Raphael,  portrait  of 
Mack  cap  and  1 
in,  and  sold  in  i  b 
•adonna  and  C) 


norelli,  Pair  of  Pilasters,  each  with  three  figures  of 
saints,  255  guineas;  the  Story  of  Coridanus,  460 
guineas  ;  Triumph  of  Chastity,  Cupid  bound  by 
maidens,  800  guineas  (National  Gallery) — these 
two  are  frescoes  transferred  to  canvas  ;  and  Ma- 
donna kneeling  over  Infant,  landscape  background, 
410  guineas  ;  Francesco  Ubertini,  portrait  of 
Youth  with  Guitar,  with  Apollo  and  Daphne, 
256  guineas  (bought  in,  and  sold  in  1879  for  155 
guineas) ;  and  Leonardo  da  Vinci,  Leda,  to  which 
full  reference  is  made  on  pp.  111-113. 

A  sale  which  possesses  a  special  interest  may 
be  here  included  as  having  occurred  in  1874 
(May  8th).  It  comprised  the  finished  and  un- 
finished pictures  of  Sir  Edwin  Landseer,  who  died 
on  October  ist,  1873.  Special  mention  may  be 
made  of  the  following  : — Landscape,  with  cattle, 
315  guineas;  Portraits  of  Duke  of  Devonshire, 
Lord  and  Lady  Cavendish,  deer  and  dogs  in  park, 
unfinished,  1,050  guineas  ;  Lady  Godiva's  Prayer, 
exhibited  in  1868,  3,200  guineas;  Horses  and 
Dogs,  1,000  guineas  ;  Digging  out  the  Otter,  610 
guineas ;  Portraits  of  the  Earl  and  Countess  of  Sef- 
ton  and  daughter,  570  guineas  ;  Portraits  of  Two 
Young  Ladies,  6 10  guineas  ;  Portrait  of  Sir  Walter 
Scott,  with  a  book,  800  guineas  ;  Portrait  of  Her 
Majesty  the  Queen  on  a  white  Horse,  unfinished, 
750  guineas ;  Portraits  of  the  Duke  of  Beaufort 
and  Sisters  when  young,  with  dogs,  1,050  guineas  ; 
"  Old  Brutus,"  rough,  white-haired  dog,  600  guineas, 
and  a  Newfoundland  dog  and  terrier  at  a  stream, 
1,050  guineas,  and  a  large  number  of  studies, 


sketches,  and  unfinished  pictures,  nearly  all  of 
which  realized  exceedingly  high  prices. 

One  of  the  most  important  events  of  1875, 
unique  in  itself,  was  the  sale  of  the  splendid  collec- 
tion of  antique  engraved  gems  and  cameos,  formed 
by  George,  third  Duke  of  Marlborough,  in  the 
latter  part  of  the  last  century.  The  collection  is 
best  known  through  Jacob  Bryant's  work,  which 
is  illustrated  with  Bartolozzi's  engravings  from 
Cipriani's  drawings  ;  it  comprised  739  gems,  which 
were  offered  in  one  lot  on  June  28th,  and  pur- 
chased for  35,000  guineas  by  Mr.  Agnew  for  Mr. 
Bromilow,  of  Battlesden  Park,  Bedfordshire. 

The  numerous  great  picture  sales  of  this  year 
commenced  with  that  formed  by  Sam  Mendel, 
of  Manley  Hall,  Manchester,  a  textile  merchant. 
According  to  Mr.  Redford,  "  Art  Sales,"  i.  200, 
Mendel  (who  was  of  German  origin)  "  made  no 
pretensions  to  being  a  great  connoisseur,  and  did 
not  collect  works  of  art  as  a  pursuit.  He  found 
himself  a  rich  man,  and  he  saw  that  other  rich  men 
in  business,  successful  like  himself,  were  displaying 
their  wealth  by  buying  pictures  at  high  prices,  and 
making  their  dwelling  houses  as  magnificent  with 
works  of  modern  art  as  the  aristocracy  had  always 
done  with  the  pictures  by  the  old  masters."  The 
general  high  excellence  of  the  Manley  Hall  col- 
lection is  due  to  the  eminent  firm  of  Thomas 
Agnew  and  Sons ;  its  entire  dispersal  occupied 
twenty-one  days  ;  the  pictures  were  sold  on  April 
I4th-i7th  and  23rd-24th,  and  produced  the  total 
of  ,£101,184  i$s.  6d.  ;  which  amount  included 

MENDEL  OF  MANLEY  HALL.         229 

3,050  guineas  paid  by  Mr.  Hermon  (M.P.  for 
Preston),  for  the  highly  interesting  series  of  271 
drawings  and  sketches  of  Lord  Clyde's  campaign 
in  Oude  by  Mr.  E.  Ltindgren  ;  and  the  residue  of 
the  collection,  the  furniture  and  other  appointments 
of  the  Hall,  sold  on  the  premises  on  March  I5th 
and  fourteen  following  days,  brought  ^42,855. 
The  grand  total  amounted  to  ;£  150,100  i$s.  i  id. 
Prior  to  the  sale  by  auction,  100  of  the  more 
important  works  changed  hands  by  private  treaty. 
The  more  important  of  the  137  pictures  of  the 
English  school  and  25  by  foreign  artists  were  the 
following : — R.  Ansdell,  Visit  to  the  Shrine  in  the 
Alhambra,  72  x  47,  600  guineas  ;  T.  Jones  Barker, 
Relief  of  Lucknow,  io6x  190,  970  guineas;  R. 
P.  Bonington,  Chateau  on  the  French  Coast, 
14x24,  460  guineas;  P.  H.  Calderon,  Virgin's 
Bower,  70  x  46,  290  guineas  ;  Home  after  Victory, 
48x81,  900  guineas,  and  CEnone,  53  x  40,  750 
guineas ;  Sir  A.  W.  Callcott,  Landscape  with  cot- 
tage and  water,  27  x  39,  400  guineas,  and  Launce 
and  his  Dog  (scene  from  "  The  Two  Gentlemen  of 
Verona"),  25  x  30,  385  guineas  ;  W.  Collins,  Land- 
scape, with  boys  angling,  17x22,  330  guineas, 
and  The  Skittle  Players,  34x43,  2,300  guineas; 
J.  Constable,  Landscape  with  a  Suffolk  river, 
28  x  36,  600  guineas  ;  E.  W.  Cooke,  Scheveningen 
Trawler,  35  x  54,  850  guineas  ;  T.  Creswick,  Pont- 
y-Pont  Mill,  20x40,  420  guineas;  John  Crome, 
Landscape,  road  scene  with  trees,  71  x  55,  1,500 
guineas — Mr.  Redford  states  that  this  picture  was 
bought  for  jCj  at  a  sale  in  Cavendish  Square, 


and  that  its  authenticity  was  doubted  ;  W.  C.  T. 
Dodson,  Abraham  and  Hagar,4i  x  34, 470  guineas; 
A.  Elmore,  Katherine  and  Petruchio,  43  x  33,  300 
guineas  ;  W.  Etty,  Mars  and  Venus,  37  x  25,  500 
guineas;    T.    Faed,  Only  Herself,  53x39,   1,650 
guineas,  and  A  Wee  Bit  Fractious,  53  x  39,  1,900 
guineas;  W.   P.   Frith,   Sterne's   Maria,  44  x  31, 
900  guineas,  and  Before  Dinner  at  Boswell's  lodg- 
ings in  Bond  Street,  1769,  4,350  guineas  ;  W.  E. 
Frost,  Aurora  and  Zephyr,  35  x  28,  380  guineas ; 
T.    Gainsborough,   George   IV.    when    Prince   of 
Wales,  28  x  24,  460  guineas ;  W.  Gale,  Jews'  Place 
of  Wailing,    21x29,    29°   guineas;     P.    Graham, 
Among  the  Hills,  44  x  70,  1,550  guineas  ;  A  Spate 
in  the  Highlands,  23  x  17,  410  guineas,  and  O'er 
Moor  and   Moss,   44x70,    1,050  guineas;  J.   R. 
Herbert,   Mary  Magdalene,  14  x  12,  360  guineas, 
and  Christ  and  the  Woman  of  Samaria,  38  x  56, 
530  guineas;    J.  C.  Hook,  the  Lobster  Catcher, 
29x42,   1,410  guineas;    Sir  F.   Leighton,  Noble 
Venetian  Lady,  i6th  century,  34  x  25,  950  guineas  ; 
C.  R.  Leslie,  Hermione,  31  x  20,  520  guineas,  and 
scene  from  "Henry  the  Eighth,"    23x34,   1,300 
guineas  (at  the   Brunei  sale  in  1860  this  picture 
was   sold   for  960  guineas) ;    G.  D.   Leslie,   The 
Appointed   Hour,  43  x  29,  720  guineas,  and  An 
Elopement,  A.D.  1790,  47x89,  1,100  guineas;  J. 
Linnell,  the  Rustic  Bridge,  18x25,  600  guineas  ; 
Midday  Rest,  Harvest  Time,  37  x  55,  i,3OOguineas; 
The  Tramps,  28  x  39,  1,060  guineas  ;  The  Journey 
to  Emmaus,  22  x  31,  670  guineas,  and  Landscape 
with  shepherd,  18  x  25,  720  guineas  ;  J.  T.  Linnell, 


Autumn  Evening,  26  x  31,  7 20  guineas,  and  Open- 
ing the  Gate,  29x44,  500  guineas ;  W.  Linnell, 
the  Gleaner's  Return,  42  x  64,  6 10  guineas  ;  Daniel 
Maclise,  the  Departure  of  Bayard,  48  x  34,  405 
guineas;  H.  S.  Marks,  the  Notary,  28x36,  380 
guineas  ;  Sir  John  Millais,  "  O,  Swallow,  Swallow," 
painted  in  1865,  40  x  29^,  1,000  guineas,  Jephthah, 
1867,  50  x  64,  3,800  guineas  (W.  Armstrong),  and 
"Chill  October,"  1871,  55x73,  3,100  guineas ; 
W.  J.  Miiller,  Stapenhill  Village,  30x48,  660 
guineas,  and  Gillingham,  children  fishing,  22  x  16, 
600  guineas  ;  P.  Nasmyth,  Waterfall,  Glen  Shirah, 
28  x  38,  1,400  guineas;  H.  O'Neil,  Last  Moments 
of  Raphael,  48x72,  1,050  guineas;].  Phillip, 
Winnowing  Corn,  37  x  30,  480  guineas ;  David 
Roberts,  Church  of  the  Nativity,  44  x  55,  1,350 
guineas,  and  Interior  of  Seville  Cathedral,  50  x  40, 
i, 800  guineas  ;  J.  M.  W.  Turner,  View  on  the 
River  Maas,  Holland,  22  x  36,  2,500  guineas,  and 
Grand  Canal,  Venice,  36x48,  7,000  guineas;  E. 
M.  Ward,  Last  Sleep  of  Argyle,  and  Last  Scene 
in  the  Life  of  Montrose,  each  800  guineas,  the 
engraved  pictures;  T.  Webster,  Results  of  In- 
temperance, 30  x  42,  800  guineas,  and  R.  Wilson, 
Lake  Scene,  33  x  42,  700  guineas. 

The  pictures  by  Continental  artists  included 
the  following  :  Rosa  Bonheur,  Souvenir  of  Nor- 
mandy, 39  x  5 1, 410  guineas;  Coast  Scene,  19  x  25, 
605  guineas,  and  Cattle  in  landscape,  3 20  guineas  ; 
Henriette  Browne,  Giving  Baby  a  Ride,  i6x  17, 
600  guineas,  and  Abyssinian  Girl,  35  x  24,  400 
guineas  ;  Paul  Delaroche,  President  Duranti, 


21  x  1 8,  625  guineas;  J.  L.  Dyckmans,  Mary  at 
the  Cross,  19  x  15,  500  guineas  ;  Edouard  Frere, 
the  Go-Cart,  240  guineas  ;  and  "It  is  caught ! " 
400  guineas  ;  Louis  Gallait,  Columbus  in  Prison, 
59x43,  850  guineas;  the  Wanderers,  31x25, 
605  guineas  ;  Last  Honours  to  Egmont  and  Horn, 
27X39>  MOO  guineas,  and  Vargas  taking  the 
Oath,  44x60,  2,550  guineas;  J.  L.  Gerome, 
Italian  Woman  and  Child,  23  x  17,  300  guineas; 
Baron  H.  Leys,  Going  to  Church  at  Antwerp  in 
the  Sixteenth  Century — a  winter  scene,  830 
guineas;  C.  Troyon,  cattle  piece,  31x45,  960 

In  some  respects  the  sale  on  April  8,  9,  and  10, 
of  the  collection  of  drawings  formed  by  Mr. 
William  Quilter  was  the  most  interesting  event  of 
this  annus  mirabilis  of  art  sales.  The  collection 
comprised  417  lots  (of  which  over  one  hundred 
were  the  work  of  David  Cox), -and  produced  the 
splendid  total  of  ,£41,517.  The  prices  realized 
were  in  nearly  every  respect  record  ones  ;  and  The 
Times,  in  a  final  note  on  this  remarkable  sale, 
stated  that  Mr.  Quilter  realized  a  profit  of  some- 
thing like  260  per  cent,  on  the  whole  collection. 
This  sale  comprised  114  pen  and  ink  etchings, 
sepia  and  water-colour  drawings,  by  David  Cox ; 
2 1  by  Cattermole  ;  7  by  Prout ;  1 1  by  G.  Barrett ; 
40  by  W.  Hunt ;  18  by  Turner;  13  by  W.  M  tiller  ; 
7  by  C.  Haag;  and  15  by  Tayler.  A  number  of 
the  drawings  were  bought  in  for  Mr.  Quilter,  and 
were  again  offered  for  sale  on  May  i8th,  1889,  after 
the  owner's  death.  This  post  mortem  sale  com- 


prised  147  lots,  which  showed  a  total  of  £2 1 ,802  2s. 
We  have  here  combined  the  two  sales,  and  in- 
clude only  the  prices  from  ^200  and  upwards. 
G.  Barret,  Landscape,  sunset  effect,  with  figure, 
dog  and  sheep,  300  guineas ;  Sir  F.  W.  Burton, 
La  Marchesa,  320  guineas  (1889,  200  guineas)  ; 
La  Romanina,  570  guineas,  and  A.D.  1660,  a  Rem- 
nant of  the  Ironsides,  400  guineas  ;  G.  Cattermole, 
Trying  the  Sword,  250  guineas  ;  Benvenuto  Cellini 
Valuing  oneof  his  own  Productions  to  the  Brigands, 
from  the  Haines  collection,  exhibited  at  Manchester 
( 1 854,  and  the  Loan  Collection,  1 87 1 ),  2  70  guineas  ; 
Macbeth  instructing  the  Murderers,  240  guineas ; 
Shakespeare  reciting  to  Sir  Thomas  Lucy,  36  x  24, 
340  guineas  (in  1889,  1 60  guineas) ;  Salvator  Rosa 
and  the  Brigands,  390  guineas(in  1 889, 23<Dguineas), 
and  Old  English  Hospitality,  410  guineas.  David 
Cox,  Old  Oak,  Sherwood  Forest,  210  guineas; 
Powis  Terrace,  with  figures,  1840,  260  guineas; 
Crossing  a  Moor,  man  on  horseback,  240  guineas ; 
Calais  Pier, 245  guineas;  Hay-making,  210 guineas; 
Bolton  Park,  the  Wharfe, 210 guineas;  Welsh  Land- 
scape, with  shepherds  driving  sheep,  350  guineas  ; 
A  Hop  Garden,  14^  x  10,  210  guineas;  Old  Mill 
and  moor,  21  x  i2f,  450  guineas;  Kenilworth,  a 
selected  Art  Union  prize,  14^  x  lof,  390  guineas; 
Fors  Novin,3ioguineas(i889,  1 60 guineas);  Corn- 
field, horse  and  cart  going  through  a  gate,  300 
guineas  (1889,  205  guineas)  ;  Cottage,  with  man 
ploughing,  14^  x  iof,  285  guineas;  Gipsies  cross- 
ing a  Common,  19  x  12^,  300  guineas  ;  Beaumaris, 
engraved  in  Roscoe's  "  North  Wales,"  and  for  the 


Art  Union,  1869,  420 guineas;  Golden  Vale,  Caer- 
marthen,  where  Jeremy  Taylor  lived  and  wrote, 
14!-  x  10^,  305  guineas;  Haddon  Hall,  from  the 
Mendel  collection,  4 1 o  guineas  ( 1 889,  1 95  guineas) ; 
Carthage,  450  guineas  (1889,  165  guineas) ;  Water 
Tower,  Kenilworth,  7  2Oguineas  (1889, 305  guineas) ; 
The  Night  Train,  29^5  x  29^,  610  guineas  (1889, 
350  guineas)  ;  Deerstalking,  Bolton  Park,  from  the 
H.  W.  Birch  collection,  34  x  22,  950  guineas  (cost 
Mr.  Quilter  ^250);  Hardwick  Castle,  windy  day, 
from  W.  M.  Bigg's  collection,  34  x  24,  960  guineas 
(this  cost  Mr.  Quilter  ^150);  Storm  on  the  Llugwy, 
from  Pont-y-Kyfin,  near  Capel  Curig,  exhibited 
October,  1871,  26^x31,  660  guineas  (1889,  350 
guineas)  ;  Green  Lanes,  30x25,  with  autograph 
letter  of  the  artist  to  Mr.  Joseph  Parrington,  who 
purchased  the  drawing  at  the  Water  Colour  Ex- 
hibition, 1845,  1400  guineas  (1889,  850  guineas)  ; 
Valeof  Clwyd,  27  x  21,  1,550  guineas  (1889,  2,300 
guineas) — the  last  two  pictures  cost  Mr.  Quilter, 
£600  each  ;  The  Hay  field,  exhibited  at  the  Water 
Colour  Society,  1850,  at  Leeds,  1868,  in  October, 
1871,  at  Burlington  Fine  Arts  Club,  1871,  and  at 
Burlington  House,  1873,  33  x  22>  2>8io  guineas 
(cost  ^500),  and  Peace  and  War,  34  x  23,  950 
guineas  (1889,  700  guineas).  P.  de  Wint,1  Kirk- 
stall  Abbey,  Yorkshire,  200  guineas ;  Farmyard 
and  buildings,  480  guineas  ;  Lancaster,  905  guineas 
(1889,  i,  100  guineas) ;  and  Southall,  Notts.,  1,650 
guineas  ;  Copley  Fielding,  Rivaulx  Abbey,  950 

1  The  1889  sale   included  one  other   important  De  Wint 
drawing,  Lincoln,  which  fetched  1,670  guineas. 


guineas ;  Loch  Awe,  Ben  Cruachan,  850  guineas, 
and  The  Mull  of  Galloway,  1,650  guineas  ;  the  first 
of  these  three  came  from  the  Bicknell  collection,  all 
were  exhibited  at  the  Water  Colour  Gallery,  and 
at  the  Royal  Academy,  1873;  Sir  John  Gilbert, 
Duke  of  Gloucester  and  his  Murders,  400  guineas 
(1889,  160  guineas),  and  "  To  Be,  or  Not  to  Be," 
410  guineas  (1889,  140  guineas)  ;  Carl  Haag,  Tyro- 
lese  Hunter  and  Mountain  Girl,  500  guineas  ;  En- 
camping at  Palmyra,  400  guineas,  and  Leaving 
Palmyra,  395  guineas — the  three  exhibited  at  the 
Loan  Collection,  1871 ;  James  Holland,  Roses,  275 
guineas  ;  W.  Hunt,  Plums,  mossy  ground,  oval, 
212  guineas  ;  Plums  and  Primroses  and  Bird's  nest, 
a  companion  pair  of  ovals,  from  the  J.  Harris  col- 
lection, 450  guineas  ;  Pineapple,  grapes  and  pome- 
granate, from  the  Bigg  collection,  210  guineas; 
Hut,  with  gipsies,  315  guineas  (1889,  1 80  guineas); 
Devotion,  420  guineas  (1889,  32°  guineas);  Prim- 
roses on  mossy  bank,  245  guineas  ;  Cymon  and 
Iphigenia,  from  the  Mendel  collection,  440  guineas  ; 
"  Too  Hot,"  from  the  John  Leigh  Clare  collection, 
exhibited  at  Manchester,  1857,  Royal  Academy, 
1873,  750  guineas  ;  and  The  Eaves  Dropper,  from 
the  J.  James  collection,  750  guineas  (1889,  460 
guineas);  J.  F.  Lewis,  Caged  Birds,  200  guineas  ; 
School  at  Cairo,  i ,  1 80  guineas  ( 1 889,  620  guineas) ; 
Lilium  Auratum,  i  ,o  i  oguineas  ( 1 889,  i  ,oooguineas) ; 
and  The  Prayer  of  Faith,  1,120  guineas  (1889,  720 
guineas) — the  last  two  were  the  drawings  for  the 
well  known  pictures  which  were  exhibited  at  the 
Royal  Academy;  P.  F.  Poole,  Peasant  Girls,  550 


guineas  (1889,  340  guineas),  and  Rustic  Mother 
and  Child,  500  guineas ;  Samuel  Prout,  Church  of 
St.  Pierre,  Caen,  exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy, 
1873,  800  guineas  ;  E.  Tayler,  The  Evening  Stroll, 
325  guineas  ;  F.  W.  Topham,  the  Holy  Well,  230 
guineas  (1889,  105  guineas)  ;  Little  Nell  in  the 
Churchyard,  310  guineas  (1889,  100  guineas),  and 
Oliver  Goldsmith,  when  at  Trinity  College,  Dublin, 
hearing  his  ballad  sung,  gives  his  last  farthing, 
250  guineas  ;  J.  M.  W.  Turner,1  Plymouth,  390 
guineas  (1889,  305  guineas)  ;  Cassiobury,  415 
guineas  ;  Tomb  of  Cecilia  Metella,  1827,  from  the 
Munro  collection,  320  guineas  (1889,  220  guineas) 
— these  two  were  at  the  Royal  Academy,  1873 ;  Mal- 
vern,  800 guineas;  Heidelberg,  1,450  guineas  (1889, 
1,1 10  guineas)  ;  Oberwesel,  Royal  Academy,  1873, 
and  from  the  collection  of  Oldham  Whitaker  and 
J.  Leigh  Ford,  1,5 50 guineas  (1889,  1,020 guineas); 
Reichenbach  on  the  Rhine,  240  guineas  ;  Geneva, 
285  guineas  (1889,  22°  guineas);  and  Thun,  280 
guineas  (1889,  240  guineas) — the  last  two  were  ex- 
hibited at  Burlington  House,  1873,  at  Leeds  in 
1 868,  and  are  from  General  Rawdon's  collection ;  F. 
Walker,  The  New  Boy,  200  guineas  ;  Fortuny,  In- 
teriorofa  Morocco  carpet  warehouse,  1,400  guineas. 
The  dispersal  of  the  collection  of  pictures  by  the 
Dutch  and  Flemish  masters  formed  by  Charles 
Bredel  (who  died  in  185 1),  and  of  that  of  the  Rev. 
John  Lucy,  of  Hampton  Lucy,  together  consti- 
tuted the  third  great  art  sale  event  of  1875.  The 

1  The  second  sale  included  Turner's  Hardraw  Fall,  n  x  16, 
605  guineas. 


sale  took  place  on  May  ist,  and  the  43  lots,  which 
comprised  the  Bredel  property,  included  the  fol- 
lowing works  :  Le  Nain,  Interior,  with  two  lads 
and  a  girl  playing  musical  instruments,  bird  cage 
on  a  trunk  on  the  right,  signed,  and  dated  1629, 

26  x  33,  470  guineas ;  A.  Watteau,  Two  Peasants 
dancing  before  a  Cabaret,  violin  player  and  other 
figures,  9x6,  250  guineas,  and  a  Danse  Cham- 
petre,  a  composition   of  25   figures,   25  x  32,    500 
guineas ;    N.    Berghem,    Woman  with   a  Distaff, 
landscape    with    hilly    and    broken    foreground, 
17x15,  from    the   Edward  Solly  collection,   900 
guineas;    J.    Both,    Landscape,    with    two   large 
trees  in  centre  of  the  foreground,  peasant  driving 
mule  laden  with  panniers,  with  two  men  on  horse- 
back in  the  distance,  man  and  two  dogs  crossing 
a  ford,  19  x  25,  1,650  guineas  ;  A.  Cuyp,  View  on 
a  Dutch  river,  church  and  six  windmills  in  dis- 
tance, 14  x  20,  310  guineas,  and  View  on  the  banks 
of  the  Maas,   youth   and   three  cows  and  sheep, 
tower   of   "  Het    huis    te    Mewer"    in    distance, 
1 8  x  29,  1,050  guineas  ;  C.  Dusart,  Farmyard,  with 
peasants   and  children,   signed,  and  dated   1687, 

27  x  24,  310  guineas  ;  M.  Hobbema,  River  scene, 
with  trees,    boat   with    two   figures,    signed,    and 
dated    1650,    18x25,    3,100   guineas;  N.    Maas, 
Interior,   with  girl  seated  making  lace,   calendar 
for    1655    on   wall,    22x17,    I>7°°   guineas;    F. 
Mieris,  Young  Lady  holding  palette,  on  copper, 
5x3,  250  guineas,  and  The  Enamoured  Cavalier, 
an  interior  with  cavalier  looking  at  a  pretty  girl 
who  is  filling  his  glass  from  a  silver  tankard,  with 


couple    embracing    in    a   doorway,    dated     1658, 
1 6  x  13,  4,100  guineas;  W.  Mieris,  An  owl  on  stand, 
two  figures  with   a   birdcage   in  landscape  back- 
ground, signed,  and  dated   1686,  5  x  4,  on  copper, 
260  guineas  ;  A.  Ostade,  the  "  Tric-trac  Players," 
interior  with  five  boors  round  a  table,  and  other 
figures,  12  x  10,  signed,  and  dated  1670,  from  the 
Clarke- Hibbert  collection  of  1802,   670  guineas; 
Rubens,  Christ  Triumphant  over  Sin  and  Death, 
28  x  19,  a  sketch,  410  guineas;  J.  Ruysdael,  The 
Ruin,  landscape,  with  ruin  and  figures,    18x25, 
2,200    guineas — this   celebrated  picture  was  for- 
merly   in    the   collections    of    M.    Morelli,    1776, 
M.  de  Calonne,   1788,  M.  Coders,  1789,  Mr.  W. 
Smith,    M.P.,    and    Lord    Radstock,    1826;    Jan 
Steen,  Interior,  with  large  projecting  chimney,  two 
women    seated    and    man     bowing    obsequiously 
before    them,    and    other    figures,    17x13,    630 
guineas ;    D.     Teniers,    Villagers    merrymaking, 
1 6  x  14,  signed,  370  guineas  (from  the  Heathcote 
collection,  1802)  ;  A.  Van  der  Neer,  Winter  Scene 
in  Holland,  frozen    river,  with  church  and   other 
buildings,  and  skaters,  530  guineas;  E.   Van  der 
Neer,  Interior,  with  a  young  lady  wearing  a  white 
cap,  black  kerchief  and  white  satin  robe,  signed, 
and  dated   1665,    13x10,   500  guineas;  D.  Van 
Tol,   Two  children  at   an    arched   open  window 
blowing  bubbles,  10  x  8,  260  guineas  ;  W.  Van  de 
Velde,  Calm  on  Dutch  coast,  13x16,  750  guineas  ; 
A.  Van  de   Velde,   Pastoral  scene,   woody  land- 
scape, with  sloping  meadow  in  front,  cows,  horse, 
sheep,  and  woman  milking  a  goat,  13  x  12,  dated 


1662,  "  in  every  respect  one  of  the  finest  pictures 
by  this  great  master  "  (Waagen),  respectively  in 
the  collections  of  the  Countess  of  Holderness, 
1802,  John  Ewer,  1832  (430  guineas),  Brooke 
Greville,  1836  (565  guineas),  and  was  purchased 
by  Mr.  Bredel  for  about  ^700 — it  now  realized 
4,300  guineas  ;  P.  Wouverman,  Winter  scene  on 
Dutch  canal,  with  figures,  12  x  14,  1,220  guineas, 
River  Scene,  with  picturesque  bridge  and  other 
buildings  on  bank,  with  figures,  13  x  19,  600 
guineas,  and  Departure  of  a  Hawking  party, 
chateau  with  gentleman  escorting  a  lady  to  her 
piebald  horse,  and  other  figures,  19  x  25,  580 
guineas;  J.  Wynants,  Landscape,  with  herdsman 
and  cattle,  by  A.  Van  de  Velde,  15  x  19,  350 
guineas,  and  Boy  angling,  cottages,  and  distant 
landscape,  14  x  19,  i, 800  guineas. 

A  few  unimportant  pctures  belonging  to  the 
Hon.  Baroness  Dimsdale  followed  the  Bredel  col- 
lection. The  Rev.  John  Lucy's  collection  of  91 
drawings  and  pictures  included  :  T.  Gainsborough, 
A  Landscape,  with  rustics  on  a  road,  church  in  the 
distance,  40  x  50,  3,300  guineas  ;  Van  de  Capella, 
River  Scene,  boats  at  anchor  in  a  calm,  figures  on 
a  jetty,  signed  and  dated  1561,  22  x  28,  390  guineas; 
W.  Mieris,  The  Grocer's  Shop,  woman  with  scales 
in  her  hand,  and  boy  at  open  window,  and  a  shop 
over  which  a  vine  is  trained,  15  x  13,  purchased 
in  1855  for  300  guineas,  and  now  sold  for  750 
guineas  ;  J.  Wynants  and  A.  Van  de  Velde,  Woody 
Landscape  with  two  decayed  trees,  figures,  and 
woman  carrying  a  bundle  on  her  head,  signed, 

240  THE    LUCY    SALE. 

and  dated  1683,  20  x  25,  3ioguineas;  A.  Watteau, 
Danse  Champetre,  a  composition  of  seven  figures, 
and  the  companion,  a  Musical  Conversation,  five 
figures,  circular,  8  inches,  together  510  guineas— this 
pair  was  sold  in  Lord  Carysfoot's  collection  in  1828 
for  60  guineas  to  Samuel  Rogers,  and  at  the  latter's 
sale  in  1856  for  320  guineas;  J.  and  A.  Both, 
Abraham  with  Hagar  and  Ishmael,  a  sunny  Italian 
landscape,  with  figures  on  a  road,  group  of  trees, 
and  a  castle  with  round  tower  and  arch  in  the 
distance,  41  x  49,  4,500  guineas — this  celebrated 
picture  was  in  the  collections  of  C.  H.  Wade,  1827, 
Major  Dunn,  1828,  and  the  late  H.  J.  Munro  re- 
spectively ;  and  W.  Van  de  Velde,  a  Fresh  Breeze, 
with  Dutch  man-of-war  in  front  and  six  others  in 
the  distance,  fishing  boats,  16  x  24,  650  guineas — 
from  the  Earl  of  Lichfield's  collection  at  Shug- 
borough,  when  it  was  known  as  "  The  Arrival  of 
William  III."  From  another  source,  "  the  property 
of  a  nobleman,"  otherwise  from  the  collection  of 
the  late  Marquis  of  Hertford,  K.G.,  at  Ragley 
Castle,  came  two  works  of  G.  Romney,  viz.,  Lady 
Hamilton  as  the  Tragic  Muse,  48  x  62,  240 
guineas,  and  Lady  Hamilton  as  the  Comic  Muse, 
the  companion,  310  guineas. 

The  sale  of  the  collection  of  modern  pictures 
belonging  to  Mr.  Thomas  Woolner,  R.A.,  141 
examples  in  all,  formed  the  chief  event  of  June,  1875 
(i2th),  the  total  realized  being  ^8,210.  The  pic- 
tures by  J.  M.  W.  Turner  were  the  chief  attraction 
of  this  sale,  and  were  :  Worcester  Cathedral,  from 
the  banks  of  the  Severn,  27x36,  engraved,  400 


guineas;  Kirkstall  Abbey  on  the  Aire,  24  x  36, 
engraved  by  Burnley  for  "  The  Rivers  of  Eng- 
land/' 260  guineas;  Crichton  Castle,  engraved 
by  G.  Cooke  for  "  Antiquities  of  Scotland,"  480 
guineas;  Whalers,  18  x  24,  310  guineas;  Nea- 
politan Fisher  Girls  surprised  while  Bathing, 
moonlight  effect,  24  x  30,  500  guineas  ;  and  a  num- 
ber of  other  works  by  Turner  which  realized  under 
,£100  each  ;  R.  P.  Bonington,  Old  French  Water 
Mill,  300  guineas  ;  Palace  of  Prince  Maffei,  Verona, 
190  guineas;  Francis  I.  and  his  Sister,  "  Souvent 
femme  varie.  Bien  fol  est  qui  s'y  fie,"  engraved 
by  Heath,  220  guineas,  and  others;  William 
Collins,  The  Ferry,  27  x  36,  276  guineas;  John 
Crome,  Bruges  on  the  Ostend  river,  moonlight 
effect,  280  guineas ;  and  Landscape  near  Thorpe, 
290  guineas  ;  J.  S.  Cotman,  Chateau,  in  Normandy, 
18x24,  275  guineas;  and  Boscastle  Cove,  550 
guineas;  J.  Linnell,  Hanson  Foot,  Dovedale,  1846, 
45°  guineas  ;  and  The  Last  Gleam  before  the 
Storm,  54  x  30,  1847,  2,500  guineas  (from  the 
Eden  sale  of  1874,  when  it  realized  the  same 
amount :  it  was  purchased  of  the  artist  for  ^300)  ; 
Sir  J.  E.  Millais,  Lorenzo  and  Isabella  ("the 
Kick"),  850  guineas — this  early  picture  appeared  in 
the  Royal  Academy  of  1 849  ;  at  the  Windus  sale  in 
1868  it  sold  for  400  guineas,  and  in  1883  it  again 
changed  hands  for  1,050  guineas,  and  is  now  in  the 
Walker  Art  Gallery,  Liverpool ;  and  Ferdinand 
lured  by  Ariel,  a  scene  from  the  "  Tempest,"  300 
guineas,  which  in  the  Elliston  sale  of  1874  brought 
220  guineas. 

I.  R 


The  last  important  sale  of  the  year  took  place 
on  July  3rd,  and,  like  several  of  the  others,  it  was 
made  up  of  various  properties.  At  the  head  of 
these  came  the  collection  of  pictures  formed  by  the 
late  Jesse  Watts  Russell,of  Ham  Hall,  Staffordshire. 
The  most  important  items  in  this  collection,  which 
produced  the  total  of  £  18,771  iSs.  6d.,  for  fifty 
lots,  were  as  follows  :  T.  Gainsborough,  a  Wood 
scene,  with  figures,  a  view  near  the  village  of 
Conard,  Suffolk,  said  to  have  been  painted  for 
Alderman  Boydell,  72  x  54, 1,150  guineas  (National 
Gallery) ;  R.  Wilson,  View  on  the  Arno,  54  x  81, 
from  the  Lord  de  Tabley  sale,  1827  (where  it 
realized  470  guineas),  1,800  guineas  (Lord  Over- 
stone)  ;  W.Collins, The  Fisherman's  Return, 2, 2 50 
guineas;  Sir  E.  Landseer,  St.  Bernard  Dogs, 
96  x  72,  2,150  guineas  ;  Sir  A.  W.  Callcott,  Dutch 
Fishing  Boats  running  foul,  1,600  guineas;  J.  M. 
W.  Turner,  High  Street,  Oxford,  36  x  24,  1000 
guineas,  and  Oxford,  from  the  Abingdon  Road, 
36  x  24,  1,220  guineas — both  these  pictures  were 
painted  for  Alderman  James  Wyatt,  of  Oxford ; 
H.  Howard,  the  Pleiades,  140  guineas;  W.  Owen, 
The  Fortune  Teller,  280  guineas  ;  H.Thompson, 
girl  crossing  a  brook  leading  a  child,  life-size 
figures,  820  guineas  ;  G.  Romney,  Titania,  Puck, 
and  the  Changeling  (from  the  De  Tabley  collec- 
tion, where  it  sold  for  155  guineas),  230  guineas; 
J.  Opie,  the  Schoolmistress,  from  the  Watson 
Taylor  collection,  750  guineas  (Lord  Overstone) ; 
W.  Hilton,  Una,  360  guineas  ;  J.  Constable,  Har- 
wich Lighthouse,  18  x  12,  360  guineas;  Samuel 

MINOR  SALES,  1875.  243 

Prout,  Market  Day  at  Malines,  cathedral  and 
figures,  36  x  30,  water-colour  drawing,  290  guineas ; 
A.  Cuyp,  River  Scene,  with  cattle,  54  x  30,  750 
guineas;  Van  de  Capella,  Castle  of  Dordrecht, 
with  shipping,  54x30,  720  guineas;  Ruysdael, 
River  Scene  in  Norway,  650  guineas ;  and  Claude, 
Landscape,  with  figures,  40  x  26,  210  guineas — the 
last  four  pictures  were  formerly  in  Lord  Radstock's 

The  other  important  pictures  sold  on  the  same 
day  as  the  foregoing  were  the  following:  Sir  J. 
Reynolds,  two  full-length  Portraits  of  the  Earl  and 
Countess  of  Bellamont,  respectively  530  guineas 
and  2,400  guineas ;  G.  Romney,  Lady  Hamilton 
at  the  Spinning-wheel,  770  guineas  (Lord  Nor- 
manton),  Lady  Hamilton  as  a  Bacchante,  200 
guineas,  and  Portrait  of  Mrs.  Burton,  260  guineas  ; 
T.  Gainsborough,  Portrait  of  Bach,  the  musical 
composer,  600  guineas ;  J.  Weenix,  Grand  upright 
landscape,  with  figures  and  dead  game,  signed,  and 
dated  1 700,  540  guineas  ;  David  Cox,  Morecambe 
Bay,  a  water-colour  drawing,  430  guineas ;  P.  de 
Wint,  Bolton  Abbey,  also  water-colour  drawing, 
450  guineas  ;  and  Sir  J.  Reynolds,  Portrait  of  Lady 
Gordon  with  her  son,  320  guineas. 

We  can  only  briefly  refer  to  a  few  of  the  less 
important  collections  which  were  dispersed  during 
the  1875  season.  Mr.  William  Leafs  collection 
of  water-colour  drawings,  pictures,  and  statuary, 
538  lots,  was  sold  on  May  6th,  7th,  and  8th. 
Mr.  Gladstone's  collection  of  works  of  art,  June 
23-26,  was  chiefly  remarkable  for  the  numerous 

244  THE    WYNN    ELLIS    SALE. 

fine  examples  of  Wedgwood  ;  there  were  68 1  lots, 
which  realized  the  total  of  £9,19 3-  The  only 
pictures  which  call  for  special  notice  were  W. 
Dyce,  Lady  with  coronet  of  jasmine,  400  guineas, 
and  Bonifazio,  Virgin  and  Child  in  a  landscape, 
from  the  Fonthill  collection,  460  guineas.  Two 
portions  of  the  Bohn  collection  of  porcelain  were 
sold  in  March  and  June  of  this  year ;  and  the  in- 
teresting collection  of  old  English  and  foreign 
plate  formed  by  Dr.  Dasent  realized  close  on 
^4,000  in  June. 

The  great  picture  sale  of  1876  was  that  of  the 
collection  formed  by  the  late  Wynn  Ellis.  This 
distinguished  collector  was  born  at  Oundle,  in 
Northamptonshire,  in  July,  1790,  and  in  1812 
started  as  a  haberdasher,  hosier,  and  mercer  at  1 6, 
Ludgate  Street,  London,  where  he  gradually 
created  the  largest  silk  business  in  London,  adding 
house  to  house  as  opportunity  "occurred  of  pur- 
chasing the  property  around  him,  and  passing  from 
the  retail  to  the  wholesale  business  in  1830  ("  Dic- 
tionary of  National  Biography,"  infra  Ellis).  He 
sat  in  the  House  of  Commons  as  an  advanced 
Liberal  from  May,  1831,  to  December,  1834, 
and  again  from  March,  1839,  to  July,  1847.  He 
owned  the  manor  of  Ponsborne  Park,  Hertford- 
shire (which  he  sold  a  few  months  before  his 
death),  and  Tankerton  Tower,  near  Canterbury. 
He  died  at  30,  Cadogan  Place,  Sloane  Street, 
London,  Nov.  2oth,  1875,  and  was  buried  at  Whit- 
stable.  By  his  will  he  left  numerous  legacies  to 
gharitable  and  religious  institutions,  and  his  per- 

THE    WYNN    ELLIS    SALE.  245 

sonalty  was  proved  under  ,£600,000  on  January 
8th,  1876.  He  had  retired  from  active  business  in 
1871,  when  the  firm  which  he  established  was  (and 
is  still)  continued  under  the  name  of  John  Howell 
and  Co.  His  great  hobby  was  picture  collecting, 
and  at  the  time  of  his  death  he  had  formed  an  ex- 
ceedingly extensive  gallery.  His  ancient  pictures, 
402  in  number,  he  left  to  the  English  nation  ;  but 
of  these  the  Trustees  of  the  National  Gallery 
selected  only  forty-four,  which  are  now  placed  in 
a  separate  room  as  the  Wynn  Ellis  bequest.  The 
following  analysis  of  the  sale  will  at  once  show  the 
comparative  values  of  each  day's  dispersal  : 

LOTS.  £  S.      d. 

May  5.     Objects  of  art 146  4,600  o  o 

„     6.     Modern  pictures      ....  135  32,208  18  o 

„  27.     Dutch  and  Flemish  pictures  .  156  10,387  13  o 
June  17.     French,  Spanish  and  Italian 

pictures 159  6,703  4  6 

July   15.     Remaining       pictures      and 

water-colour  drawings .     .  145  2,586  3  o 

TOTAL  ,£56,485  18     6 

"  The  sale  of  the  modern  pictures  belonging  to 
the  Wynn  Ellis  collection  on  Saturday  last,"  wrote 
The  Times  correspondent,  Monday,  May  8th, 
"  created  such  a  sensation  as  has  never  been  ex- 
perienced in  the  picture  world  of  London.  Through- 
out the  week  the  pictures  had  attracted  consider- 
able numbers  of  visitors,  but  on  the  day  preced- 
ing the  sale  the  interest  came  to  a  climax,  and 
crowds  filled  the  rooms  of  Messrs.  Christie,  Man- 
son  and  Woods  all  day.  Anyone  passing  the 


neighbourhood  of  St.  James's  Square  might  well 
have  supposed  that  some  great  lady  was  holding  a 
reception,  and  this,  in  fact,  was  pretty  much  what 
was  going  on  within  the  gallery  in  King  Street. 
All  the  world  had  come  to  see  a  beautiful  duchess 
created  by  Gainsborough,  and,  so  far  as  we  could 
observe,  they  all  came,  saw,  and  were  conquered 
by  her  fascinating  beauty.  Even  those  who  were 
prepared  by  Walpole's  glowing  description  of 
Georgiana,  Duchess  of  Devonshire  —  that  her 
'  lively  modesty  and  modest  familiarity  made  her 
a  phenomenon  ' — were  not  disappointed,  though 
there  were  some  few  who,  equally  charmed  with 
the  picture,  failed  to  recognize  the  lovely  senti- 
ment and  refinement  of  the  portraits  of  her  by 
Sir  Joshua  at  Chatsworth  and  at  Althorp  .... 
When  the  portrait  was  placed  before  the  crowded 
audience,  a  burst  of  applause  showed  the  universal 
admiration  of  the  picture ;  and  after  this  Mr. 
Woods  proceeded  to  give  the  history  of  the  work, 
as  far  as  he  knew  it.  It  was  exhibited  as  a  whole- 
length  at  the  Royal  Academy  in  1783,  the  year  in 
which  also  was  exhibited  the  portrait  of  Mrs. 
Sheridan,  now  belonging  to  Baron  Rothschild.  It 
was  purchased  for  60  guineas  by  Mr.  Wynn 
Ellis  of  the  late  Mr.  Bentley,  the  picture  re- 
storer, who  had  it  in  1^39  for  ^50  from  a  Mrs. 
Magennis,  and  it  had  been  for  many  years  in  Mr. 
Ellis's  collection."  The  biddings  commenced  at 
1,000  guineas,  and  rapidly  advanced  to  10,000 
guineas,  which  was  the  offer  of  the  auctioneers  on 
behalf  of  the  then  Earl  of  Dudley  ;  on  an  advance 


of  100  guineas  on  this  the  picture  became  Mr. 
Agnew's  property  for  10,100  guineas — the  highest 
amount  up  to  that  time  paid  for  a  picture  at 
Christie's.  The  picture  measured  59^-  x  45,  and 
the  duchess  is  wearing  a  white  dress  and  blue  silk 
petticoat  and  sash,  and  a  large  black  hat  and 
feathers  ;  the  head  is  turned  three-quarters  to  the 
right,  the  eyes  directed  towards  the  spectator,  the 
hair  profusely  curled,  powdered,  and  falling  on  the 
shoulders ;  the  complexion  very  brilliant,  with  very 
red  lips ;  and  the  left  hand,  which  is  very  slightly 
painted  in,  seen  upon  the  dress ;  the  background 
is  sky,  with  foliage  at  each  side.  We  cannot  here 
enter  into  even  a  summarized  account  of  the  dis- 
cussion which  raged  furiously  in  the  papers  at  the 
time  as  to  the  authenticity  of  this  picture :  it  may 
or  may  not  have  been  a  genuine  work  of  Gains- 
borough, but  the  general  opinion  seems  to  have 
been  that  the  picture  was  beautiful  enough  to  have 
been  the  work  of  the  great  English  master.  Its 
subsequent  history  is  briefly  told  :  it  was  exhibited 
at  Messrs.  Thomas  Agnew  and  Sons'  gallery  at 
39B,  Old  Bond  Street,  where  on  the  night  of  May 
26th  it  was  cut  away  from  the  stretching  frame  and 
stolen.  This  calamity  gave  the  picture  a  world- 
wide fame  which  totally  eclipsed  the  sensation  pro- 
duced by  the  record  price  at  which  it  had  been 
sold  on  May  6th  previously.  It  has  never  been 
recovered,  although  the  mystery  surrounding  its 
disappearance  has  upon  several  occasions  been 
"  explained,"  notably  in  the  Pall  Mall  Gazelle 
of  July  24th,  1893,  where  the  "  Confession  of  the 

248  THE    WYNN    ELLIS    SALE. 

theft  of  the  vanished  Gainsborough  "  forms  a  sen- 
sational article  of  one  and  a  half  columns.  The 
mystery,  nevertheless,  is  still  unsolved. 

This   sale  included  several  other  works  cata- 
logued as  by  Gainsborough,  but  the  only  one  which 
we  need  mention  is  Gad's  Hill  Oak,  with  group  of 
peasant  children  and  donkeys,  49  x  39,  3 10  guineas. 
The  best  of  the  other  pictures  were  the  following  : 
G.  Morland,  a  Farmyard,  125  guineas,  and  The 
Gun  Inn,  150  guineas;  P.  Nasmyth,  View  on  the 
Essex  Coast,  20  x  43,  200  guineas  ;  Woody  Land- 
scape,   12^  x    17,  530  guineas;    View  in   North- 
amptonshire, with  cottages  and  figures  sitting  on  a 
felled  tree,  27  x  39,  650  guineas;  and  a  Woody 
Landscape  with  figures,  12x16,  400  guineas  ;  Sir 
Joshua  Reynolds,  whole  length  Portrait  of  Mrs. 
Mathew,  with  a  spaniel,  in  a  landscape,  900  guineas  ; 
Nelly  O'Brien,  in  white  dress,  leaning  on  a  crimson 
cushion,    30  x   24,    525    guineas-;    Babes    in    the 
Wood,  28  x  24,  330  guineas ;  and  several  others 
which  realized  small  amounts  and  were  probably 
replicas  or  copies ;  Sir  D.  Wilkie,  The  Rabbit  on 
the  Wall,  23  x  30,  1,000  guineas;  J.  M.  W.  Turner, 
Waterfall,  with  figures,  15  x  2, 140 guineas;  View  on 
the  Tyne,  28  x  38,  230  guineas  ;  Kilgarran  Castle, 
Evening  effect,   22  x  28,   450   guineas,  Whalley 
Bridge,   24  x  34,   900   guineas ;  Conway   Castle, 
41  x  54,   2,800  guineas   (Duke  of  Westminster)  ; 
and  the  Temple  of  Jupiter  at  ^Egina,  46  x  70,  of 
which  the  authenticity  was  at  the  time  of  the  sale 
questioned,1  2,000  guineas  ;  R.  Wilson,  Niobe,  430 
See  The  Times,  May  9th  and  loth,  1879. 

THE    WYNN    ELLIS    SALE.  249 

guineas;  J.  Constable,  Glebe  Farm,  Suffolk, 
1 8  x  23,  370  guineas;  John  Crome,  View  of 
Yarmouth  Harbour,  15^  x  26,  400  guineas  ;  and 
The  Oak,  35  x  42,  330  guineas ;  W.  Etty, 
Cymocles  and  Imogen,  310  guineas. 

The  sale  of  May  27th  included  the  Dutch  and 
Flemish  pictures,  of  which  the  important  examples 
were  as  follows :  C.  de  Jonghe,  Old  London 
Bridge,  36  x  18,  500  guineas;  A.  Diirer,  Portrait 
of  Katherine  Furleyer,  painted  in  tempera  on  linen, 
322  guineas;  Rembrandt,  Portrait  of  a  gentleman  in 
black  dress  and  hat,  with  ruff,  an  oval,  610  guineas, 
and  The  Tribute  Money,  27  x  36,  (from  the  collec- 
tion of  Sir  Simon  Clarke,  600  guineas,)  360  guineas ; 
and  Cuyp,  Landscape,  with  shepherds  and  shep- 
herdesses, known  as  the  "Coventry  House  Cuyp/' 
1,140  guineas.  On  June  i7th,  the  pictures  of  the 
French,  Spanish,  and  Italian  schools  comprised 
159  lots,  probably  not  one  of  which  was  a  genuine 
work  by  the  artist  to  whom  it  was  attributed, 
very  few  of  these  realized  over  ^100.  The  final 
portion  of  this  collection  was  sold  on  July  i5th, 
and  the  only  work  which  realized  an  "  old  master  " 
price  was  Murillo,  The  Immaculate  Conception, 
painted  for  an  archbishop  of  Lima,  1681,  410 

Another  great  sale  of  the  year  was  that  of  the 
modern  pictures  and  drawings  of  Mr.  Albert  Levy, 
sold  on  March  31  st,  April  ist  and  April  6th,  1876. 
This  sale,  which  comprised  386  lots  and  produced 
a  total  of  ,£77,756  35.  6d.,  is  chiefly  notable  for  the 
extraordinary  number  which  it  contained  of  works 

250          THE  ALBERT  LEVY  SALE. 

by  David  Cox,  who  was  represented  by  1 1  drawings 
in  sepia,  77  in  water  colours,  and  18  pictures ;  and 
Turner,  of  whose  drawings  there  were  16.  The 
more  important  pictures  of  David  Cox  were  the 
following  :  Cart  Loading  from  a  Smack,  7x9,  280 
guineas ;  Driving  the  Flock,  8  x  1 1£,  280  guineas  ; 
Stepping  Stones,  Bettws,  n  x  15,  320  guineas; 
Harlech  Castle,  peasants  reaping,  10  x  18,  300 
guineas;  Haddon  Hall,  14^  x  18,  380  guineas; 
View  near  Bettws,  15  x  20,  320  guineas;  Welsh 
view,  two  figures,  distant  sea,  18  x  25,  425  guineas  ; 
View  in  Wales,  man  on  grey  horse,  11x15,  260 
guineas ;  View  on  the  Thames  below  Gravesend, 
rainbow  effect,  17x27,  430  guineas  ;  Wind,  Rain, 
and  Sunshine,  1845,  l%  x  25'  MOO  guineas  (in 
1863  this  picture  was  sold  for  ^250) ;  Solitude,  1 853, 
36x31,  700  guineas;  Counting  the  Flock,  1852, 
24  x  34, 2, 300 guineas;  The  Hayfield,  1852,18  x  28, 
1,200  guineas  ;  Rhyl  Sands,  18-54,  30  x  54,  1,900 
guineas,  Bettws-y-Coed  Church,  1857,  31  x  43, 
2,100  guineas;  and  Caer  Cennen  Castle,  Caer- 
marthenshire,  38  x  28,  2,500  guineas.  The  more 
important  of  the  drawings  by  David  Cox  were 
as  follows:  Golden  Vale,  Caermarthen,  10x14, 
310  guineas;  The  Missing  Flock,  25x30,  310 
guineas;  Noon,  Going  to  the  Cornfield,  14  x  20,  330 
guineas;  A  Forest  Scene,  JoJ-x  14^-,  290  guineas; 
Gossips  on  the  Bridge,  17  x  24,  405  guineas  ;  Caer- 
narvon Castle,  loj  x  17!-,  305  guineas;  Old  Mill 
and  Moor,  12x19,  360  guineas  ;  Lancaster  Castle, 
morning,  11x19, 52Oguineas;  Cross  Roads,  23  x  34, 
800  guineas;  Ulverston  Sands,  23  x  33,  1,650 

THE    LEVY    SALE.  25! 

guineas;  Changing  Pastures,  23  x  33, 1,270  guineas; 
TheSkylarks,  Anthurst  Hill,  24  x  34, 1,300 guineas ; 
and  Junction  of  the  Severn  and  the  Wye,  30  x  41, 
350  guineas. 

The  Turner  drawings  included  Suez,  5^  x  8,  250 
guineas;  Joppa,  5x8,  260  guineas;  the  Glacier  des 
Boissons,  9x13,  290  guineas ;  Plymouth,  7  x  1 1£, 
265  guineas;  Le  Havre,  7  x  10,  250  guineas; 
Meyrick  Abbey,  n  x  16,  710  guineas;  Exeter, 
njx  16,  710  guineas;  and  Patterdale,  lojx  15^, 
650  guineas  (in  the  Gillott  sale  this  realized  800 
guineas),  all  of  which  excepting  the  third  in  the 
list  have  been  engraved.  W.  J.  M tiller,  The 
Slave  Market,  24  x  41,  2,760  guineas  ;  Gillingham 
Church,  1 4^x24,  530  guineas;  Good  Samaritan, 
560  guineas  ;  Whitchurch,  with  two  children  near  a 
stream,  31x56,  1,250  guineas;  Street  in  Cairo, 
with  figures,  12  x  15,  1,040  guineas  (in  1865  this 
picture  sold  for  305  guineas) ;  and  The  Pyramids, 
440  guineas ;  John  Phillip,  The  Pride  of  Seville, 
1,000  guineas  (at  the  Guest  sale  of  1863  this  sold 
for  250  guineas). 

The  Levy  pictures  sold  on  April  6th  included 
the  following  :  J.  Crome,  sen.,  Hautbois  Common, 
385  guineas ;  T.  Gainsborough,  Portrait  of  Ten- 
ducci,  250  guineas  ;  G.  Morland,  View  at  Enderby, 
2  50  guineas  ;  Landscape  with  a  gipsy  encampment, 
1 790,420  guineas  (this  sold  for  145  guineas  in  1863); 
and  Evening,  or  the  Postboy's  Return,  600  guineas; 
P.  Nasmyth,  Landscape  with  figures,  12  x  16, 
320  guineas  ;  and  Landscape  near  Godstone 
10  x  15,  310  guineas  ;  Cima  il  Conegliano,  Virgin 

252  THE    LEVY    SALE. 

seated  with  infant  Christ,  from  Prince  Napoleon's 
collection,  23  x  19,  360  guineas  (Lord  Overstone) ; 
Gerard  Dow,  an  Astrologer,  at  a  window,  12x8, 
680  guineas  (at  the  Earl  of  Clare's  sale  in  1864 
this  sold  for  670  guineas,  and  at  the  Delafield  sale 
in  1870  it  brought  760  guineas)  ;  F.  Hals,  the 
Singer,  23  x  19,  250  guineas;  and  Portrait  of  the 
Artist,  27  x  24,  250  guineas  ;  M.  Hobbema,  Land- 
scape, richly  wooded,  16x34,  950  guineas;  F. 
Mieris,The  Enamoured  Cavalier,  from  the  Bredel 
collection,  3,500  guineas  (Lord  Dudley)  ;  W. 
Mieris,  The  Guitar  Player,  12  x  10,  460  guineas 
(this  picture  was  again  sold  in  1879  and  realized 
490  guineas)  ;  Adrian  Ostade,  The  Card-players, 
270  guineas ;  J.  Ruysdael,  View  in  the  environs  of 
a  forest,  680  guineas  (Salting)  ;  View  in  a  grove  of 
trees,  370  guineas;  and  a  View  in  the  Hollands 
Deep,  290 guineas;  Solomon  Ruysdael,  Landscape, 
484  guineas;  and  a  River  Scene  with  cattle,  400 
guineas ;  Jan  Steen,  Bad  Company,  an  interior 
14  x  16,  950  guineas  (at  the  Townsend  sale  in  1873 
this  realized  1,020  guineas)  ;  A.  Van  de  Velde, 
View  in  a  woody  park,  900  guineas  ;  and  P.  Wou- 
verman,  a  Hawking  Party,  12  x  16,  880  guineas 
(from  the  Cope  collection,  1872,  920  guineas), 
and  View  on  a  Canal  in  Holland,  winter  scene, 
12^-x  i4j,  1,050  guineas  (from  the  Bredel  collec- 

After  Mr.  Levy's  death  the  remainder  of  his 
collection  (including  a  few  which  did  not  reach 
the  reserved  figures  in  1876),  was  sold  at  Christie's 
on  May  3rd,  1884.  There  were  in  all  fifty-nine 

R.    FOSTER    OF    CLEWER    MANOR.  253 

pictures  and  drawings,  which  realized  the  total  of 
,£9,099  i6s.  6d.  The  following  list  includes  the 
more  important  works  in  this  sale  :  G.  Romney, 
Portrait  of  Mrs.  Robinson  (?)  as  "  Perdita,"  from  the 
Anderdon  sale  of  1879  (250 guineas),  490 guineas  ; 
J.  Crome,  Hautbois  Common,  known  also  as  "  The 
Clump  of  Trees,"  25  x  35  (bought  in  in  1876  for 
385  guineas),  395  guineas ;  Rubens,  the  Meeting 
of  Jacob  and  Esau,  a  sketch,  19  x  16,  295  guineas  ; 
N.  Maes,  Interior,  with  woman  dressing  a  child's 
hair,  and  two  other  children,  24  x  18,  305  guineas  ; 
A.  Cuyp,  Sunny  Landscape  with  miller's  waggon, 
13  x  19,  360  guineas — the  last  three  were  from  the 
Novar  collection ;  J.  Ruysdael,  Landscape  with 
waterfall  and  bridge,  340  guineas ;  Jan  Steen, 
Doctor's  Visit  to  the  Sick  Lady,  17  x  14,  315 
guineas  (bought in,  1876,  for  195  guineas);  and  The 
Proposal,  290  guineas,  at  which  price  it  was  bought 
in  at  the  1876  sale;  and  Rembrandt,  Portrait  of 
himself  as  the  Calvinist,  in  black  dress  and  cap, 
with  gold  chain,  24  x  19,  signed  and  dated  1635, 
i, 800  guineas. 

The  last  sensational  picture  sale  of  1876  was 
that  of  the  Clewer  Manor  collection,  which  had 
been  formed  by  three  generations  of  the  Foster 
family.  Of  the  nineteen  choice  pictures  in  this 
collection,  three  were  withdrawn  during  the  sale, 
and  the  remaining  sixteen  realized  the  record 
total  of  ,£34,465,  or  an  average  of  over  2,000 
guineas  each.  Jan  Steen,  The  Guitar  Lesson, 
24  x  20,  300  guineas,  and  the  Tric-Trac  Players, 
interior  of  an  estaminet,  with  a  group  of  four  men 

254  THE    CLEWER    MANOR    SALE. 

and  other  figures,  24  x  27,  720  guineas  (this  picture 
was  again  put  up  at  Christie's  in  1884,  when  it 
declined  to  400  guineas)  ;  A.  Van  de  Velde,  Sea 
Piece,  fresh  breeze,  numerous  ships  and  other 
vessels  with  gilded  yacht,  17  x  24,  700  guineas 
(National  Gallery  of  Ireland),  and  a  Calm  with 
fishing  boats  near  a  jetty  drying  their  sails  and  a 
man-of-war  at  anchor,  25  x  30,  2,250  guineas  ;  A. 
Cuyp,  view  on  the  Rhine,  22  x  30,  3,000  guineas, 
and  a  hilly  Landscape,  fine  early  morning  effect, 
cavalier  in  a  red  cloak  on  a  grey  horse,  and  other 
figures,  26x32,  4,800  guineas;  J.  Both,  a  Rocky 
Pass,  tall  trees  and  rich  landscape  in  the  distance, 
42  x  40,  ,£1,600  ;  P.  Wouverman,  Hilly  Sandbank, 
with  river  in  distance  and  figures  of  men  and 
horses,  7^  x  10,  280 guineas;  and  Le  Port  Drapeau, 
three  cavaliers,  with  other  figures,  horses,  and 
bridge  over  a  stream,  22  x  26,  1,250  guineas;  N. 
Berghem,  Two  Herdsmen  and  cattle  passing  a  ford, 
1,150  guineas;  Rachael  Ruysch,  Vase  of  flowers 
with  insects  in  a  vase  on  a  slab,  42  x  34,  400 
guineas  (at  the  Earl  of  Shrewsbury's  sale  in  1857 
this  sold  for  145  guineas) ;  Karel  du  Jardin,  La 
Fratche  Matinee,  20  x  18,  700  guineas  ;  J.  Ruys- 
dael,  the  Mill,  with  house  beneath  the  trees,  and 
miller  raising  sluice,  from  the  Casimir  Perier  collec- 
tion, 22x39,  1,750  guineas;  A.  Ostade,  Interior 
of  a  village  ale-house,  with  man  and  woman  danc- 
ing, fiddler  on  a  bench,  and  numerous  other  figures, 
1 8  x  15,  3,600  guineas;  Rubens,  The  Virgin  in 
scarlet  robe  with  pale  purple  mantle  and  lighter 
drapery,  with  infant  Saviour.  52  x  36,  bought  in  at 

THE    CLEWKR    MANOR    SALE.  255 

the  Hart  Davis  sale,  1814,  for  1,000  guineas,  after- 
wards sold  for  i,  100  guineas  to  Sir  M.  M.  Sykes,  at 
whose  sale,  in  1 848,  it  brought  ^170;  it  now  passed 
into  Baron  Rothschild's  collection  for  4,000  guineas. 
The  last  of  the  Clewer  Manor  property  was  the 
celebrated  Greuze,  a  Portrait  of  a  little  girl  of  five 
or  six  years  old  seated  on  a  rush-bottomed  chair, 
holding  her  spaniel  puppy  close  to  her  bosom, 
and  looking  aside  to  the  spectator,  24  x  20,  from  the 
Watson  Taylor  collection,  1832  (670  guineas), 
6,400  guineas  (Lord  Dudley). 

The  three  pictures  which  were  withdrawn  from 
the  1876  sale  were  sold  on  July  i3th,  1895,  after 
Mr.  Richard  Foster's  death.  These  three  pro- 
duced a  total  of  8,880  guineas,  which,  added  to 
the  former  amount,  shows  the  extraordinary  amount 
of  ,£43,789  for  nineteen  pictures.  The  three  pic- 
tures in  question  were  Murillo,  The  Holy  Family 
with  the  child  St.  John  and  St.  Joseph,  formerly 
in  the  collection  of  Lord  Nugent,  and  afterwards 
of  Sir  W.  Eustace,  from  whom  Mr.  Foster  bought 
it,  46  x  43,  4,000  guineas ;  J.  Weenix,  Dead  hare, 
two  partridges  and  other  birds,  with  gun  and  other 
accessories  of  the  chase,  51  x  41,  680  guineas; 
and  J.  Ruysdael,  A  Sea  view :  the  entrance  to  the 
Y,  man-of-war  lying  at  anchor,  with  fishing  smacks, 
42  x  46,  4,200  guineas. 

Following  the  Clewer  Manor  pictures,  in  1876, 
came  a  number  from  various  sources,  including 
some  from  Mr.  Dunn  Gardner's  collection.  We 
need  only  mention  the  following : — W.  Van  de 
Velde,  a  Calm,  with  many  vessels,  i6x  18,  550 

256  MINOR    SALES,    1876. 

guineas  ;  from  the  Casimir  Perier  collection  (at  the 
dispersal  of  which,  in  1848,  this  work  was  pur- 
chased by  Mr.  Dunn  Gardner  for  an  identical  sum) ; 
Rubens,  Landscape,  woman  and  cows,  490  guineas  ; 
H.  van  der  Goes,  The  Stem  of  Jesse,  30  x  24,  270 
guineas, — this  extremely  beautiful  picture  was  for- 
merly in  the  Belvedere  collection  of  the  late  Sir 
Culling  Eardley,  Bart.,  and  it  was  again  sold  on  July 
1 3th,  1895,  for  the  much  enhanced  price  of  610 
guineas  ;  Greuze,  three-quarter  length  Portrait  of  a 
lady,  said  to  be  Madame  Westrenen,  750  guineas 
(Holloway)  ;  Murillo,  the  Madonna  de  la  Faja,  a 
repetition  of  the  celebrated  picture  (see  p.  164)  in 
the  Montpensier  collection,  Seville,  1,250  guineas  ; 
W.  Collins,  Landscape,  with  Chichester  Cathedral 
in  the  distance,  750  guineas  ;  and  Sir  J.  Reynolds, 
Kitty  Fisher  as  Cleopatra,  grey  tunic  over  white, 
cup  in  her  left  hand,  29  x  24,  2,350  guineas. 

In  addition  to  the  foregoing  sales  of  1876,  we 
may  briefly  mention  a  few  of  the  minor  auctions  of 
art  property  held  during  the  same  year :  Mr.  W. 
Kershaw's  engravings,  drawings  and  pictures,  six 
days,  February.  Mr.  Sigismund  Rucker's  water- 
colour  drawings,  March  nth,  among  which  were: 
Sir  F.  W.  Burton,  An  apple-girl,  15x12,  205 
guineas  ;  The  Virgin's  Day,  girl  with  lily,  12  x  10, 
410  guineas  ;  Tyrolese  boys  bird  trapping,  250 
guineas  ;  and  Faust's  first  sight  of  Marguerite,  600 
guineas.  This  collection  included  a  picture  in  oils 
by  J.  L.  Dyckmans,  of  Antwerp,  The  Lace  maker, 
650  guineas  ;  and  the  pictures  from  another  source 
in  the  same  day's  sale  included  another  by  the 


same  artist,  The  Startling  Account,  350  guineas, 
and  also  W.  Collins,  A  Landscape,  with  girl  on  grey 
pony  and  Chichester  Cathedral  in  the  distance, 
38  x  24,  790  guineas  (in  the  following  year  this 
work  was  again  sold  for  565  guineas).  Sir  Abraham 
H  ume's  collection  of  more  than  200  Rembrandt  etch- 
ings realized  over  ^4, 2 90  on  June  ist ;  a  few  of  the 
more  important  examples  were  as  follows  : — Christ 
Healing  the  Sick,  best  known  as  "  The  Hundred- 
Guilder  Piece,"  from  Rembrandt's  having  once 
sold  it  for  this  price  (about  ;£8),  second  impression 
on  India  paper,  with  i  J  inches  margin,  205  guineas ; 
The  Shell,  first  state,  white  background,  ^200 — 
"  this  was  the  well-known  work,  being  nothing 
more  than  a  simple  conical  spotted  shell  of  the 
natural  size,  about  3  inches  long,  but  so  exquisitely 
drawn  as  to  be  quite  a  marvel  among  etchings  "  ; 
Landscape,  with  a  ruined  tower  and  a  clear 
foreground,  second  state,  ^230;  Portrait  of  Old 
Haaring,  third  state,  ^255;  George  Lutma,  second 
state,  before  the  window,  ^155  ;  Portrait  of  Van 
Tolling,  from  Lord  Aylesford's  collection,  fine  and 
rare,  ^500  (cost  Sir  A.  Hume  £90)  ;  The  Burgo- 
master Six,  third  state,  with  name  and  age,  ^270  ; 
and  The  Three  Trees,  a  fine  impression,  ^120. 
Lord  Malmesbury's  pictures  were  sold  on  July 
2nd,  but  of  these  we  need  only  mention  Hobbema, 
A  Wood  and  Cottages,  42  x  54,  1,050  guineas,  and 
Giorgione,  The  Duke  of  Ferrara  and  His  Mistress, 
from  the  Fesch  collection,  35  x  29,  350  guineas. 







WHITE  —  J.     H.     ANDERDON — CHARLES    DICKENS  F.    W. 



E.    HERMON,    M.P.,    OF  WYFOLD    COURT. 

HERE  was,  for  some  years,  a  com- 
parative lull  in  great  art  sales  after 
the  wonderful  season  of  1 8  76.  Never- 
theless several  highly  important 
events  occurred  during  the  six  years 
covered  by  this  chapter.  The  first  of  these  in  point 
of  date  was  that  of  the  collection  of  drawings 
and  sketches  by  David  Cox  formed  by  the  late 
W.  Stone  Ellis,  of  Streatham  (a  pupil  and  intimate 
friend  of  Cox),  sold  on  Friday  and  Saturday, 
March  Qth  and  loth,  1877.  The  364  lots  realized 
,£17,911  18,.  and  nearly  all  the  drawings  were  in 

THE    ELLIS    COX    DRAWINGS.  259 

the  finest  condition,  having  been  preserved  in 
portfolios  from  the  action  of  light.  Of  upwards  of 
300  drawings  by  David  Cox,  all  of  which  varied 
from  about  icx  12  up  to  the  largest  of  all,  Cader 
Idris,  303-  x  42,  were  as  follows  : — A  Bridge, 
Warwickshire,  140  guineas,  Going  to  the  Hay- 
field,  135  guineas;  Market  Carts,  Lancaster,  180 
guineas;  near  Ludlow,  no  guineas;  Haddon 
Hall  garden,  185  guineas;  Returning  from  Market, 
Lancaster  Sands,  335  guineas  ;  A  Passing  Shower, 
1854,  131  guineas;  Rhiwaedoz,  Near  Bala,  grey 
daylight  effect,  195  guineas  ;  Mill,  Staffordshire,  216 
guineas  ;  and  a  larger  drawing  of  the  same  subject, 
200  guineas;  Outskirts  of  Pakenham  Park,  1854, 
175  guineas  ;  On  the  Kentish  Coast,  145  guineas  ; 
Boys  Angling,  205  guineas ;  Gipsy  Camp,  an  early 
work,  190  guineas;  Hay  field,  watering  horses,  on 
sandpaper,  15  x  20,  350 guineas;  OffSheerness,  on 
sugar  paper,  15  x  20,  280  guineas  ;  A  Breezy  Day, 
10  x  I2,225guineas;  Plumstead  Marsh,  185  guineas; 
Haymaking,  1853,  icx  12,  270  guineas;  Children 
Fly  ing  the  Kite,  lox  12,  315  guineas  ;  Lane  Scene, 
Cheshire,  1 10 guineas;  Cutting  Ling,  155  guineas; 
Boy  openinggate  for  Sheep,  125  guineas;  Ulverston 
Sands,  1 60  guineas  ;  Going  to  the  Hayfield,  man  in 
smock  frock  on  a  gray  horse,  and  a  hay-wain  in  the 
distance,  14  x  18,  250  guineas  ;  Water  Lane,  Har- 
bourne,  175  guineas;  Changing  Pastures,  155 
guineas;  Bettws  Churchyard,  145  guineas;  Stokesay 
Castle,  cloudy  day,  on  sugar  paper,  lox  13,  235 
guineas;  Colwyn  Bay,  1845,  X45  guineas;  Sandy 
Lane,  with  trees  and  a  timber  waggon,  2 10  guineas  ; 


Dinas  Mountain,  man  leading  horse  over  the  rocks 
in  the  river  bed,  i  TO  guineas;  Meeting  of  the  Conway 
and  Llugwy,  16  x  28,  115  guineas  ;  Tooting  Com- 
mon, 1851,  150  guineas;  Mischief,  boy  driving 
geese  about,  1852,  5ioguineas;  and  Cader  Idris, 
1828,  evening  effect,  with  the  storm  clearing  off 
described  in  Ruskin's  "  Modern  Painters,"  365 
guineas.  There  were  also  three  oil  paintings  by 
David  Cox,  namely,  a  Road  Scene,  effects  of 
wind  and  shower,  icx  12,  310  guineas;  Lane  at 
Harbourne,  from  the  gate  of  the  artist's  house,  100 
guineas  ;  and  Market  Women  crossing  a  heath, 
signed  and  dated  1854,  350  guineas.  This  collec- 
tion contained  also  a  few  unimportant  drawings  by 
other  artists,  e.g.,  G.  Cattermole,  Visit  to  the 
Armourer,  101  guineas ;  J.  M.  W.  Turner,  View 
in  Italy,  castle  on  a  hill,  and  figures,  140  guineas. 
The  dispersal  of  the  extensive  collection  of 
objects  of  art  formed  by  Mr.  Robert  Napier,  and 
of  which  an  admirable  catalogue  was  compiled  by 
Mr.  (now  Sir)  J.  C.  Robinson,  and  privately 
printed  at  the  Chiswick  Press  in  1865  ;  it  was 
illustrated  with  a  view  of  West  Shandon  House, 
and  with  a  general  view  of  West  Shandon  from  the 
Garelock.  Mr.  Napier  (who  was  born  in  1791  and 
who  died  in  1876),  was  President  of  the  Institute  of 
Mechanical  Engineers,  a  J.P.  and  D.L.,  and  a 
Chevalier  of  the  Legion  of  Honour,  and  the  son  of 
a  blacksmith.  In  1823  he  made  his  first  marine 
engine,  for  a  steamer  plying  between  Dumbarton 
and  Glasgow  ;  he  was  one  of  the  originators  of  the 
Cunard  Steamship  Company.  The  Times  of  April 


9,    1877,  contained  the   following  excellent  pre- 
liminary account  of  Mr.  Napier's  accumulations  : 

"  The  Shandon  collection,  belonging  to  the 
late  Mr.  Robert  Napier,  the  great  iron  ship- 
builder of  Glasgow,  so  called  from  the  name  of 
the  mansion  which  he  built  upon  the  banks  of 
the  Gaerlock,  is  now  displayed  at  the  rooms  of 
Messrs.  Christie,  Manson  and  Woods,  completely 
filling  the  three  large  galleries.  This,  however,  is 
only  the  first  portion  of  the  enormous  gathering 
of  works  of  art  of  every  kind  which  will  be  sold 
from  time  to  time  during  the  season  until  the 
middle  of  June.  The  pictures  are  numerous 
enough  to  cover  the  whole  of  the  wall  space  of  the 
galleries,  some  being  of  large  size,  and  good  ex- 
amples of  the  sort  of  decorative  works  that  form  a 
good  background  for  objects  of  ornamental  art, 
in  which  the  collection  is  rich.  All  the  schools 
seem  to  be  pretty  fully  represented  by  names  of 
masters,  though  the  cognoscenti  will  probably  find 
abundant  material  for  discussion  as  to  the  attribu- 
tion of  many  of  the  examples,  while  there  are  some 
which  may  be  accepted  as  true  works  of  fair 
average  quality.  The  catalogue  informs  us  in 
several  instances  that  the  pictures  have  been  in 
well-known  collections,  such  as  Lord  Northwick's, 
Count  Schoenbrun's,  the  Due  de  Bern's,  and  that 
of  Cardinal  Fesch.  Those  which  were  selected 
from  the  Art  Treasures  Exhibition  at  Manchester 
in  1857  are  No.  648,  a  triptych,  by  Jande  Mabuse, 
which  came  from  the  gallery  of  Count  Palante,  of 
Lisbon  ;  and  No.  649,  Virgin  and  Child,  with 


window  showing  a  wide  landscape,  which  was  also 
once  attributed  to  Mabuse,  but  is  now  more  rightly 
named  as  a  work  of  Van  Orley,  according  to  Mr. 
G.  Scharf  s  suggestion  in  his  Art  Treasures  Cata- 
logue. There  is  also  a  masterpiece  of  its  kind  in 
the  large  water-colour  drawing  by  Mr.  Louis 
Haghe,  the  interior  of  the  Audience  Chamber  in 
the  Hotel  de  Ville  at  Bruges,  with  Margaret, 
Governess  of  the  Netherlands,  receiving  the 
burghers  of  the  city,  which  was  exhibited  with  the 
Art  Treasures  of  1857.  The  Sevres,  Dresden,  and 
Oriental  porcelain  included  in  the  first  and  second 
days'  sale,  is  most  of  it  good,  and  some  examples 
are  of  unusually  fine  quality.  Pieces  which  may  be 
pointed  out  are  the  two  Sevres  plates  belonging  to 
a  famous  dinner  service  made  for  the  Empress 
Catherine  of  Russia.  These  have  a  turquoise 
ground  with  border  of  cameo  subjects,  the  centre 
painted  with  the  cipher  of  the  -Empress  in  floral 
design.  These  fine  plates  were  exhibited  by  Mr. 
Napier  in  the  Art  Treasures  Exhibition  of  1857, 
and  are  believed  to  be  the  only  pieces  of  the  kind 
out  of  the  Imperial  cabinet.  Five  other  very 
beautiful  specimens  of  Sevres  are  similar  to  those 
belonging  to  the  Queen's  splendid  service  at 
Windsor  Castle,  which  were  originally  acquired  by 
George  IV.  These  will  be  found  in  the  corner 
cases  of  the  entrance-room.  There  are  some  fine 
Chinese  and  Japanese  vases  and  bottles,  some  of 
which  are  of  the  rare  old  "  egg-shell  "  porcelain, 
and  a  pair  of  large  flat-shaped  vases,  painted  with 
hunting  scenes  and  other  subjects,  with  Kylins  on 

THE    NAPIER    SALE.  263 

the  covers  27  inches  high,  may  be  noticed  among 
the  best  pieces.  The  jade  and  other  carvings  in 
agate  and  crystal  are  remarkable  for  large  size, 
good  quality,  and  excellent  work  in  this  extremely 
hard  material.  The  Wedgwood  consists  of  several 
vases,  with  one  of  the  Barberini  vases  in  black  and 
white,  many  medallions,  and  a  tea  and  coffee-ser- 
vice of  thirty-one  pieces,  ornamented  with  classical 
figures  in  relief,  and  borders  of  the  acanthus  and 
olive  leaf." 

The  following  is  a  synopsis  of  the  twenty  days' 


£      s-    d. 

April  11-20.  Porcelain;  French,  Spanish,  Italian, 
and  Dutch  pictures ;  silver  and  silver-gilt ; 
enamels;  bronzes;  French  decorative  fur- 
niture; jade,  and  crystal  .  .  1,500  lots  34,340  9  o 


May  11-18.  Miniatures;  bijouterie;  watches; 
snuffboxes;  carvings  in  ivory  and  wood; 
gems;  knives,  forks,  and  spoons,  with 
carved  handles;  oriental  curiosities  and 
bronzes,  etc lots  1,501 — 2,321  9,473  10  o 


June  4-7.  Venetian  and  other  glass;  Limoges 
enamel  ;  Hispano-Mauro,  Palissy,  Delia 
Robida,  Cyprus,  and  other  ware ;  metal 
work  and  arms  .  .  .  lots  2,322 — 3,003  4,625  2  6 


June  1 1 -i 2.  Ancient  locks,  keys,  metal  work, 
arms  and  accoutrements,  and  illuminated 
missals 10153,004—3,451  1,304  3  o 

^49,744     4     6 

264  THE    NAPIER    SALE. 

The  sale  catalogue  extends  to  222  pages,  and 
the  following  list,  arranged  in  the  order  of  dispersal, 
will  be  found  to  contain  the  more  important  items. 
Porcelain  :  A  Capo  di  Monte  bottle,  painted  with 
classical  subjects,  6J-  inches  high,  50  guineas  ;  a 
fluted  bowl  of  old  Dresden,  painted  with  battle 
subjects,  1 64  guineas;  a  pair  of  old  Sevres  square 
white  jardinieres,  painted  with  cupids  in  pink,  by 
Michel,  1785,325  guineas  ;  a  large  cup  and  saucer 
of  the  same,  green  ground,  painted  with  Cupid, 
1758,  105  guineas  ;  and  five  pieces  of  Sevres  similar 
to  Her  Majesty's  service  at  Windsor  Castle,  a  tazza 
painted  with  subjects  from  Homer  and  Ovid,  two 
circular  dishes,  and  two  seaux  (one  of  the  largest 
model),  brought  a  total  of  831  guineas. 

PICTURES  :  Palma  Vecchio,  Adoration  of  the 
Shepherds,  160  guineas  ;  S.  Cantarini,  the  Saviour 
as  a  child  of  about  eight  years  old,  standing  on  a 
globe,  100  guineas;  J.  Van  Huysum,  Vase,  with  a 
bouquet  of  flowers  on  a  marble  slab,  upon  which  is 
lying  a  group  of  fruit,  30  x  34,  320  guineas  ;  Rem- 
brandt, Portrait  of  the  Burgomaster  Six,  in  black 
dress,  24  x  20,  101  guineas,  and  Portrait  of  a  lady, 
the  companion  picture,  105  guineas,  both  from  Lord 
Northwick's  collection ;  A.  Pynacker,  River  scene, 
with  travellers  and  mules  crossing  a  bridge, 
peasant  carrying  a  woman  through  a  pool  of 
water,  20x20,  165  guineas;  Ruysdael,  Bleaching 
grounds  near  Haarlem,  a  cavalier  and  dogs  on  a 
road,  29  x  20,  Smith's  "  Catalogue,"  Supplement 
No.  16,  125  guineas;  D.  Teniers,  A  Flemish 
Farmyard,  with  figures,  animals,  and  buildings,  on 

THE    NAPIER    SALE.  265 

copper,  38  x  27,  Smith's  "Catalogue,"  Supplement 
No.  8,  80  guineas  ;  and  G.  Van  der  Eeckhout, 
Group  of  four  portraits  of  children  playing  with  a 
goat,  signed,  and  dated  1667,  140  guineas; 
B.  C.  Koekkoek,  A  Forest  Scene,  morning  effect, 
1 858,  36  x  25,  530  guineas,  and  a  woody  landscape, 
sunset  effect,  600  guineas  ;  P.  Van  Schendel, 
Market  Scene  in  Rotterdam,  woman  selling 
vegetables  by  candlelight,  205  guineas,  and  the 
companion  picture,  with  a  poultry-seller,  200 
guineas ;  E.  Verboeckhoven,  Scotch  sheep  and 
collie  dogs,  view  taken  from  the  top  of  Ben 
Lomond  looking  down  upon  Loch  Lomond,  365 
guineas  ;  Louis  Haghe,  Audience  chamber  in  the 
Hotel  de  Ville  at  Bruges,  with  Margaret,  Go- 
verness of  the  Netherlands,  receiving  the  burghers 
of  the  city,  in  water  colours,  1852,  66x46,  740 
guineas  ;  W.  Mieris,  Interior  of  a  Kitchen,  with  a 
man  giving  a  basket  of  fish,  fowl  and  cabbage  to  a 
cook,  1736,  16x13,  75  guineas;  Interior  of  a 
Grocer's  Shop,  the  companion,  90  guineas,  and 
Interior  of  an  Eating  House,  205  guineas;  G.  Van 
Aelst,  Group  of  Fruit  and  a  glass  beaker,  on  a 
slab  covered  with  red  table  cloth,  1659,  32  x  26, 
from  the  collection  of  Francois  Zavier  de  Burtin, 
and  described  at  length  in  his  well-known  work, 
210  guineas  ;  Paul  Potter,  Landscape,  with  cattle, 
sheep,  and  a  horse,  man  in  conversation  with 
woman  milking  a  cow,  from  the  Willett  Collection, 
but  doubtfully  genuine,  300  guineas  ;  Ruysdael, 
Mountainous  landscape,  with  waterfall,  cottage  and 
figures,  49  x  38,  signed,  brought  to  England  about 

266  THE    NAPIER    SALE. 

1745  by  Colonel  Knight  of  Tiverton,  and  was 
purchased  from  the  Knight  family  in  1845,  24° 
guineas ;  D.  Teniers,  The  Smoker,  interior  of  a 
Dutch  cabaret,  13x9,  1 18  guineas,  and  The  Card 
Players,  group  of  four  peasants  playing  cards  in  an 
alehouse,  and  two  others  at  a  fireplace,  from  the 
collection  of  Count  Schoenbrun  ;  Jan  de  Mabuse, 
Triptych,  centre  with  the  Adoration  of  the  Magi, 
and  the  two  wings  with  the  Virgin  crowned  and 
carrying  Infant  Christ,  and  the  Pentecost  (see 
p.  261),  495  guineas. 

DECORATIVE  FURNITURE:  A  clock,  in  lyre-shaped 
case  of  old  bleu-du-roi  Sevres  and  ormolu,  of  the 
largest  model,  the  pendulum  surrounded  by  large 
pastes,  2,000  guineas;  a  pair  of  beautiful  Louis  XV. 
candelabra,  formed  as  draped  figures  of  nymphs 
supporting  vases,  with  branches  for  three  lights,  2 
feet  high,  600 guineas;  a  Florentine  mosaic  casket  of 
ebony,  with  five  plaques  of  fruit  and  flowers  in  pietra 
dura,  ^95  ;  an  old  oak  hall-bench,  the  back  richly 
carved,  Flemish  work  of  the  seventeenth  century, 
155  guineas.  A  Wedgwood  tea  and  coffee-service, 
thirty-one  pieces,  £%2  ijs.  6d.  OLD  CHELSEA: 
a  pair  of  large  bell-shaped  cups,  painted  with 
flowers  on  gold  ground,  4  inches  high  ;  a  tall  bulb- 
shaped  bottle,  pale  blue,  with  vertical  white  stripes, 
12  inches  high,  ^27  ;  a  pair  of  flat-shaped  bottles, 
painted  with  amorini  and  richly  mounted  with  or- 
molu, 8f  inches  high,  85  guineas  ;  a  beaker  and 
cover,  of  rococo  design,  painted  with  bouquets  of 
flowers  on  gold  ground,  ,£107  ;  an  oviform  vase, 
with  rococo  handles,  crimson  and  white  ground, 

THE    NAPIER    SALE.  267 

painted  with  peacocks  and  foliage  on  gold  ground, 
14  inches  high,  130  guineas;  a  pair  of  oviform 
vases  and  covers,  maroon  and  white,  upon  three 
terminal  figures,  130  guineas,  and  a  large  vase 
with  perforated  cover,  painted  with  the  seasons  on 
maroon  and  white  ground,  scroll  work  in  high 
relief,  15!-  inches  high,  ^200.  ORIENTAL  PORCE- 
LAIN :  A  pair  of  hexagonal  eggshell  vases,  painted 
with  landscapes  and  figures  on  pencilled  gold 
ground,  23  inches  high,  ^100  ;  a  pair  of  large  flat- 
shaped  vases  and  covers,  painted  with  landscapes, 
hunting,  and  other  subjects,  27  inches  high,  ^125. 
JADE  :  A  flat  vase  and  cover,  pale  green,  with 
mask  and  ring  handles,  birds,  deer,  and  foliage,  in 
high  relief,  ^"56  ;  an  octagonal  vase  and  cover, 
with  similar  handles,  carved  with  ornaments  in 
high  relief,  £6\  ;  a  circular  incense-burner  and 
cover,  ^44,  and  a  large  pear-shaped  flat  bottle, 
carved  with  foliage,  ioj  inches  high,  ^43. 
CRYSTALS  :  A  large  oval  cup  of  rock  crystal,  on 
tall  stem,  mounted  with  silver  and  gold,  and 
decorated  with  enamels,  175  guineas  ;  a  ewer  and 
salver  of  engraved  rock-crystal,  mounted  with 
silver-gilt  and  enamel,  ^132;,  a  chronometer,  in 
silver  case,  by  J.  Harrison,  1770,  being  the  dupli- 
cate of  one  for  which  the  inventor  received  a 
reward  of  ,£20,000  from  the  Board  of  Longitude, 
acquired  from  the  granddaughter  of  the  inventor  by 
Mr.  Napier,  in  1869,  with  all  the  papers  and 
drawings  for  its  construction,  160  guineas  ;  a  vase 
of  old  Oriental  celadon  porcelain,  formed  as  two 
lotus  flowers,  with  Louis  XV.  ormolu  mounts,  and 

268  THE    NAPIER    SALE. 

lion's  head  and  ring  handles,  300  guineas.  UR- 
BINO  WARE:  A  large  Faenza-ware  dish,  painted 
in  the  centre  with  the  Judgment  of  Paris,  dated 
1527,  18  inches  diameter,  94  guineas;  a  lustred 
plate  by  Maestro  Giorgio,  painted  with  Vulcan 
forging  arrows  for  Cupid,  roj  inches  diameter, 
signed,  and  dated  1527,  40  guineas;  and  a  ruby- 
lustred  Gubbio-ware  dish  by  the  same,  painted  in 
the  centre  with  the  Infant  John  the  Baptist, 
i2j  inches  diameter,  ^25,  and  another  by  the 
same,  painted  with  the  Judgment  of  Solomon, 
ioj  inches  diameter,  60  guineas.  MAJOLICA  :  An 
oblong  plaque,  painted  with  the  Temptation,  after 
the  print  by  Marc  Antonio,  after  Raffaelle,  date 
1523,  10  x  7^-,  £106  ;  a  small  deep  Gubbio-ware 
lustred  plate  by  Maestro  Giorgio,  painted  with  the 
Prodigal  Son,  in  the  style  of  Diirer,  8f  inches 
diameter,  signed,  and  dated  1528,  ^40  ;  a  Gubbio- 
ware  plate  by  the  same,  painted  with  Apollo  and 
Daphne,  lof  inches  diameter,  1529,  £60.  UR- 
BINO  WARE  :  A  lustred  plate  by  Fra  Xanto, 
painted  with  /Eneas  bearing  Anchises  from  Troy, 
signed,  and  inscribed,  dated  1532,  loj-  inches 
diameter,  55  guineas  ;  a  plaque  with  the  Infant 
Christ  and  Virgin  in  Glory,  surrounded  by  angels, 
IQX  8,  £60  ;  a  large  plateau,  by  Fra  Xanto,  with 
the  battle  of  Darius  against  Gobrius,  dated  1536, 
1 7  J  inches,  60  guineas  ;  and  a  triangular  salver, 
with  raised  masks  and  ornaments,  painted  with  a 
mythological  subject,  180  guineas. 

Mr.    Robert    Vernon's   collection    of  historical 
portraits,  removed  from  Harley  Park,  Cambridge- 


shire,  and  sold  on  April  2ist,  1877,  possesses  an 
interest  apart  from  the  sale,  inasmuch  as  Mr. 
Vernon  was  the  generous  donor  to  the  National 
Gallery  of  the  magnificent  collection  of  the  works 
of  modern  artists  which  bears  his  name,  and  on 
which  he  is  said  to  have  spent  ^150,000.  Mr. 
Vernon,  who  was  born  in  1775,  and  who  died  in 
1849,  was  a  successful  breeder  of  horses,  and  is 
perhaps  the  only  instance  on  record  in  which  a 
man  of  this  calling  has  so  generously  patronized 
art.  The  sale  in  1877  contained  100  portraits  and 
about  twenty  miniatures,  and  as  the  whole  only 
realized  the  total  of  ,£6,575  los.  6d.,  the  collection 
was  not  of  a  very  sensational  character.  The  fol- 
lowing were  the  more  important: — Janet,  Gaston 
de  Foix,  in  black  cap  with  feathers,  crimson  vest 
and  green  cloak,  225  guineas  ;  Sir  Peter  Lely, 
Catherine  of  Braganza,  wife  of  Charles  II.,  67 
guineas ;  Lord  Grandison  in  crimson  dress  and 
scarf,  with  lace  collar  and  sleeves,  100  guineas; 
and  the  Marquis  of  Spinola,  in  rich  armour,  101 
guineas  ;  Zucchero,  Robert  Dudley,  Earl  of  Lei- 
cester, in  rich  crimson  dress  with  the  order  of 
St.  Esprit,  190  guineas  ;  Vandyck,  Count  Tully, 
commander  of  the  Imperialists  at  the  storming 
of  Prague,  in  armour  with  the  Golden  Fleece,  1 50 
guineas  ;  W.  Van  de  Velde,  a  Sea  Piece,  with 
men-of-war  and  boats,  155  guineas  ;  Van  der  Meer 
of  Delft  (catalogued  as  by  Metzu)  Interior,  lady 
opening  window,  385  guineas  ;  A.  Watteau,  Fete 
Champetre,  a  composition  of  seven  figures,  100 
guineas  ;  M.  Hondekoeter,  water-fowl  and  other 

270          BARON  GRANTS  GALLERY. 

birds,  in  a  landscape,  190  guineas;  Jordaens, 
Portrait  of  a  Burgomaster,  in  black  dress  and  ruff, 
190  guineas,  and  the  portrait  of  the  Burgomaster's 
wife,  170  guineas;  Sir  Edwin  Landseer,  Lady 
Catherine  Douglas,  hawking,  355  guineas ;  P. 
Nasmyth,  Carisbrook  Castle,  signed  and  dated 
1826,  530  guineas  ;  J.  P.  de  Loutherbourg,  View 
in  Wales,  with  Castle  on  the  banks  of  a  stream, 
125  guineas  ;  F.  R.  Lee,  Mill  in  Devonshire,  115 
guineas  ;  C.  Stanfield,  Mouth  of  the  Tees,  signed 
and  dated  580  guineas ;  and  W.  Collins,  the 
Mariner's  Widow,  1835,  305  guineas. 

Unquestionably  the  great  picture  sale  of  1877  was 
that  of  the  Kensington  House  Gallery  formed  by 
Baron  Albert  Grant,  the  well-known  financier,  at 
one  time  M.P.  for  Kidderminster,  who  purchased 
and  presented  Leicester  Square  to  the  public. 
The  sale  took  place  on  April  27th  and  28th. 
There  were  in  all  205  pictures  and  drawings,  which 
produced  the  handsome  total  of  ,£98,477  8s.  Baron 
Grant  had  in  1868  (June  2Oth)  offered  a  number  of 
modern  pictures  for  sale,  but  a  good  many  of  them 
were  bought  in. 

The  more  important  works  now  sold  were  the 
following : — R.  Ansdell,  The  Wounded  Ram, 
59  x  42,  515  guineas  ;  Scotch  Sheep,  47  x  73,  525 
guineas  ;  The  Road  to  Seville,  31  x  100,  660 
guineas ;  The  Favourite  Calf,  26  x  47,  420  guineas  ; 
Outside  the  Cover,  59x41,  540  guineas;  Goat- 
herds, Gibraltar,  48  x  74,  720  guineas  ;  and  a  work, 
the  joint  production  of  Ansdell  and  Frith,  My 
Lady's  Pets,  30  x  24,  240  guineas  ;  T.  Brooks, 


The  Lifeboat,  38  x  63,  155  guineas;  Pleasing 
Reflections,  37  x  59,  273  guineas;  J.  Burr,  A 
Toyseller,  28  x  22,  125  guineas;  Lady  Butler 
(Miss  Thompson),  Tito  Melema,  34  x  24,  370 
guineas;  P.  H.  Calderon,  Young  Lord  Hamlet, 
34  x  54,  330  guineas;  The  Virgin's  Bower,  72  x 
46,  670  guineas  ;  Lovers  on  a  Garden  Seat,  27  x 
35,  270  guineas,  and  the  Queen  of  the  Tournament, 
55  x  42,  610  guineas;  Sir  A.  W.  Callcott,  a 
classical  Landscape,  27  x  42,  610  guineas  (from  the 
Wells  and  Hargreaves  collections,  in  the  latter  of 
which,  1873,  it  realized  620  guineas) ;  W.  Collins, 
Le  Bon  Cure,  27  x  35, 470  guineas  (from  the  Knott 
sale  of  1 845,  when  it  was  known  as  The  Peacemaker 
and  realized  260  guineas :  it  is  said  to  have  cost 
^700) ;  and  The  Venturesome  Robin,  27  x  36,  800 
guineas  (the  price  at  which  it  was  sold  in  the  Farn- 
worth  collection,  1874) ;  E.W.Cooke,  Dutch  Pinks: 
Scheveningen  Beach,  31x48,  460  guineas,  and 
Dream  of  Venice,  200  guineas  ;  T.  S.  Cooper, 
November,  47  x  72,  1873,  650  guineas;  Children 
of  the  Mist,  47  x  78,  510  guineas  (cost  750  guineas), 
and  Guardian  of  the  Herd,  47  x  71,  620  guineas  ; 
David  Cox,  Haddon  Hall :  Rook  Shooting,  from 
the  Dawes  collection,  i7f  x  iif,  380  guineas ;  T. 
Creswick,  First  Glimpse  of  Sea,  windmill  by  the 
shore,  the  sheep  by  Ansdell,  and  figures  by  Phillip, 
exhibited  in  1852,  from  the  Manley  Hall  collec- 
tion, 36  x  59,  1,050  guineas, — in  1883,  when 
again  sold,  this  picture  realized  1,250  guineas, 
the  purchaser  being  Mr.  Martin  Holloway ; 
and  St.  Michael's  Mount,  Cornwall,  44  x  71, 

272          BARON  GRANTS  GALLERY. 

with  figures  by  Ansdell,  from  the  same  collec- 
tion (2,000  guineas),  1,350  guineas  ;  H.  W.  B. 
Davis,  a  Brittany  Lane,  59  x  47,  540  guineas; 
W.  C.  T.  Dobson,  The  Nativity,  32  x  48,  250 
guineas  ;  Tobias  and  Raphael,  and  angel  journey- 
ing to  Media,  38  x  40,  250  guineas  ;  Abraham  and 
Hagar,  from  Manley  Hall,  41  x  34,  350  guineas, 
and  Flower  Girl,  Dresden,  24  x  20,  410  guineas  ; 
W.  Dyce,  George  Herbert  at  Bemerton,  34  x  44, 
1,040  guineas — this  was  purchased  in  1861  by  Sam 
Mendel  for  710  guineas  ;  and  The  Garden  of  Geth- 
semane,  from  the  Farnworth  sale,  370  guineas  ;  A. 
Elmore,  Life  in  Algiers,  35  x  27,  510  guineas,  and 
Charles  V.  at  the  Convent  of  Yuste,from  the  Mendel 
collection,  65  x  47,  1,200  guineas;  William  Etty, 
Pluto  carrying  off  Prosperine,  50  x  78,  710  guineas 
(Gillott  sale,  1,000 guineas);  W.  P.  Frith,  "I  Know 
a  Maiden  Fair  to  See,"  30  x  25,  250  guineas  ;  The 
Miniature,  47  x  39,  360  guineas ;  Sterne's  Maria, 
from  Manley  Hall,  44  x  30,  500  guineas ;  Hope  and 
Fear,  a  companion  pair,  32  x  29,  610  guineas  ;  The 
Crossing  Sweeper,  1 7  x  13,  300 guineas;  My  Lady's 
Pets,  the  animals  by  Ansdell,  240  guineas  (cost  700 
guineas),  and  Before  Dinner  at  Boswell's  Lodgings 
in  Bond  Street,  38  x  59,  3,050  guineas, — at  the 
Manley  Hall  sale  three  years  previously  this  picture, 
for  which  the  artist  received  ,£1,200,  sold  for  4,350 
guineas  ;  W.  E.  Frost,  The  Sea  Cave,  16  x  18,  220 
guineas;  Sir  John  Gilbert,  Charles  I.  leaving  West- 
minster Hall  after  the  sentence  of  death,  4  7  x  72,640 
guineas  ;  F.  Goodall,  Head  of  the  House  at  Prayer, 
34  x  95,  1,150  guineas,  and  Hunt  the  Slipper,  530 

BARON  GRANTS  GALLERY.         273 

guineas  ;  Peter  Graham,  On  the  Sutherland  Coast, 
12  x  17,  210  guineas;  A  Rainy  Day,  horses  and 
boy  at  an  Inn  door  in  a  Scotch  mist,  47  x  72,  760 
guineas ;  and  a  Highland  Croft,  landscape  and 
cattle,  47  x  72,  610  guineas  (cost  Mr.  Grant  1,100 
guineas) ;  Keeley  Halswelle,  Lo  Sposalizio,  62  x  98, 
800 guineas;  F.  D.  Hardy,  A  Wedding  Breakfast, 

34  x  38,    760  guineas,  and   A    Quartette    Party, 
29  x  40,  760  guineas;  J.  R.  Herbert,  The  Holy 
Family,  40  x  62,  450  guineas ;   J.  E.  Hodgson, 
Army    Organization,    Morocco — The    Awkward 
Squad,   32  x  59,  380  guineas;  J.  C.   Hook,   Are 
Chimney  Sweeps  always  Black?   28  x  43,   1,120 
guineas  ;  A  Dream  of  Venice,  18  x  1 1,  200  guineas, 
and  Sea  Earnings,  30x55,  1,060  guineas;  J.  C. 
Horsley,  Stolen  Glances,   39x31,  400  guineas; 
W.   Holman  Hunt,  The  Saviour  in  the  Temple, 
17  x  27,  study  for  the  large  picture,  1,350  guineas  ; 
Sir   E.   Landseer,    Portrait  of  Sir  Walter  Scott, 
32jxi9|-,   510  guineas — this  portrait,  for  which 
Mr.   Grant   paid    160  guineas,   was   one   of  two 
purchased  by  him  at  the  artist's  sale  in   1874,  the 
second    portrait    Mr.    Grant    presented    to    the 
National   Portrait   Gallery;   A  Highland  Lassie, 

35  x  27,  590  guineas ;  The  Otter  Hunt,  engraved 
by  C.  G.  Lewis,  76  x  60,  5,650  guineas — Mr.  Grant 
is  said  to  have  given  ,£10,000  for  this  celebrated 
masterpiece,  which  was  painted  for  Lord  Aber- 
deen; and  The  Lady's  Horse  (Prosperity,  27  x  35), 
and  the  Cabman's  Horse  (Adversity),  1,410  guineas, 
and  1,430  guineas  respectively.     B.  W.  Leader,  A 
Bright  Night:  Goring-on-Thames,  1873,  36x50, 

I.  T 

274         BARON  GRANTS  GALLERY. 

420  guineas,  and  English  Cottage  Houses,  35  x  53, 
430  guineas ;  Sir  F.Leighton,Lady  and  Pomegran- 
ate, 34  x  25,  765  guineas  ;  C.  R.  Leslie,  Hermione, 
30  x  19,  350  guineas;  and  Falstaff  Personating 
the  King,  46  x  54,  1,450  guineas;  J.  Linnell, 
Collecting  the  Flock,  28  x  39,  550  guineas  ;  Milk- 
ing Time,  35  x  55,  1866,  1,330  guineas  (Eden 
sale,  1874,  1,105  guineas);  Grand  Welsh  Land- 
scape, 1863,  38  x  53,  1,450  guineas,  from  the  Man- 
ley  Hall  collection,  said  to  have  cost  Mr.  Grant 
^2,oco  ;  and  Balaam  and  the  Angel,  19  x  27,  450 
guineas — at  the  Farn worth  sale  in  1874  this  fetched 
500  guineas ;  J.  T.  Linnell,  Opening  the  Gate, 
29  x  45,  630  guineas  ;  E.  Long,  Madrid,  or  Liberty 
of  Creed,  priests  discussing  with  the  people  in  the 
streets,  55  x  84,  600  guineas ;  D.  Maclise,  Oberon 
and  Titania,  50x40,  350  guineas;  H.  S.  Marks, 
The  Adjutant,  stork  with  black  wings,  53  x  26,  190 
guineas  ;  The  Sentinel,  stork  with  red  wings  and 
legs,  same  size,  230  guineas  ;  St.  Francis  preaching 
to  the  Birds,  58x48,  i,ico  guineas — for  this  Mr. 
Grant  paid  1,500  guineas  ;  and  Doctors  Differ, 
36  x  28,  230  guineas;  Sir  J.  E.  Millais,  Winter 
Fuel,  76  x  57,  1,700  guineas;  Scotch  Firs,  73  x  55, 
1,750  guineas  ;  Knight  Errant  and  Lady,  72  x  53, 
1,450  guineas;  and  Victory  O  Lord!  Exodus 
xvii.  10-12,  Royal  Academy,  1871,  75  x  54,  1,950 
guineas  ;  W.  J.  M  tiller,  The  Opium  Dealer, 
34  x  26,  470  guineas  ;  and,  Entering  the  Temple 
of  Osiris  at  Philae,  29  x  52,  2,200  guineas  (Cope 
sale,  1872,  1,910  guineas);  H.  O'Neil,  Last 
Moments  of  Raffaelle,  from  the  Manley  Hall  sale, 


1,010  guineas;  Sir  J.  Noel  Paton,  The  "  Bluidie 
Tryste,"  28  x  26,  470  guineas  ;  J.  Phillip,  Spanish 
Flower  Seller,  34  x  27,  1,800  guineas  ;  La  Lotteria 
Nacional,  51  x  65,  3,000  guineas  (both  from  the 
Manley  Hall  Gallery),  and  Scotch  Baptism,  1,500 
guineas;  P.  F.  Poole,  Mother  and  Child,  12  x  8, 
290  guineas ;  D.  Roberts,  View  of  Jerusalem, 
47  x  84,  315  guineas  ;  James  Sant,  Girl  holding  a 
peach  in  each  hand,  in  front  of  a  peach  tree,  the 
celebrated  picture,  45  x  33,  500  guineas ;  C.  Stan- 
field,  Lago  di  Garda,  27x42,  1,455  guineas  (at 
the  Bicknell  sale,  1863,  this  sold  for  820  guineas, 
and  is  said  to  have  cost  Mr.  Grant  2,000  guineas); 
The  Morning  of  the  Wreck,  the  engraved  picture 
painted  for  E.  Bicknell,  2,550  guineas  (this  picture 
sold  for  2,800  guineas  in  1872)  ;  Battle  of  Rove- 
redo,  71  x  108,  from  Manley  Hall,  2,400  guineas 
(see  also  p.  324)  ;  and  Eddystone  Lighthouse, 
71  x  108,  750  guineas  (at  the  Dickens  sale  in  1870 
this  realized  990  guineas)  ;  H.  Wallis,  Death  of 
Chatterton,  7x10,  study  for  the  large  picture,  150 
guineas  (Mendel  sale,  1875,  260  guineas)  ;  E.  M. 
Ward,  Charles  II.  and  Lady  Russell,  50  x  59, 
800  guineas  ;  The  Last  Sleep  of  Argyle,  57  x  65, 
900  guineas  ;  The  Last  Scene  of  Montrose,  56  x  64, 
800  guineas — these  two  are  from  the  Manley  Hall 
collection,  and  are  the  pictures  from  which  the 
well-known  engravings  were  executed  ;  and  Jose- 
phine Signing  the  act  of  her  Divorce,  51  x  64,  950 
guineas  ;  Sir  David  Wilkie,  The  Penny  Wedding, 
23  x  24 — "a  false  imitation,"  according  to  Mr. 
Redford — 342  guineas  (from  the  Gillott  sale) ;  and 


Napoleon  and  the  Pope:  Pius  VII.  signing  the 
Concordat  which  secured  the  religious  liberties  of 
France,  98  x  78,  1,800  guineas— the  well-known 
picture  painted  for  the  late  James  Marshall,  of 
Leeds,  subsequently  in  the  Manley  Hall  collection, 
from  which  it  was  purchased  privately  ;  Wilkie 
received  500  guineas  for  it. 

The  few  drawings  to  which  special  reference 
may  be  made  are  as  follows  :  G.  Cattermole,  The 
Baron's  Hall,  25  x  34,  285  guineas  (at  the  Heugh 
sale,  in  1874,  it  sold  for  420  guineas);  Louis  Haghe, 
Interior  of  Milan  Cathedral,  26  x  28,  205  guineas  ; 
James  Holland,  Rotterdam,  105  guineas  ;  W. 
Hunt,  Grace  before  Meat,  370  guineas;  and 
Summer  Flowers  and  Fruit,  380  guineas  (cost  Mr. 
Grant  500  guineas). 

The  third  art-sale  event  of  1877  was  the  dis- 
persal of  the  water-colour  drawings  collected  by 
Mr.  John  Knowles,  of  Manchester.  The  sale 
took  place  on  May  iQth,  and  the  100  lots 
realized  the  total  (excluding  articles  bought  in)  of 
,£13,916  19^.  6d.  A  large  number  of  the  drawings 
were  bought  in,  and  were  again  offered  in  1880, 
with  the  results  we  have  indicated  in  parentheses. 
The  more  important  of  these  were  the  following  : 
G.  Barrett,  Sunset,  12  x  20,  175  guineas  ;  S.  Bough, 
Sands  at  Whitchurch,  sunrise,  20  x  26,  142  guineas; 
Sir  F.  W.  Burton,  The  Young  Scholar,  i6x  12, 
330  guineas  (this  was  bought  in  and  offered  again 
in  1 880,  when  it  fetched  only  1 20  guineas) ;  and  The 
Turret  Stair,  37  x  24,  635  guineas  ;  G.  Cattermole, 
Salvator  sketching  the  banditti  amongst  ruins  of 


an  ancient  temple,  21  x  30,  405  guineas  ;  T.  S. 
Cooper, Canterbury  Meadows,  20  x  28,215  guineas; 
and  Sheep,  13x17,  140  guineas;  David  Cox, 
Windsor  Castle,  lox  14,  155  guineas  ;  The  River 
Conway,  9x13,  140  guineas;  Stacking  Hay, 
9x13,  265  guineas  ;  The  Junction  of  the  Llugwy 
and  Conway,  29  x  40,  790  guineas  ;  Bolsover 
Castle,  1 8  x  24,  410  guineas;  and  Shepherds 
gathering  Flocks,  21  x  20,  375  guineas — the  last 
two  works  were  bought  in,  and  when  sold  in  1 880 
respectively  fetched  160  guineas  and  170  guineas  ; 
P.  de  Wint,  Lowther  Castle,  sheep  and  figures, 
27x41,  625  guineas;  E.  Duncan,  Shrimp  boats, 
Gravesend,  with  rainbow,  30x22,  325  guineas; 
Copley  Fielding,  Loch  Lomond,  14x19,  255 
guineas  ;  Vessels  in  a  Breeze,  14  x  19,  300  guineas  ; 
Landscape  with  cattle  and  figures,  22x30,  380 
guineas  ;  and  The  Clyde  and  Arran,  17  x  30,  620 
guineas  ;  Birket  Foster,  Oxford  from  the  Thames, 
13  x  28,  380 guineas;  Landscape  in  Surrey,  12  x  29, 
325  guineas;  and  The  Chair  Mender,  16x24, 
310  guineas — the  last  two  were  bought  in,  and 
again  offered  in  1880  when  they  respectively 
fetched  235  guineas  and  180  guineas;  Sir  John 
Gilbert,  Jean  d'Arc,  and  the  Bodies  of  Talbot  and 
his  son,  19  x  26,  259  guineas  ;  Scene  from  "  Henry 
the  Fifth,"  lox  16,  no  guineas;  and  Rubens  in 
his  Studio,  29  x  24,  400  guineas — the  two  latter 
were  bought  in  and  sold  in  1880  for  95  guineas 
and  285  guineas  respectively  ;  F.  Goodall,  Palm 
Offering,  27  x  19,  525  guineas  ;  and  Raising  the 
Maypole,  11x18,  320  guineas — bought  in  and 


sold  in  1880  for  180  guineas  ;  Louis  Haghe, 
Transept  of  the  Cathedral  at  Tournay,  29x22, 
240  guineas  ;  J.  D.  Harding,  Marseilles,  22x35, 
265  guineas  ;  J.  R.  Herbert,  The  Bedouin's 
Home,  13x22,  145  guineas;  W.  Hunt,  Flower 
Girl,  14x10,  no  guineas;  Quinces,  plums,  and 
blackberries,  9x11,  330  guineas;  and  Flowers 
and  plums,  8x12,  200  guineas  ;  Sir  E.  Landseer, 
Arrest  of  the  False  Herald,  the  engraved  vignette 
to  "  Quentin  Durward,"  8x7,  190  guineas  ;  J.  F. 
Lewis,  Greeting  in  the  Desert,  14  x  19,  330 
guineas;  Curiosity  Shop,  Venice,  19x25,  325 
guineas ;  and  the  Giralda,  Seville,  33  x  26,  505 
guineas — the  last  two  were  bought  in  and  sold  in 
1880  for  105  guineas  and  1 15  guineas  respectively  ; 
John  Linnell,  Boy  herding  Sheep,  9x12,  155 
guineas;  and  Windsor  Forest,  10  x  15,  250 
guineas ;  Sir  J.  E.  Millais,  The  Vale  of  Rest, 
5x8,  1 02  guineas  (at  the  Heugh  sale  in  1878  this 
sold  for  200  guineas)  ;  W.  J.  Muller,  The  Acro- 
polis, Athens,  12x19,  42°  guineas  (1880,  160 
guineas) ;  S.  Prout,  Wreck  on  the  Betsy  Cains, 
25x38,  112  guineas;  and  Nuremberg,  25x19, 
47oguineas(i88o,  250 guineas);  T.  M.  Richardson, 
Road  to  Tivoli,  26  x  40,  195  guineas;  D.  Roberts, 
St.  Bavon,  12x8,  101  guineas;  and  St.  Pierre, 
Caen,  17x13,  230  guineas;  C.  Stanfield,  Lago 
Maggiore,  9x13,  190  guineas  ;  Portsmouth,  8x12, 
the  engraved  work,  192  guineas;  and  Off  Fort 
Rouge,  13x19,  370  guineas;  F.  Tayler,  Fern 
Gatherers,  16x22,  260  guineas  ;  F.  W.  Topham, 
Spanish  Gipsies,  i6x  19,  205  guineas;  and  The 


Gipsy  Toilet,  30x20,  475  guineas;  J.  M.  W. 
Turner,  Lake  Nemi,  16x22,  270  guineas  (from  the 
Heughsale,  1 874, 2 50  guineas) ;  Leeds,  12  x  17,320 
guineas  (1880,  325  guineas)  ;  Wharfdale,  11  x  16, 
from  the  collection  of  C.  Stanfield,  370  guineas 
(i88o,9Oguineas);  Tintagel  Castle,  Cornwall,  7  x  10, 
also  from  the  same  collection,  in  the  "England  and 
Wales"  series,  380  guineas  ;  Welsh  Coast,  near 
Flint  Castle,  9  x  13,  engraved,  420  guineas 
(1880,  295  guineas) ;  Orfordness,  1 1  x  16,  engraved 
in  the  same  series,  375  guineas  (1880,  355  guineas) ; 
Richmond  Hill,  12  x  19,  unfinished,  315  guineas; 
The  First  Steamer  on  the  Thames,  with  view  of 
the  Tower  of  London,  12  x  17,  766  guineas;  and 
Nottingham,  with  the  double  rainbow,  also  en- 
graved in  the  above-mentioned  series,  12x18, 
1,100  guineas  ;  F.  Walker,  The  Fish-shop,  8x12, 
215  guineas  (bought  in  at  the  Knowles'  sale  in 
1865  for  220  guineas).  In  addition  to  the  fore- 
going works  of  English  artists,  there  were  two 
drawings  by  Rosa  Bonheur,  Driving  Cattle, 
15  x  25,  1 80  guineas,  and  The  Forest  of  Fontaine- 
bleau,  14  x  25,  360  guineas. 

Two  other  important  picture  sales  occurred  in 
June  of  this  year,  the  earlier  of  which,  the  Novar 
collection  of  drawings  and  vignettes  by  Turner, 
will  be  found  grouped  with  the  Munro  sale  of 
1878  ;  whilst  that  of  the  following  week,  June  9th, 
comprised  pictures  from  a  number  of  sources. 
The  most  interesting  item  in  this  day's  sale, 
Landseer's  portrait  of  Sir  Walter  Scott,  painted 
for  the  late  W.  Wells  of  Redleaf,  has  already  been 


alluded  to  (see  p.  158).  The  sale  included  the 
following  pictures  :  R.  Ansdell,  Lost,  and  Found, 
a  pair,  200  guineas;  and  The  Goatherd,  with 
a  view  of  Gibraltar,  350  guineas — on  March  i2th, 
1 88 1,  the  former  sold  for  205  guineas,  and  the 
latter  for  310  guineas;  L.  Alma  Tadema,  A 
Flemish  Interior,  thirteenth  century,  an  early  work 
of  the  artist,  200  guineas  ;  Colin  Hunter,  With 
Stream  and  Tide,  260  guineas  ;  Peter  Graham,  A 
Misty  Morning  in  the  Highlands,  350  guineas  ;  and 
Homewards,  320  guineas;  I.  Israels,  Waiting, 
fisherman's  wife  looking  anxiously  towards  a  win- 
dow, 330  guineas ;  T.  S.  Cooper,  Goatherd  on 
Nivel  Siabad,  North  Wales,  460  guineas;  W. 
Collins,  Landscape  and  figures,  with  grey  pony, 
and  Chichester  Cathedral  in  the  distance,  1821, 
565  guineas  (bought  in,  in  1876,  for  750  guineas) ; 
Edouard  Frere,  Washing  Day,  1870,  245  guineas  ; 
H.  Merle,  Hagar  and  Ishmael,  615  guineas;  T. 
Webster,  Summer,  a  hayfield  with  figures,  400 
guineas  ;  and  Winter,  the  companion,  305  guineas  ; 
W.  P.  Frith,  La  Marchande  des  Fleurs,  Boulogne, 
375  guineas;  Sir  J.  E.  Millais,  James  I.  of  Scot- 
land, with  lady  in  deep  blue  dress  caressing  a 
hand  held  over  a  wall,  1859,  600  guineas;  C. 
Stanfield,  Tintagel  Castle,  870  guineas  ;  W.  M  tiller, 
Prayer  in  the  Desert,  1843,  a  lunette-shaped 
picture,  530  guineas;  G.  Morland,  The  Horse 
Fair,  345  guineas ;  and  The  Fruit  of  Early  In- 
dustry and  Economy,  a  family  portrait-piece  en- 
graved by  W.  Ward,  555  guineas;  E.  W.  Cooke, 
Danish  craft  on  the  Elbe,  low  water,  700  guineas  ; 


Rosa  Bonheur,  Deer  in  the  Forest  of  Fontaine- 
bleau,  26  x  18,  850  guineas ;  W.  Van  de  Velde,  A 
Fresh  Breeze,  455  guineas  (at  the  Lucy  sale  in 
1875  this  sold  for  650  guineas) ;  and  A  Calm,  with 
boatmen,  a  jetty  and  ships,  18x22,  1,500  guineas  ; 
J.  Van  der  Heyden,  View  in  a  Dutch  town,  with 
figures,  16x22,  280  guineas.  The  water-colour 
drawings  in  this  sale  included  D.  Cox,  Lancaster 
Sands,  245  guineas  ;  and  Tivoli,  345  guineas  (from 
the  Allnutt  sale,  1867,  150  guineas)  ;  Copley 
Fielding,  Off  the  Scotch  Coast,  290  guineas  ;  W. 
Hunt,  Roses  and  Birds'  Nests,  240  guineas ;  and 
J.  M.  W.  Turner,  Sidmouth,  175  guineas. 

A  brief  mention  may  be  made  here  of  the  sale, 
on  May  7th,  of  the  portraits  and  sketches  of  the 
late  Sir  Henry  Raeburn,  49  lots  realizing  the 
total  of  ,£4,707  I2s.  id.,  and  included  Portrait  of 
Sir  W.  Scott,  310  guineas;  a  Portrait  of  the 
Artist,  510  guineas  ;  Lady  Raeburn,  950  guineas  ; 
Mrs.  Hamilton,  225  guineas  ;  Portrait  of  the  artist's 
son  on  a  grey  pony,  4 1  o  gui  neas  ;  Boy  with  cherries, 
240  guineas  ;  and  Study  of  a  Child,  285  guineas. 

A  sale  under  similar  circumstances  of  the  sketches 
and  pictures  of  the  late  J.  F.  Lewis  took  place  on 
May  4th,  5th  and  7th,  when  530  lots  brought  a 
total  of  ,£3,372,  and  included  the  following  draw- 
ings : — Hosh  of  the  artist's  house,  Cairo,  310 
guineas  ;  and  The  Gorieh,  300  guineas. 

Several  important  collections  of  porcelain  came 
under  the  hammer  during  this  year,  notably  the 
Dresden  china  of  the  Due  de  Forli,  which  brought, 
on  March  ist,  a  total  of  £4,221  i^s.  for  134  lots, 


among  which  were  :  a  lady  in  a  hooped  petticoat 
with  two  pet  dogs,  £2 1 5  ;  a  pair  of  bulls  attacked 
by  dogs,  6J  in.  high,  ^195  ;  a  pair  of  busts  of 
Count  Bruhl's  children,  richly  coloured,  with 
daisies,  70  guineas  ;  a  pair  of  Louis  XV.  candle- 
sticks of  scroll  design,  richly  gilt,  £100  ;  a  fine 
coffee-pot  and  cover,  painted  with  river  scene  and 
figures,  100  guineas  ;  an  oval  verriere,  with  handles 
formed  as  eagle's  head,  festoons  of  flowers  in  high 
relief  in  colours,  ^135  ;  and  a  beautiful  ecuelle, 
cover  and  stand,  with  dolphin  handles,  May-flower 
ground,  painted  with  medallions  of  watteau  figures 
on  each  side,  the  arms  of  the  Dauphin  of  France 
in  relief  in  each  side  of  the  lid,  ^305. 

The  collection  of  Wedgwood  ware,  formed  by  the 
late  Francis  Sibson,  M.D.,  F.R.S.,  the  physician  of 
Brook  Street,  was  one  of  the  most  complete  of  its 
kind  ever  brought  together.  The  two  days'  sale  of 
319  lots,  March  ;th  and  8th, realized  ,£7,473  iSs.  6d. 
We  can  only  mention  a  few  of  the  higher  priced 
articles  : — A  vase,  blue  jasper,  with  Hercules 
in  the  garden  of  the  Hesperides,  by  Flaxman, 
from  an  Etruscan  vase,  14  in.  high,  115  guineas; 
another  with  cupids  by  Lady  Diana  Beauclerk, 
96  guineas ;  the  companion  vase  with  the  Infant 
Academy  of  Reynolds,  £100  ;  a  secretaire  of  satin 
wood,  with  plaques  of  the  Marlborough  gems,  and 
two  upright  plaques  of  Sappho  and  Flora,  180 
guineas  ;  a  small  table  of  Coromandel  wood,  inlaid 
with  Wedgwood  plaque  and  eight  small  oval 
medallions,  ^150;  a  pair  of  oviform  vases,  blue 
jasper,  with  Flaxman's  4<  Blind  Man's  Buff,"  and 

MUNRO    OF    NOVAR.  283 

Venus  in  her  car  with  cupids,  11  in.  high,  1 10 
guineas;  and  a  magnificent  vase  in  black  jasper, 
with  serpent  handles  and  Medusa  heads,  bands  of 
Greek  ornament  in  white,  the  body  having  a  relief 
of  the  Apotheosis  of  Homer,  with  palm  trees 
on  reverse  side,  25  inches  high,  700  guineas. 
Another  portion  of  the  Bohn  porcelain  came  under 
the  hammer  in  March  of  this  year. 

The  great  art  sale  of  1878  was  that  of  the 
famous  Novar  collection,  formed  by  the  late  H. 
A.  J.  Munro,  the  intimate  friend  and  executor  of 
Turner,  of  Novar,  Scotland.  Mr.  Munro  was  a 
son  of  Sir  Alexander  Munro,  was  born  in  the  last 
three  or  four  years  of  the  last  century,  and  died  in 
1865,  when  Novar  passed  into  the  female  line,  now 
represented  by  the  Munro-Fergusons  of  Raith, 
Kircaldy,  Fifeshire.  Mr.  Munro  Ferguson,  M.P., 
writes  :  "  He  spent  the  greater  part  of  his  life  in 
collecting  pictures,  most  of  which  were  kept  in 
his  house,  now  removed,  which  formed  the  cnl  de 
sac  that  was  opened  up  to  make  Hamilton  Place, 
about  twenty  years  ago.  He  had  a  contract  with 
Turner  at  the  rate  of  ^500  for  his  larger  pictures, 
of  which  he  possessed  sixteen,  besides  a  large 
number  of  drawings.  Turner  used  to  be  a  good 
deal  at  Novar,  and  also  Landseerand  other  artists. 

"While  most  of  Novar  came  to  Colonel  Fer- 
guson as  heir  in  tail,  the  pictures  went  to  Mr.  H. 
Munro  Butler  Johnston,  his  nephew,  by  whom  they 
were  sold." 

The  dispersal  took  place  on  Saturday,  April 


But  before  dealing  with  this  sale  it  is  necessary 
to  notice  that  of  the  Turner  drawings  and  vig- 
nettes, which  was  held  on  June  2nd,  1877,  when 
fifty-five  lots  brought  ^24,486  us.  Of  the 
twenty-four  vignettes  engraved  for  the  1834 
edition  of  Scott's  poetical  works  we  may 
mention  Smallholme  Tower,  205  guineas  ; 
Johnnie  Armstrong's  Tower,  380  guineas;  Her- 
mitage Castle,  1 60  guineas;  Caerlavroch  Castle, 
200  guineas ;  Fingal's  Cave,  1 10  guineas ; 
and  Mayborough,  King  Arthur's  Round  Table, 
100  guineas.  The  drawings  and  vignettes  en- 
graved for  Scott's  prose  works,  published  in  1834, 
included  Dryden's  Tomb  in  Westminster  Abbey, 
46  guineas  ;  Dumbarton,  one  of  the  smallest,  3  x  2|-, 

285  guineas;    Brussels,    180   guineas;    Norham 
Castle,  385  guineas;  New  Abbey  near  Dumfries, 
1 80    guineas;    Vincennes,     140    guineas;    Mal- 
maison's  vignette,  126  guineas  ;~Dunfermline,  with 
rainbow  and  water-wheel  in  the  foreground,  385 
guineas  ;  Craigmillar  Castle,  ^"204  ;  Killiecrankie, 
200  guineas  ;  Rouen,  250  guineas  ;  Abbeville,  265 
guineas ;  Winchelsea,  with  soldiers  and  baggage- 
waggon,  5x8,  620  guineas  ;  Corinth   from    the 
Acropolis,  305  guineas,  and  the  Temple  of  Minerva, 
Cape   Colonna,    120   guineas,  both    engraved  by 
Finden  for  Byron's  poems  ;   Havre,  engraved  in 
"  The  Rivers  of  France,"  £121  \  the  Trial  of  the 
Ring,  95  guineas ;  The  Chaplet,  £66  ;  and  The 
Garden,  140  guineas — these   three  vignettes  en- 
graved for  Moore's  "  Epicurean."     The  engrav- 
ings to  Milton's  poetical  works  included  the  Ex- 


pulsion  from  Paradise,  134  guineas  ;  Mustering  of 
the  Warrior  Angels,  100  guineas;  Fall  of  the 
Rebel  Angels,  140  guineas;  the  Temptation  on 
the  Mountain,  80  guineas ;  Temptation  on  the 
Pinnacle  of  the  Temple,  105  guineas;  St.  Michael's 
Mount,  scene  of  the  shipwreck  of  Lycidas,  185 
guineas ;  Ludlow  Castle,  with  fairy  figures  from 
"  Comus,"  220  guineas.  The  larger  drawings  in- 
cluded Rhigi,  effect  of  sunrise,  12  x  18,630  guineas; 
Lucerne,  moonlight  effect,  1 1 J  x  i8f,  850  guineas  ; 
Nantes,  with  figures  on  the  quay  and  bridge, 
iifxi7^,  780  guineas;  St.  Germain-en- Laye, 
i  if  x  13,  350  guineas;  Marly,  with  trees  and 
figures,  1 1 J  x  1 6f,  400  guineas  ;  Northampton  Elec- 
tion, with  figures,  njx  17^,  210  guineas;  Bridge 
at  Narni,  engraved  in  Hakewill's  "  Picturesque 
Tour  in  Italy,"  1820,  signed  by  the  artist,  5^  x 
8|-,  590  guineas.  The  "  England  and  Wales"  series 
included  Criccieth  Castle,  1 1^  x  i6f,  620  guineas  ; 
Kenilworth,  njxi7j,  1,205  guineas;  Kidwelly 
Castle,  njx  17!,  6 10  guineas;  Lancaster  Sands, 
1 1|-  x  1 6,  840  guineas  ;  Leicester  Abbey,  1 1  x  18, 
620  guineas;  Bedford,  I3fxi9j,  480  guineas; 
Carnarvon  Castle,  with  girls  bathing  from  a  boat, 
ii  x  i6|-,  760  guineas;  Chatham,  from  Fort  Pitt, 
nJxiS,  450  guineas;  Christ  Church,  Oxford, 
i  if  x  i6j,  405  guineas  ;  Coventry,  sunlight  effect 
on  three  churches,  a  storm,  n^x  17!-,  1,030 
guineas;  Louth  Horse  Fair,  i  ij-  x  i6|-, 410 guineas; 
Richmond  Terrace,  with  view  of  river  and  figures, 
njxi7j,  410  guineas;  Valle  Crucis  Abbey, 
1 i^  x  1 6^,  875  guineas  ;  and  Whitehaven,  sunlight 

286  THE    MUNRO    TURNERS. 

effect  on  hills  and  stormy  sea,  12^x8^,  740 
guineas.  There  were  also  the  Lighthouse,  Lowes- 
toft,  105  guineas;  and  Orford  Haven,  180 guineas. 
The  greater  of  the  two  Novar  sales  took  place 
on  April  6th,  1878,  when  104  lots  fetched 
,£73,518  js.  6d.  We  take  the  liberty  of  quoting 
the  preliminary  notice  of  the  sale  which  appeared 
in  The  Times  of  April  4th  :  "  The  fine  pictures  by 
Turner  belonging  to  the  late  Mr.  Munro,  who  was 
his  intimate  friend  and  executor,  forming  what  has 
long  been  known  as  the  Munro  collection,  but 
which  has  lately  taken  the  name  of  '  Novar' — 
that  of  Mr.  Munro's  place  in  Scotland — are  now 
exhibited  at  the  rooms  of  Messrs.  Christie,  Man- 
son  and  Woods,  previous  to  the  sale  on  Saturday. 
The  collection  has  always  been  at  the  house  in 
Hamilton  Place,  Piccadilly,  but  when  that  was 
pulled  down  in  making  the  new  road  they  were 
removed  to  the  Pantechnicon,  where  they  remained 
for  some  years  until  the  present  time.  As  now 
exhibited,  this  extremely  interesting  collection, 
however,  is  not  quite  what  it  was  during  Mr. 
Munro's  lifetime.  Two  of  the  most  beautiful  pic- 
tures were  sold  in  i860,1  the  Ostend,  and  the 
Approach  to  Venice ;  and  the  Modern  Italy  was 

1  The  sale  on  March  24th,  1860,  included  three  pictures  by 
Turner :  The  Grand  Canal,  Venice,  2,400  guineas,  which  at 
the  Mendel  sale  in  1875  realized  7,000  guineas,  the  purchaser 
being  Mr.  Agnew,  who  afterwards  sold  it  to  Lord  Dudley  at  an 
advance  of  ten  per  cent.  ;  Ostend,  stormy  sea,  1,650  guineas, 
and  Neapolitan  Bathers  Surprised,  moonlight  effect,  215  guineas. 
The  sale  also  included  R.  Wilson's  Rome  from  the  Villa  Ma- 
donna, 370  guineas,  and  Niobe,  155  guineas, 

THE    MUNRO    TURNERS.  287 

parted  with  in  1867,'  but  was  soon  afterwards,  in 
the  following  year,  bought  back  again  by  Mr. 
Butler  Johnston,  and  now  appears  among  its 
fellows.  It  is  remarkable  of  these  sales  that  such 
high  prices  were  realized  that  Mr.  Munro  actually 
gained  more  by  the  Ostend  and  the  Venice— 
which  sold,  the  first  for  ,£1,732  ios.,  and  the  latter 
for  £"2,520 — than  he  paid  Turner  for  all  his  pictures 
and  water-colour  drawings.  But,  strange  to  say, 
in  repurchasing  the  Modern  Italy  from  Mr.  Fal- 
lows' sale,  a  profit  of  more  than  ,£500  was  paid, 
the  picture  having  been  sold  in  the  Munro  sale  for 
£3,465,  and  bringing  only  £2,961  afterwards  in 
the  Fallows  sale.  The  Venice,  it  will  be  remem- 
bered, was  sold  at  the  sale  of  Mr.  Mendel's  collec- 
tion, in  1875,  for  £7,350,  and  passed  into  the 
gallery  of  Lord  Dudley.  The  greatest  interest 

'  In  1867,  May  nth  and  i6th,  the  Turners  included:  Scene 
on  the  River  Maas,  with  females  bathing,  1,270  guineas;  Cicero 
at  his  Villa  at  Tusculum,  1,470  guineas  (Lord  Powerscourt) — 
this  picture  was  again  put  up  for  sale  in  1881,  but  was  bought 
in  at  i, 800  guineas  ;  Loch  Katrine,  555  guineas  ;  Modern  Italy, 
3,300  guineas,  which,  at  the  1878  sale,  passed  into  the  posses- 
sion of  the  late  David  Price,  and  was  again  sold  after  his  death 
in  1892  for  5,200  guineas,  and  The  Wreck  Buoy,  1,500  guineas. 
This  sale  of  1867  also  included  a  Gainsborough,  Portrait  of  a 
lady  in  a  pink  dress,  555  guineas;  three  works  by  Hogarth,  of 
which  only  one  was  sold,  the  Portrait  of  Miss  Rae,  Lord 
Sandwich's  mistress,  525  guineas  (which  at  the  Addington  sale 
in  i885  sold  for  only  66  guineas);  three  Portraits  by  G. 
Romney,  Fanny  Reynolds  (Sir  Joshua's  sister)  in  straw  hat  and 
pink  ribbons,  135  guineas ;  a  Lady  in  ablack  dress  lined  with  pink, 
145  guineas,  and  Miss  Liddell  (Duchess  of  Grafton)  in  a  black 
dress,  225  guineas  (the  three  bought  by  Lord  Normanton). 

288  THE    MUNRO    TURNERS. 

and  curiosity  is  felt  as  to  the  prices  which  will  be 
given  for  the  pictures  now  about  to  be  sold,  as 
they  are  considered  to  be  quite  worthy  compeers 
of  the  splendid  Venice  and  the  Ostend.  Since  the 
memorable  Bicknell  sale,  in  1863,  there  has  been 
no  such  display  of  Turner  pictures  at  this  famous 
picture  gallery.  ...  Here  there  are  nine  [pic- 
tures] with  more  than  thirty  water-colour  drawings, 
many  of  which  are  large  and  important  examples, 
and  serve,  such  as  the  Zurich,  the  Knaresborough, 
and  the  Lowestoft,  as  beautiful  and  characteristic 
examples  of  the  master  as  any  of  his  acknowledged 
masterpieces,  and  all  fresh  and  brilliant  from 
having  been  kept  so  carefully  from  the  light  in 
portfolios,  as  were  those  which,  with  the  numerous 
exquisite  vignettes,  were  sold  last  year.  Of  the 
pictures,  the  Ancient  Italy,  with  its  subject,  sug- 
gested by  Turner's  own  peculiar  feelings,  of 
'  Ovid  banished  from  Rome,'  and  the  Modern 
Italy,  are  known  from  the  engravings  ;  and  so  is 
the  St.  Mark's  Piazza,  with  the  moonlight  mas- 
querade, and  Juliet  with  her  Nurse  on  the  Balcony. 
The  Kilgarran  Castle  is  tolerably  well-known  from 
his  having  painted  it  frequently,  but  perhaps  never 
with  more  grandeur  and  imposing  solemnity  than 
in  this.  The  two  views  of  Rome  are  of  his  finest 
middle  time,  when,  as  Mr.  Ruskin  has  so  elo- 
quently said,  *  He  saw  there  were  more  clouds  in 
any  sky  than  ever  had  been  painted,  more  trees  in 
every  forest,  more  crags  on  every  hill-side,  and  he 
set  himself  with  all  his  strength  to  proclaim  this 
great  fact  of  quantity  in  the  universe.'  In  these 


the  subject  is  infinite,  and  the  beauty  is  inex- 
haustible. Nothing  could  be  more  lovely  and 
abounding  in  the  charm  of  poetic  treatment  than 
the  Campo  Vaccino,  with  the  departing  glory  of 
the  sunlight  striking  over  the  classic  ruins  fading 
before  the  silvery  light  of  the  moon.  The  view  of 
Rome,  showing  the  vast  city  spread  out  from  the 
foot  of  the  Aventine,  with  the  umbrella  pine  high 
in  the  foreground,  is  amazing  in  the  grasp  and 
power  with  which  the  scene  in  all  its  intricate  detail 
and  vast  space  is  brought  before  the  spectator. 
The  Avalanche  is  one  of  his  most  tremendous 
efforts,  and  altogether  a  most  striking  and  impres- 
sive picture.  The  Van  Tromp's  Shallop  is  one  of 
the  four  Van  Tromps  he  painted,  described  in  the 
sale  catalogue  as  painted  in  1831  ;  but,  if  this  is 
correct,  the  picture  is  that  in  the  Academy  cata- 
logue of  that  year,  called  Van  Tromp's  Barge  at 
the  entrance  of  the  Texel,  otherwise  it  would  be 
the  one  exhibited  in  the  next  year,  and  called  Van 
Tromp's  Shallop  at  the  entrance  of  the  Scheldt. 
A  picture  of  great  interest,  as  an  early  work  of  his 
youth  almost,  is  the  Venus  and  Adonis,  an  upright 
landscape  with  amorini  hovering  in  the  trees,  and 
four  hounds  held  in  the  leash  by  Adonis,  painted 
in  1806,  but  not  exhibited  till  1849,  quite  in  emu- 
lation of  Titian.  The  pictures  by  Bonington  of 
the  celebrated  Kitty  Fisher  of  Sir  Joshua,  though 
somewhat  overshadowed  by  the  Turners,  add 
great  interest  to  this  remarkable  sale." 

The  nine  Turner  pictures  were  as  follows : 
Ancient  Italy,  36x48,  5,200  guineas  (K.  Hodg- 

i.  u 

290  THE    MUNRO    TURNERS. 

son,  M.P.);  Modern  Italy,  36x49,  5,000  guineas 
(David  Price)  ;  View  of  Rome  from  Mount  Aven- 
tine, painted  for  Mr.  Munro,  36  x  49,  5,850 guineas; 
Campo  Vaccino,  35  x  48,  4,45°  guineas  ;  St.  Mark's 
Place,  moonlight,  35  x  47,  5, 200 guineas  (K.  Hodg- 
son) ;  Van  Tromp's  Shallop  at  the  entrance  of 
the  Scheldt,  exhibited  in  1832  (not  I83I),1  35  x  47, 
5,200  guineas  (the  same) ;  Avalanche  in  the  Valley 
of  Aosta,  Savoy,35  x  48,9ioguineas  (Lord  Wharn- 
cliffe) ;  Departure  of  Adonis  for  the  Chase,  60  x  48, 
1,850  guineas  (purchased  by  Mr.  Munro  at  John 
Green's  sale,  1830,  for  83  guineas) ;  and  Kilgarran 
Castle,  35  x  46,  3,400  guineas  (Sir  W.  Armstrong). 
The  drawings  were  as  follows :  Lichfield,  iij  x  17}, 
480  guineas;  Oxford,  13^  x  20?,  500  guineas; 
the  Baths  of  Pfeffers,  Ragatz,  Splungen  Pass, 
ii§-xi8J,  1,000  guineas;  River  Scene,  Switzer- 
land, 9  x  1 2f ,  115  guineas  ;  Descent  of  St.  Gothard, 
I2f  x  2oJ,  500  guineas;  Lake  of  Lucerne,  12  x  i8|-, 
590  guineas;  Kussnacht,  Lucerne,  i2^x  i8|-,  970 
guineas;  Zurich,  12x18,  1,200  guineas;  Ashby- 
de-la-Zouche,  nf  x  17^-,  500  guineas;  Chain 
Bridge  over  the  Tees,  lof  x  i6f,  1,420  guineas; 
Blenheim,  nf  x  i8J,  680 guineas;  Knaresborough 
n-f  x  i6|-,  1,160  guineas;  Lowestoft,  n  x  :6f,  740 
guineas;  Malmesbury  Abbey,  nf  x  16%,  700 
guineas  ;  Pembroke  Castle,  i  if  x  17,  600  guineas  ; 
Ulleswater,  13  x  17^,  650  guineas  (the  foregoing 
eight  were  engraved  for  the  "  England  and  Wales  " 

1  Another  picture  of  the  same  subject,  30  x  40,  was  sold  at 
the  H.  Woods  sale  in  1883  for  3,500  guineas;  it  was  purchased 
by  Mr.  Martin  Holloway,  and  is  now  in  the  Holloway  College. 


series) ;  "  The  Sea  !  the  Sea!  "  engraved  by  Wil- 
man  for  "the  Keepsake,  1837,"  200  guineas; 
The  Simplon,  205  guineas;  Bellerophon,  185 
guineas;  Hotel  de  Ville,  Paris,  140  guineas; 
Hotel  de  Ville,  Brussels,  130  guineas;  Stirling, 
3i x  6£,  340  guineas ;  Kenilworth,  moonlight, 
5lx5f>  150  guineas;  Edinburgh,  3^  x  5$,  410 
guineas;  Inverness,  3!  x  6^,  300  guineas;  Glen- 
coe,  4!  x  5^,  320  guineas  ;  Loch  Katrine,  3f  x  5^, 
320  guineas  (the  foregoing  ten  were  engraved  for 
Scott's  poetical  and  prose  works) ;  Moonlight  on 
the  Nile,  vignette  for  Moore's  "  Epicurean,"  250 
guineas;  Valley  of  the  Var,  1813,  5|- x  8f ,  400 
guineas;  Walls  of  Romeand  Tomb  of  Caius  Sestius, 
5^  x  8J,  205  guineas  ;  Rhodes,  5^-  x  9,  250  guineas  ; 
and  the  Acropolis  of  Athens,  6^x9,  155  guineas 
(the  last  three  were  engraved  by  Finden  for 
Byron's  works). 

The  following  were  the  more  important  of  the 
pictures  by  other  artists  included  in  this  sale ;  R. 
P.  Bonington,  Scene  on  the  Normandy  Coast, 
9^x12,  400  guineas;  French  coast  scene,  210 
guineas;  the  Fish  Market,  Boulogne,  31x47, 
engraved  by  Quilley,  3,000  guineas ;  and  the 
Grand  Canal,  Venice,  40  x  50,  engraved  by  C.  G. 
Lewis,  3,000  guineas — these  two  pictures  are  said 
to  be  the  largest  ever  painted  by  Bonington ;  W. 
Collins,  Dominicans  returning  to  their  Monastery, 
Amalfi,  1842,  27x36,  255  guineas;  J.  Constable, 
Stratford  St.  Mary,  Suffolk,  12  x  19,  310  guineas  ; 
Hampstead  Heath,  14x19,  460  guineas;  and 
Ploughing  and  Windmill,  lox  14,  290  guineas; 


W.  Etty,  the  Good  Samaritan,  21  x  26,  1 60  guineas 
(said  to  have  cost  Mr.  Munro  ^600) ;  the  Three 
Graces,  20  x  30,  170  guineas  ;  Venus  and  Adonis, 
after  the  Titian  in  the  National  Gallery,  but  smaller, 
220  guineas;  Diana  and  Endymion,  31  x  27,  300 
guineas ;  and  Aurora  and  Zephyr,  circular,  36  inches, 
460  guineas  ;  W.  Hogarth,  two  scenes — the  other 
four  were  burnt  at  Fonthill — from  the  "  Harlot's 
Progress,"  the  Quarrel  with  the  New  Lover,  520 
guineas,  and  the  Scene  in  Bridewell,  300  guineas 
(this  pair  was  bought  in  at  the  Munro  sale  in  1867 
for  400  guineas  and  330  guineas  respectively)  ; 
P.  F.  Poole,  Visitation  and  Surrender  of  Syon 
Nunnery,  Isleworth,  to  the  Commissioners  of 
Henry  VIII.,  55x88,  510  guineas;  Sir  Joshua 
Reynolds,  Kitty  Fisher,  35  x  27,  one  of  five  or  six 
replicas,  700  guineas  ;  Portrait  of  Miss  Stanhope 
as  "  Contemplation,"  in  white  dress,  seated  in  a 
landscape,  engraved  by  C.  Watson,  55  x  44,  3,000 
guineas — from  the  Thomond  sale  of  1828,  when  it 
was  knocked  down  for  145  guineas  ;  and  Portrait 
of  Dr.  Hawkesworth,  28  x  24,  200 guineas;  and  R. 
Wilson,  Lake  Scene  near  Coast,  27  x  35,  280 
guineas  ;  River  Scene,  Italy,  16x21,  260  guineas  ; 
River  Scene,  with  Temple,  24  x  9,  160  guineas; 
and  Sion  House,  from  Kew,  36  x  53,  270  guineas. 
The  pictures  by  the  old  masters  came  under  the 
hammer  on  June  ist,  and  the  following  list  includes 
all  the  more  important  examples.  The  153  lots 
realized  ,£44,422  17^.  6d.,  from  which  total,  of 
course,  the  Raphael  "  Madonna  dei  Candelabri "  is 
excluded.  N.  Berghem,  Landscape,  with  mule- 


teers  and  animals,  signed  and  dated  1644,  21x19, 
215  guineas;  J.  Both,  View  on  the  Tiber,  sunset, 
with  the  Ponte  Molle  and  figures,  31x42,  260 
guineas  (from  Sir  H.  Oxenham's  sale,  1839,  210 
guineas)  ;  F.  Boucher,  The  Mask,  lady  in  slate- 
coloured  jacket  and  red  skirt,  1734,  no  guineas; 
Claude,  Lake  Scene,  with  sportsmen,  cattle  and 
goats  under  trees,  23x32,  300  guineas  ;  Phillip 
baptizing  the  Eunuch,  wooded  landscape,  painted 
in  1673,  f°r  Cardinal  Spada,  800  guineas;  and  a 
Seaport,  with  classic  buildings,  vessels  and  tower, 
figures,  39  x  52,  3,000  guineas  ;  A.  Cuyp,  Portrait 
group  of  three  girls  under  a  tree  with  sheep  and 
lambs,  60  x  70,  500  guineas  ;  and  Landscape  with 
miller's  cart  near  rustic  buildings,  13x19,  430 
guineas  ;  Sasso  Ferrato,  The  Holy  Family  with 
St.  Elizabeth  and  St.  John  with  the  Lamb,  42  x  34, 
200  guineas  ;  Greuze,  Head  of  a  Girl  with  hair 
tied  with  a  blue  ribbon,  18x14,  200  guineas; 
Guido,  Europa,  from  the  Altteri  Palace  and 
Altmira  Gallery,  Madrid,  61x44,  210  guineas; 
M.  Hobbema,  Wooded  River  Scene,  with  peasants 
and  winding  road,  white  cumuli  and  grey  cloud 
in  right  corner,  signed,  26x34,  2,100  guineas 
(Mr.  Munro  is  said  to  have  given  £200  for  this 
picture)  ;  and  A  Woody  Landscape,  blue  sky  and 
clouds,  cottages,  post-waggon  passing  a  ford  and 
figures,  17x20,  700  guineas;  N.  Maes,  Interior, 
with  woman  arranging  a  child's  hair,  two  other 
children  and  a  dog  and  cat,  24  x  18,  450  guineas ; 
Murillo,  three  sketches  for  his  larger  pictures, 
including  that  of  the  Miracle  of  the  Loaves  and 


Fishes  in  the  Caridad,  Seville,  300  guineas  ;  and 
also  the  finished  works,  Group  of  Spanish  Beggars 
at  the  stall  of  a  woman  selling  bread,  winter, 
37  x  47,  260  guineas  ;  and  St.  Anthony  caressing 
the  Infant,  sold  by  Queen  Christina  from  the 
Royal  Gallery,  Madrid,  73x81,  2,250  guineas; 
Perugino,  St.  Francis  in  ecstasy,  24x19,  260 
guineas  ;  A.  Pynacker,  Rocky  Coast  Scene,  with 
vessels  wrecked, crews  beingsaved  by  boats,  3  2  x  43, 
45°  guineas  ;  Rubens,  Meeting  of  Jacob  and  Esau, 
a  sketch,  19  x  15,  310  guineas;  Portrait  of  a 
Lady,  inscribed  "  Virgo  Brabantini,"  42  x  31,  1,050 
guineas  ;  Portrait  of  Old  Parr,  said  to  have  been 
painted  by  Rubens  when  ambassador  at  the  English 
Court,  24  x  1 8,  1 80  guineas;  and  the  Holy  Family 
with  St.  Anne,  59  x  44,  175  guineas  ;  J.  Ruysdael, 
Grand  Sea  Piece,  storm,  with  fishing  vessels,  from 
Lord  Orford's  collection,  34x47,  1,400  guineas; 
and  A  Sea  View,  with  fishing  boats  and  men-of- 
war,  27  x  36,  1,400  guineas ;  Andrea  del  Sarto,  La 
Carita,  from  the  Ruspigliosi  Palace,  formerly  in 
the  Anderdon  collection,  and  probably  the  picture 
referred  to  on  p.  192,  330  guineas  ;  and  The  Pieta, 
Madonna  and  two  angels  mourning  over  the  body 
of  Christ,  38  x  51,  1,700  guineas  ;  J.  Steen,  Effects 
of  Intemperance,  from  the  Beckford  collection, 
30  x  43,  1,250  guineas  ;  and  After  Dinner,  portraits 
of  the  artist  and  his  wife,  two  children  blowing 
bubbles,  25  x  32,  230  guineas  ;  G.  Terburg,  The 
Glass  of  Lemonade,  two  ladies  and  gentlemen  in  a 
handsome  apartment,  from  the  Praslin  collection 
and  engraved  in  the  Choiseul  gallery,  26  x  2 1,  1,850 


guineas  ;  Titian,  Repose  of  the  Holy  Family  in 
Landscape,  with  castle  to  the  right,  18x24,  35° 
guineas  ;  Vandyck,  Daedalus  and  Icarus,  43  x  35, 
400  guineas — from  the  J.  Knight  collection,  1819, 
300  guineas  ;  and  E.  W.  Lake  sale  of  1848,  £66  ; 
A.  Van  de  Velde,  Landscape,  with  herdsman  and 
shepherdess  and  animals  near  a  pool  of  water, 
signed,  rox  13,  505 guineas;  Paul  Veronese,  Venus 
seated  on  a  couch,  red  curtain  background,  from 
the  Colonna  Palace,  and  subsequently  in  the  col- 
lections of  Walsh  Porter  and  Sir  Simon  Clarke, 
75  x  56,  680  guineas  ;  and  Vision  of  St.  Helena, 
the  altarpiece  of  the  chapel  at  Venice  dedicated  to 
that  saint,  formerly  in  the  first  Duke  of  Marl- 
borough's  collection,  whence  it  passed  into  that  of 
Lord  Treasurer  Godolphin,  and  was  purchased  at 
the  Duke  of  Leeds'  sale  by  the  Marquis  of  Hert- 
ford, 77  x  45,  and  again  sold  in  1860  (see  p.  192), 
3, 300  guineas  (National  Gallery);  A.Watteau,  Fete 
Champetre,  1 2  x  15,  300  guineas ;  Le  Printemps, 
two  nude  figures  crowning  a  youth  with  flowers, 
engraved  by  Desplace,  49  x  40,  620  guineas  ;  and 
"  Les  Deux  Marquises,"  two  little  girls  in  white 
wigs  and  pompons  of  feathers  and  flowers,  30  x  24, 
2,500  guineas;  P.  Wouverman,  Halt  of  Cavaliers 
and  Ladies  at  a  farrier's  shop,  13  x  19,  300 
guineas  ;  and  two  great  works  of  Raphael,  "  La 
Vierge  a  la  Legende,"  or  "La  Vierge  de  Novar," 
said  to  have  belonged  to  Charles  I .,  and  ascribed 
to  Giulio  Romano  when  in  Lord  Gwydyr's  collec- 
tion, 32  x  24,  3,000  guineas  (this  celebrated  work, 
which  has  been  engraved  by  Forster,  was  again 


sold  with  the  Dudley  Gallery  in  1892);  and  the 
celebrated  chef-d'oeuvre,  "  Madonna  dei  Cande- 
labri,"  26  inches  circle,  bought  from  the  Borghese 
Palace  by  Lucien  Bonaparte,  and  sold  by  him 
to  the  Queen  of  Etruria ;  it  was  purchased  by 
Mr.  Munro  at  the  Due  de  Lucca  sale  in  June, 
1841  for  ,£1,500,  it  was  now  bought  in  at  19,000 

Finally  the  remaining  pictures  and  drawings, 
and  also  the  books  collected  by  Mr.  Munro,  and 
subsequently  the  property  of  Colonel  the  Hon. 
Henry  Butler- Johnstone,  came  under  the  hammer 
on  March  i9th,  22nd  and  23rd,  1880,  707  lots, 
showing  a  total  of  ,£2,897  12S-  The  only  lots  in 
this  sale  which  call  for  special  notice  are  the  follow- 
ing :  R.  P.  Bonington,  Francis  I.  and  his  Sister, 
the  engraved  picture,  14  x  n,  255  guineas;  and 
The  Grand  Canal,  Venice,  the  sketch  for  the 
large  picture,  100  guineas;  J.  M.  W.  Turner, 
Grand  Canal,  Venice,  painted  on  the  engraving, 
105  guineas ;  and  Sir  E.  Landseer,  Hinds  Alarmed, 
painted  at  Novar,  250  guineas. 

In  the  interval  which  occurred  between  the  dis- 
persal of  the  modern  and  the  ancient  pictures  of  Mr. 
Hugh  A.  J.  Munro,  the  exceedingly  choice  collec- 
tion of  works  (nearly  all  of  which  were  of  cabinet 
size)  by  modern  artists,  of  the  late  Frederic  Thomas 
Turner,  of  The  Cedars,  Clapham  Common,  was  sold. 
This  assemblage  was  not  a  large  one,  but  it  was 
made  with  great  good  taste,  and  sixty-one  lots 
realized  the  total  of  ,£26,628  155-.  The  sale  took 
place  on  May  4th,  1878,  and  the  principal  pictures 

THE    F.    T.    TURNER    COLLECTION.  297 

were  as  follows  :  J.  C.  Hook,  Beaching  the  Boat, 
J3  x  9»  33°  guineas,  and  Leaving,  at  Low  Water, 
Scilly  Isles,  26  x  41, 1,130  guineas;  Sir  J.  E.  Millais, 
"Charlie  is  my  Darling,"  16  x  9,  190  guineas; 
Joan  of  Arc,  34  x  23,  700  guineas,  and  The  Romans 
Leaving  Britain,  17x27,  320  guineas  ;  C.  Stan- 
field,  Ancona,  15  x  23,  420  guineas ;  Boats  Fouling, 
entering  the  harbour,  Zuyder  Zee,  23  x  35,  750 
guineas;  On  the  Italian  Coast,  15  x  23,  330 
guineas;  The  Stack  Rock,  Coast  of  Antrim,  1861, 
14x23,  630  guineas;  On  the  River  Texel,  1861, 
15  x  24,  500  guineas,  and  the  Pic  du  Midi 
d'Ossau,  in  the  Pyrenees,  1866,  29  x  22  (not  to  be 
confounded  with  the  very  large  work  on  the  same 
subject  in  the  Bicknell  and  Coleman  sales),  510 
guineas  ;  E.  W.  Cooke,  Porto  del  Lido,  1853  :  the 
entrance  to  the  Lagunes  of  Venice  from  the 
Adriatic,  19x33,  530  guineas;  T.  Faed,  The 
Silken  Gown,  19  x  15,  710  guineas  ;  "  Letting  the 
Cows  into  the  Corn,"  29  x  22,  700  guineas ; 
Thoughts  of  the  Absent,  29x21,  600  guineas  ;  On 
the  Coast  of  Arran,  1854,  19  x  13,  640  guineas; 
W.  E.  Frost,  The  Syrens,  15  x  1 1,  a  small  replica, 
formerly  in  the  Bicknell  collection,  of  the  picture 
painted  in  1849  for  Mr.  Andrews  of  York,  and 
subsequently  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Dennistown 
of  Golf-hill  (see  letter  in  The  Times  May  28th, 
1878),  200  guineas  ;  John  Linnell,  Harvest, 
19  x  23>  5°°  guineas ;  and  View  near  Hampstead, 
7x11,  380  guineas  ;  J.  Phillip,  Agua  Benedita  : 
a  church  scene,  1861,  35  x  27,  1,400  guineas;  El 
Picador,  1862,  19  x  25,  550  guineas;  Uvas 

298  THE    F.    T.    TURNER    COLLECTION. 

Maduras,  Spanish  Fruit  Seller,  28x18,  1,190 
guineas ;  El  Cigarello  :  taking  a  quiet  whiff, 
25  x  19,  1,520  guineas;  "  Oh  Nanny!"  1859, 
9x7,  100  guineas,  and  Una  Maja  Bonita,  1856, 
17  x  13,  440  guineas  ;  W.  P.  Frith,  Bed-Time,  the 
engraved  picture,  1852,  23  x  19,  380  guineas  ;  The 
Keeper's  Daughter  (with  R.  Ansdell),  engraved  by 
H.  T.  Ryall,  22x27,  720  guineas,  and  Twelfth 
Night,  a  study,  1862,  8xn,  175  guineas;  T. 
Webster,  The  Impenitent,  from  the  Collection  of 
E.  Bicknell,  for  whom  it  was  painted,  1 7  x  15, 
390  guineas ;  W.  Mtiller,  The  Village  of  Gil- 
lingham,  1841,  29  x  24,  from  the  Bicknell  collec- 
tion, 900  guineas ;  D.  Roberts,  a  Street  in  Cairo, 
1846,  painted  for  Mr.  Bicknell,  29  x  24,  610 
guineas — this  picture  again  occurred  in  1883  at  the 
T.  Taylor  sale,  when  it  was  purchased  by  Mr. 
Martin  Holloway  for  710  guineas;  F.  Goodall, 
The  Rising  of  the  Nile,  29  x  53-,  650  guineas;  Sir 
E.  Landseer,  Highland  Nurses  (deer  and  ptar- 
migan), 27x35,  engraved  by  T.  Landseer,  1,600 
guineas  ;  and  three  small  works  of  L.  Alma 
Tadema  from  the  Royal  Academy  of  1873.  The 
Siesta,  6  J  x  18,  300  guineas  ;  The  Dinner,  6 J  x  23, 
400  guineas,  and  The  Wine,  6  x  14,  270  guineas  ; 
Rosa  Bonheur,  "  Le  Retour  du  Moulin,"  lox  13, 
570  guineas,  and  "  Chevreuils  au  repos  dans  la 
Foret  de  Fontainebleau,"  1867,  engraved  by 
C.  G.  Lewis,  38x31,  1,100  guineas  ;  E.  Frere, 
"  Les  Preparatifs  du  Dejeuner,"  1851,  16x12, 
340  guineas,  and  "  La  Sortie  de  1'Ecole,"  1866, 
34  x  28,  630  guineas.  A  beautiful  statue  by  Tan- 

THE    F.    T.    TURNER    COLLECTION.  2Q9 

tardini,  The   Bather,  life  size,  1863,  sold  for  200 

The  only  other  picture  sales  of  1878  which  we 
need  mention,  are  as  follows  : — The  collection  of 
water-colour  drawings  of  the  late  Thomas  Green- 
wood, of  Sandfield  Lodge,  Hampstead,  April  loth 
and  nth,  when  13  works  by  David  Cox,  and  10 
by  Turner  realized,  for  the  most  part,  small  prices, 
and  the  total  of  52  drawings  and  pictures  being 
,£2,344  ;  there  were  two  earlier  sales  of  Mr. 
Greenwood,  the  first  in  1872  and  the  second  in 
1875,  several  of  the  less  important  drawings  on 
each  occasion  failed  to  reach  the  reserve  placed 
upon  them.  Of  the  works  in  the  1875  sale  we 
may  mention  the  following  by  D.  Cox,  Market 
Woman  crossing  a  Heath,  2ioguineas;  Twilight, 
480  guineas  ;  Bolton  Park,  420  guineas;  Crossing 
Lancaster  Sands,  from  the  Ellison  collection, 
375  guineas  ;  Pass  of  Killiecrankie,  335  guineas  ; 
Landscape  with  Brigands,  650  guineas ;  and 
Waiting  on  Lancaster  Sands,  210  guineas.  The 
modern  pictures  of  W.  J.  Alt,  previously  exhibited 
at  the  Bethnal  Green  Museum,  and  sold  on  March 
2nd,  brought  a  total  of  £6,500.  The  only  two 
pictures  of  note  in  the  T.  Graham  White  collec- 
tion (40  lots),  sold  on  March  23rd,  being  a  Por- 
trait by  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds  of  Lady  Smyth  and 
her  children,  the  picture  engraved  by  Bartolozzi, 
1,250  guineas — this  picture  subsequently  appeared 
in  the  Duchess  of  Montrose  sales,  1894  and 
1895  ;  and  a  Rembrandt,  Portrait  of  the  Artist's 
Wife  in  turban,  rich  red  dress  and  pearl  bracelet, 


36  x  27,  450  guineas  (in  the  Wardell  sale  of  the 
next  year  this  picture  fetched  635  guineas).  Mrs. 
Edward  Romilly's  pictures  were  sold  on  the  same 
day,  and  included  a  Teniers,  The  Guitar  Player, 
an  oval,  interior,  with  guitar  player  and  group  of 
five  men  playing  cards  and  smoking  in  a  further 
room,  10x12,  520  guineas;  Cuyp,  Flight  into 
Egypt,  with  Holy  Family  on  the  left,  18x24, 
290  guineas  ;  Greuze,  Portrait  of  Madame  Van 
Westrenen,  painted  in  1802,  290  guineas  ;  and 
P.  de  Wint,  Grand  View  of  Lincoln  from  the 
Brayford,  725  guineas — this  very  fine  drawing  was 
again  sold  in  March,  1883,  when  it  fetched  655 

The  porcelain  sales  of  this  year  included  a  rose 
du  Barri  Sevres  dessert  service,  the  property  of  the 
late  J.  P.  G.  Bering,  of  South  Street,  Park  Lane, 
and  of  Great  Missenden,  Bucks,  and  formerly  in 
the  possession  of  Lord  Gwydyr,  in  whose  sale  it 
was  included  in  1829  ;  the  set  comprised  fifty- 
seven  pieces,  all  painted  with  medallions  of  fruits 
and  flowers,  chiefly  dating  1757.  The  set,  now 
sold  in  portions,  realized  ^"4,039  14^.,  the  principal 
objects  being  a  pair  of  seaux,  1,070  guineas;  a 
circular  tureen,  the  cover  being  an  artichoke  in 
green  and  gold,  195  guineas;  the  companion,  205 
guineas  ;  two  oval  dishes  with  white  centres  and 
ends  painted  with  flowers,  each  255  guineas  ;  and 
twelve  plates,  painted  with  flowers,  fruit,  and 
exotic  birds  by  Thevenet,  360  guineas.  A  pair  of 
fluted  lavender-coloured  vases,  mounted  in  ormulu, 
also  from  the  Gwydyr  collection,  ^"410. 


The  last  of  the  six  portions  of  the  extensive  col- 
lection of  ceramics  and  other  works  of  art  formed 
by  Henry  G.  Bohn,  came  under  the  hammer  during 
the  present  year.  The  following  is  a  list,  with  in- 
clusive dates,  of  the  Bohn  sales  : 

LOTS.  £     s.  d. 

1875  March  15-18 646  6,528     5  6 

„       June  16-18 473  4,862   15  6 

1876  March  21-23 5IQ  3>J54     8  6 

„       May  29-30 258  1,226  13  o 

1877  March  19-22 638  3910   13  o 

1878  March  26-29 777         4,995   17     o 

1885     March  19-28  (9  days,  Drawings 

and  Pictures) 1621       19,209     5     6 

„       March  30-31  (Private  Library)       396  749  16     o 

TOTAL  ^44,637   14    o 

The  water-colour  drawings  and  pictures  in  oils 
collected  by  the  late  James  S.  Virtue,  nearly  all  of 
which  had  been  engraved  in  the  Art  Journal,  came 
under  the  hammer  on  March  ist,  1879,  and  the 
171  lots  realized  ,£9,343,  very  few  of  the  articles 
reaching  three  figures.  This  sale  was  followed  by 
that  of  Lord  Lonsdale's  pictures,  china,  and  de- 
corative furniture  on  March  5th  and  three  follow- 
ing days.  The  china  and  decorative  furniture 
showed  a  total  of  ,£19,336  17^.  6d.,  and  the  prin- 
cipal articles  were  :  An  old  Dresden  dinner  service, 
painted  with  tigers,  birds,  and  foliage  in  Oriental 
style,  with  basket  borders,  375  guineas  ;  a  rose  du 
Barri  Sevres  cabinet,  pastoral  figures  in  medallions, 
of  eight  pieces,  exceedingly  fine,  805  guineas  ;  an 
old  Chelsea  tea  service  of  twenty-two  pieces, 


painted  with  exotic  birds  and  blue  bands,  sold 
separately  at  from  ^40  to  ^130  each,  and  brought 
the  high  total  of  820  guineas  ;  a  fine  square-shaped 
Chelsea  vase,  deep  blue  ground,  with  four  large 
medallions  of  Chinese  figures  and  eight  smaller  of 
exotic  birds,  21  in.  high,  520  guineas;  and  a  pair 
of  tall  vases  and  covers,  with  white  and  gold  scroll 
handles,  deep  blue  ground,  with  groups  of  exotic 
birds  and  flowers  in  gold,  2o|-  in.  high,  unfor- 
tunately badly  broken  and  worse  mended,  420 
guineas  ;  a  Crown  Derby  dessert  service,  with  dark 
blue  and  gold  jewelled  edges,  painted  with  land- 
scapes, in  blue  and  gold  borders,  257  guineas.  An 
old  French  oblong  casket  of  black  buhl,  ^295  ;  a 
clock  of  buhl  on  pedestal,  350  guineas  ;  and  a  fine 
Louis  XIV.  writing-table  of  black  buhl,  60x40, 
400  guineas.  The  pictures  were  thirteen  in  all, 
nine  in  oils  and  four  large  water  colour  drawings 
by  De  Wint.  Moucheron,  Italian  landscape,  with 
figures  by  A.  Van  de  Velde,  hilly  ground  to  the 
left,  peasant  woman  riding  on  a  mule,  dog,  sheep, 
beggar  woman,  and  other  figures,  and  carriage  with 
horseman  in  an  avenue,  30x25,  1,000  guineas; 
Sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  The  Laughing  Girl,  30  x  25, 
i, 300  guineas  (Lord  Chesterfield);  and  Robinetta, 
30  x  25,  1,000  guineas — both  pictures  that  had  been 
engraved,  but  were  now  in  poor  condition ;  T. 
Gainsborough,  Horses  watering  at  a  Trough,  with 
man  on  gray  horse,  with  hills  and  a  church  in  the 
distance,  from  Sir  John  Leicester's  collection,  48  x  39, 
i, 300  guineas  (bought  in)  ;  Sir  Thomas  Lawrence, 
Portrait  of  George  IV.  on  a  sofa,  engraved,  75 


guineas;  J.  Jackson,  Portrait  of  the  Duke  of  Wel- 
lington, in  blue  uniform,  holding  cocked  hat,  battle 
in  the  distance,  150  guineas.  The  De  Wint  draw- 
ings were  Lancaster,  with  castle  in  the  middle 
ground  and  wide  reach  of  water  and  hills  beyond, 
29?  x  5T»  T>35°  guineas;  Tewkesbury  Abbey, 
cattle  passing  over  a  bridge,  trees,  35  x  24^,  600 
guineas ;  Whitehaven,  view  of  town  and  harbour, 
21  x  35>  7°°  guineas  ;  and  Lowther  Castle,  fir  trees 
and  figures  in  the  foreground,  29  x  39,  645  guineas 
—the  last  two  were  bought  in.  Another  interest- 
ing sale  of  pictures  took  place  in  March  (29th), 
namely,  that  of  the  remaining  works,  sketches,  and 
studies  of  the  late  E.  M.  Ward,  R.A.,  1 19  lots  in  all. 
We  need  only  specially  mention  Anne  Boleyn  at 
the  Queen's  Stairs,  exhibited  in  1871,  450  guineas  ; 
the  Ante-chamber  at  Whitehall,  exhibited  at  the 
Royal  Academy,  1861,  900  guineas. 

Several  important  pictures  were  included  in  the 
collection  of  Joseph  Arden,of  Rickmansworth  Park, 
sold  on  April  26th.  The  ninety-six  lots  realized 
.£17,172  ^s.  6d.,  the  more  notable  being  as  follows: 
E.  W.  Cooke,  Venice,  Riva  dei  Schiavoni,  1853, 
15  x  26,  200  guineas  ;  the  Port  of  Delfzijl  on  the 
Dollart,  Holland,  1856,  26  x  41,  330  guineas; 
and  Venice,  26x42,  810  guineas;  W.  S.  Burton, 
The  Cavalier  and  the  Puritan,  exhibited  at  the 
Royal  Academy  of  1856,  34  x  40,  430  guineas  ;  T. 
Creswick,  Chequered  Shade,  an  avenue  of  trees, 
1848,  35  x  71,  360  guineas;  and  The  Greenwood 
Stream,  1848,  27x35,  490  guineas;  W.  Linton, 
Bellinzona,  48  x  72,  250  guineas;  Sir  J.  E.  Millais, 


The  Order  of  Release,  1853, 40  x  29,  2, 700 guineas ; 
and  The  Rescue,  the  celebrated  picture  of  a  fire- 
man saving  a  woman  from  a  fire,  46x33,  1,250 
guineas;  D.  Roberts,  Santa  Maria  della  Salute, 
Venice,  24  x  48,  painted  for  Mr.  Arden,  750 
guineas ;  San  Giorgio  Maggiore,  Venice,  the  com- 
panion picture,  720  guineas ;  a  Street  Scene  in 
Cairo,  55  x  43,  900  guineas;  A  Recollection  of 
Spain,  interior,  with  the  tomb  of  Ferdinand  and 
Isabella,  etc.,  55  x  43,  740  guineas;  and  Ruins  of 
the  Great  Temple  of  Karnac,  painted  for  Mr. 
Arden,  57x93,  1845,  480  guineas ;  C.  Stanfield, 
II  Ponte  Rotto,  Rome,  1846,  37  x  32,  800  guineas  ; 
F.  Stone,  The  Old,  Old  Story,  1854,  the  engraved 
picture,  42  x  34,  400  guineas  (sold  again  in  1883 
with  Mrs.  Gibbon's  pictures  for  the  same  amount)  ; 
and  E.  M.  Ward,  Last  Parting  of  Marie  Antoin- 
ette and  her  son,  1856,  48  x  68,  950  guineas. 
The  water  colour  drawings  included  J.  F.  Lewis, 
The  Harem  of  a  Memlook  Bey,  painted  for  Mr. 
Arden  at  Cairo,  35  x  53,  690  guineas.  After  the 
Arden  pictures  came  a  few  others,  from  various 
properties,  and  among  them  were  :  D.  Teniers, 
Interior  of  a  Guardroom,  soldiers  playing  cards, 
and  other  figures,  on  copper,  18  x  24,  5  20  guineas  ; 
M.  Hobbema,  Dutch  village,  with  peasants  on  a 
raft  and  fisherman  in  a  boat,  signed,  and  dated 
1663,  208  guineas  ;  and  four  works  of  Guardi,  The 
Grand  Canal,  Venice,  235  guineas  ;  The  Approach 
to  Venice,  the  companion,  200  guineas;  St.  Mark's 
Place,  200  guineas;  and  the  Piazetta  of  St.  Mark's, 
Venice,  245  guineas. 


The  May  sales  opened  (3rd)  with  the  collection 
of  ninety-eight  pictures  formed  by  Jonathan  Nield, 
of  Dunster  House,  Rochdale,  which  brought  a  total 
of  ,£33,423  165-.  There  were  R.  Ansdell,  Gardener's 
Daughter  (with  J.  Phillip),  600  guineas  ;  the 
companion  pair,  Lost  and  Found,  respectively  195 
guineas  and  200  guineas  ;  Gossip  at  the  Well,  365 
guineas  ;  Return  from  Deerstalking,  400  guineas  ; 
and  the  Gamekeeper's  Daughter  (with  W.  P. 
Frith),  290  guineas  ;  J.  Constable,  Stoke-by- Way- 
land,  Suffolk,  48  x  56,  740  guineas  ;  and  The 
Thames,  Westminster,  410  guineas;  P.  H.  Cal- 
deron,  Victory,  1,050  guineas;  and  Good  Night, 
250  guineas;  W.  Collins,  Coast  Scenes,  men  and 
boats,  26  x  32,  420  guineas  ;  E.  W.  Cook,  Venice, 
3 20 guineas;  T.S.  Cooper,  Summer  Afternoon,  250 
guineas  ;  David  Cox,  Lancaster  Sands,  purchased 
at  the  sale  of  David  Cox,  jun.,  May,  1873  (1,000 
guineas — see  p.  223),  310  guineas  ;  Cavalry,  7  x  10, 
205  guineas  ;  and  a  Hayfield,  10  x  13,  230  guineas  ; 
T.  Creswick,  a  Rocky  Dell,  300  guineas ;  and  a 
Woody  River  scene,  240 guineas;  A.  Elmore,  After 
the  Siesta,  18  x  24,  2  70  guineas  ;  and  Columbus  at 
Porto  Santo,  460  guineas  ;  T.  Faed,  A  Listener 
nae  hears  gude  o'  himsel',  lox  14,  350  guineas; 
In  Doubt,  490  guineas;  and  Sunday  Afternoon, 
620  guineas  ;  W.  P.  Frith,  Dolly  Varden  with  the 
Bracelet,  from  the  Gillott  collection,  24  x  18,  300 
guineas  ;  and  Amy  Robsart  and  Janet,  300  guineas  ; 
F.  Goodall,  Hagar  and  Ishmael,  950  guineas  ;  Go- 
ing to  School,  10  x  13,  260  guineas;  and  Wedding 
Dance,  Brittany,  760  guineas;  Peter  Graham,  Our 

i.  x 


Northern  Wall,  cliffs  and  gulls,  400  guineas ;  J.  E. 
Hodgson,  Warriors  of  Islam,  200  guineas;  J.  C. 
Horsley,  "The  Other  Name?"  460  guineas;  H.  Le 
Jeune,  The  Bird's  Nest,  155  guineas;  J.  C.  Hook, 
Overtaken  by  the  Tide,  1,020  guineas  ;  and  Cross- 
ing the  Brook,  660  guineas  ;  G.  D.  Leslie,  The 
Nut-brown  Maid  500  guineas  ;  and  Lavinia,  1,000 
guineas  ;  Sir  E.  Landseer,  Sport  in  the  Highlands, 
1,450  guineas;  and  The  King  of  the  Forest, 
24x24,  1,000  guineas;  J.  Linnell,  Hampstead 
Heath,  figures  and  sheep,  530  guineas  ;  and  The 
Woodcutters,  lox  12,  410  guineas;  H.  S.  Marks, 
Capital  and  Labour,  1,050  guineas  ;  W.  J.  Mliller, 
Gillingham  Church,  an  upright,  1841,  30  x  32,  700 
guineas;  and  Alexandria,  1843,  760  guineas;  P. 
Nasmyth,  Landscape,  with  Turner's  Hill,  230 
guineas  ;  Erskine  Nicol,  Always  tell  the  Truth, 
450  guineas  ;  and  The  Fisher's  Knot,  410  guineas  ; 
H.  O'Neil,  Marina  at  the  Grave  of  her  Nurse, 
275  guineas;  J.  Phillip,  Scotch  Christening,  10  x  13, 
1 60  guineas  ;  D.  Roberts,  Piazza  Navona,  490 
guineas  ;  C.  Stanfield,  Capture  of  Smugglers,  An- 
trim, 500  guineas  ;  Coast  Scene,  with  figures,  410 
guineas  ;  and  Lake  Como,  630  guineas. 

The  pictures  sold  on  May  5,  of  W.  Fenton,  of 
Button  Manor,  Rochester,  forty-one  in  number, 
included  T.  Creswick,  River  Tees  at  Wycliffe, 
with  figures  by  Frith,  610  guineas  ;  W.  P.  Frith 
and  Creswick,  River  Tees  at  Wycliffe,  from  the 
Mendel  collection.  610  guineas;  G.  D.  Leslie, 
Pot  Pourri,  1,180  guineas;  J.  Linnell,  A  sunny 
Landscape,  590  guineas  ;  G.  B.  O'Neil,  The  Little 


Trespasser,  255  guineas.  The  most  important 
work  by  a  continental  artist  in  this  collection  was 
Josef  Israels,  La  Fete  de  Jeanne,  1,600  guineas. 
The  total  amounted  to  ,£6,588  4^,  6d.  Those 
of  Joseph  Fenton,  of  Barnford  Hall,  Rochdale, 
ninety-three  in  all,  total  ,£13,101  js.  6d.,  in- 
cluded J.  Constable,  Embarkation  of  George  IV., 
60  x  80,  410  guineas  ;  E.  W.  Cooke,  Amsterdam, 
290  guineas ;  T.  S.  Cooper,  Snowdon,  peasants 
and  sheep,  310  guineas  ;  T.  Creswick,  The  Water- 
fall, 320  guineas  ;  W.  C.  T.  Dobson,  The  Nut 
Gatherers,  150  guineas;  Sir  E.  Landseer,  Canine 
Friends,  310  guineas  ;  and  Gipsy  encampment  with 
donkeys,  290  guineas  ;  J.  Linnell,  Winding  the 
Skein,  300  guineas  ;  Harvest  field,  with  peasants, 
sunset  effect,  1862,  800  guineas  ;  A  Harvest  Dinner, 
42  x  50,  1,610  guineas;  The  Storm,  510  guineas  ; 
and  Christ  and  the  Disciples  at  Emmaus,  250 
guineas  ;  W.  J.  M tiller,  Athens  with  the  Acropolis, 
500  guineas  ;  and  the  Sphinx,  230  guineas  ;  P. 
Nasmyth,  Coast  Scene,  210  guineas;  Windsor 
Castle,  320  guineas  ;  and  Landscape,  with  cottages 
and  figures,  260  guineas  ;  D.  Roberts,  Interior  of 
the  Duomo,  Milan,  1,400  guineas;  C.  Stanfield, 
Macbeth  and  the  Witches,  from  the  Brunei  col- 
lection, 490  guineas ;  T.  Webster,  The  Young 
Fisherman,  235  guineas. 

The  sale  on  the  second  Saturday  in  May  (loth) 
1879,  included  pictures  from  several  sources. 
From  the  collection  of  the  late  John  Wardells  of 
Rathgar,  Dublin,  came  A.  Brauwer,  The  Card 
Players,  12  x  16,  270  guineas;  G.  Coques,  Lady 


and  Gentleman  playing  the  guitar,  from  the  Wynn 
Ellis  collection,  15x22,  155  guineas;  Van  Delen 
and  Van  Harp,  Palace  Interior,  with  the  return  of 
the  prodigal,  22  x  55,  165  guineas  ;  A.  de  Lorme, 
Interior  of  a  Cathedral,  with  figures  by  Terburg, 
signed,  1655,  400  guineas;  W.  Mieris,  The 
Guitar  Players,  with  view  of  a  garden  and  land- 
scape, signed,  and  dated  1705,  11x9,  490  guineas 
— at  the  Levy  Sale  in  1876  this  realized  460 
guineas  ;  A.  Van  de  Velde,  Gardens  of  a  Palace, 
with  figures,  14x13,  290  guineas;  Rembrandt; 
Portrait  of  his  wife  already  referred  to  on  p.  299, 
Eglon  Van  der  Neer,  Interior,  with  a  lady  and 
gentleman,  and  a  lady  nursing  an  infant,  signed, 
and  dated  1664,  25  x  22,  290  guineas  (from  the 
Cope  sale  of  1872,  when  it  realized  220  guineas)  ; 
P.  Wouverman,  A  Hawking  Party,  painted  for 
Elizabeth  de  Bourbon,  wife  of  Philip  IV.  of  Spain, 
whose  arms  are  on  the  back  of"  the  panel,  1 2  x  1 6, 
750  guineas  (from  the  Levy  Sale  of  1876);  and 
G.  Morland,  Landscape,  with  figures  at  an  inn 
door,  1794,  39x52,  320  guineas.  The  four 
pictures  from  the  collection  of  George  Faulkner, 
of  Crumpshall,  near  Manchester,  were  :  A.  Ostade, 
Boors  carousing,  composition  of  five  half-length 
figures  looking  out  of  a  window,  one  holding  a  glass 
and  another  a  flute,  11x9,  400  guineas  ;  and  Karel 
Du  Jardin,  Italian  landscape,  with  woman  and  a  boy 
standing  in  a  pool,  donkey,  ox,  dog,  and  trees, 
signed  and  dated  1662,  16  x  19,  240  guineas.  The 
pictures  of  the  late  Fuller  Maitland,  of  Stanstead 
Hall,  Essex  (a  selection  from  whose  collection 


was  made  prior  to  the  sale  by  the  Trustees  of  the 
National  Gallery),  included  :  J.  Constable,  Vale  of 
Dedham,  on  the  Stour,  29  x  49,  300  guineas, 
and  Weymouth  Bay,  a  sketch  for  the  large  work 
now  in  the  Louvre,  21  x  29,  150  guineas;  three 
important  works  by  John  Crome,  Oaks  in  Kim- 
berley  Park,  46  x  36,  200  guineas  ;  Group  of  Oaks 
on  Sandybank,  with  white  heifer,  31x47,  340 
guineas,  and  a  Barge,  with  wounded  soldiers  and 
other  figures,  13  x  19,  160  guineas;  J.  S.  Cotman, 
Barges  on  a  Broad  in  a  Mist,  170  guineas; 
Copley  Fielding,  Mountain  Scene,  17x22,  170 
guineas;  J.  M.  W.  Turner,  Entrance  to  Havre 
Harbour,  9X  12,  no  guineas;  R.  P.  Bonington, 
View  off  S.  Valery-sur-Somme,  12x15,  280 
guineas  ;  and  the  Chateau  of  the  Duchess  de  Berri, 
on  the  Garonne,  14x20,  310  guineas;  J.  Ruys- 
dael,  Edge  of  a  Wood,  with  figures  and  sheep, 
i6x  10,  270  guineas;  Van  der  Capella,  Winter 
Scene,  with  barns  and  cottages,  and  man  dragging 
a  boat,  15  x  17,  200  guineas  ;  F.  Francia,  Madonna 
and  Child  and  two  angels,  in  landscape,  balustrade 
in  front,  12  x  10,  265  guineas  ;  and  Rubens,  Land- 
scape, with  river  and  pollard  willows,  figures 
dancing,  lady  seated,  and  lady  and  gentleman  and 
child  holding  two  greyhounds,  34x51,  800 
guineas.  This  day's  sale  included  the  following 
pictures  from  other  sources  :  J.  M.  W.  Turner, 
Kilgarran  Castle,  32  x  19,  210  guineas — this  pic- 
ture is  said  to  be  that  which  realized  600  guineas 
at  the  Gillott  sale  in  1872,  and  occurred  in  the 
Durand  Ruel  sale,  in  Paris,  two  years  later,  when 

3  I O  W.    BENONI   WHITE. 

it  realized  33,000  francs ;  W.  Collins,  Dartmouth 
Harbour,  painted  for  Phillimore  Hicks  in  1821, 
36  x  48,  i, 500 guineas  ;  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  Por- 
trait of  Mrs.  Burrell,  200  guineas  ;  J.  Crome,  New 
Mills  at  Norwich,  14  x  16,  190  guineas  ;  W.  Etty, 
Cymocles  and  Phaedra  on  the  idle  lake,  1835, 
500  guineas  ;  J.  L.  Gerome,  "  Voila  celui  qui  va  en 
enfer  et  en  revient"  (Dante),  engraved  by  J.  G. 
Levasseur,  510  guineas. 

Among  the  large  stock  of  pictures  of  the  late 
W.  Benoni  White,  the  picture  dealer,  sold  on 
Friday  and  Saturday,  May  23  and  24, — 310  lots 
realized  ,£11,285  iSs.  6d. — we  may  mention  the 
following :  T.  Gainsborough,  Landscape,  evening 
effect,  church  in  the  middle  distance,  large  tree 
bending  over  the  road  of  the  right  foreground, 
ploughboy  on  a  white  horse  and  brown  one  by  the 
side,  woodman,  painted  at  Bath  in  1760  for  Samuel 
Kilderbee,  39  x  49,  725  guineas;  G.  Morland, 
Nut  Gatherers,  105  guineas,  and  Wreckers,  560 
guineas ;  J.  M.  W.  Turner,  Fisherman  on  lee 
shore,  squally  weather,  exhibited  in  1802,  36  x  48, 
2, 300  guineas,  and  Boats  carrying  out  anchors  and 
cables  to  Dutch  men-of-war  in  1665,  exhibited 
in  1804,  4°  x  5°>  l>5°°  guineas  l — this  fine  pair  of 
pictures  (when  the  property  of  Lord  Delamere) 
was  purchased  at  Christie's  on  May  24th,  1856,  by 
the  late  owner  for  3,000  guineas  ;  John  Burnet, 
View  of  East  Cowes,  from  West  Cowes  Ferry, 

1  This  picture  was  again  sold  as  the  property  of  Mr.  W. 
Houldsworth  on  May  i6th,  1896,  and  then  realised  1,550 


1823,  310  guineas;  J.  Ruysdael,  View  near  a 
village,  with  rustic  bridge,  215  guineas,  and  a 
Rocky  River  Scene,  115  guineas  ;  T.  S.  Cooper, 
Mountain  Scene,  with  cattle  and  sheep,  245 
guineas ;  A.  Stannard,  Sluice-gate  on  the  river 
Wensum,  315  guineas;  and  J.  Stark,  Cadmore 
End,  near  Wycombe,  170  guineas. 

The  collection  of  Old  Masters  and  pictures  by 
modern  artists  formed  by  the  late  James  Hughes 
Anderdon,  of  Upper  Grosvenor  Square, came  under 
the  hammer  on  May  3oth  and  3ist,  the  288  lots 
realizing  ,£9,270  175-.  Comparatively  few  of  the 
pictures  (many  of  which  were  purchased  for  the 
National  Gallery)  reached  three  figures,  and  the 
following  includes  all  those  which  seem  to  call  for 
notice  here:  F.  Mieris,  Interior,  lady  in  a  white 
satin  dress,  lox  8,  195  guineas  ;  J.  B.  Pater,  Fete 
Champetre,  with  Cupid,  18x21,  250  guineas; 
J.  Van  Goyen,  River  Scene,  with  boats  and  fisher- 
men, 12x10,  205  guineas;  W.  Collins,  Cromer 
Sands,  with  children,  9x12,  155  guineas  ;  J.  Con- 
stable, a  Brook  Scene,  from  the  collection  of 
C.  R.  Leslie,  1 19  guineas  ;  J.  Crome,  Old  Mill  on 
the  Yare,  from  the  Dawson  Turner  collection 
(1852),  115  guineas;  Skirts  of  the  Forest,  41  X3i, 
185  guineas,  and  View  on  Mousehold  heath,  Nor- 
wich, 184  guineas;  J.  Linnell,  Landscape,  with 
peasants  under  a  pine  tree,  1813,  3x10,  135 
guineas ;  G.  Morland,  Farmer  carrying  pigs  to 
market,  105  guineas;  W.  J.  M  tiller,  Landscape,  with 
old  willows  and  sheep,  155  guineas;  and  an  un- 
usually large  number  of  works  by  G.  Romney : 


Portrait  of  Mrs.  Tickell  in  white  dress,  straw  hat, 
with  black  and  white  feathers,  800  guineas  ;  Mrs. 
Thornhill,  320  guineas  ;  The  Parson's  Daughter, 
360  guineas,  (National  Gallery)  ;  Head  of  Mrs. 
Crouch  the  Actress,  250  guineas;  Madame  de 
Genlis,  250  guineas;  Mrs.  Trimmer,  130  guineas, 
and  Bust  of  Mrs.  Robinson  as  "  Perdita,"  with 
head  leaning  on  right  hand,  380  guineas.  Another 
property  included  :  G.  Romney,  Lady  Hamilton  as 
Ariadne,  nearly  life  size,  in  white  dress  and  straw 
hat,  in  a  cave  by  the  sea,  220  guineas.  A  miscel- 
laneous sale  on  June  28th,  included  the  Earl  of 
Portarlington's  fine  Rembrandt,  Portrait  of  the 
Artist  in  black,  with  gold  chain,  signed,  and  dated 
1635,  i, 250  guineas. 

The  Alexander  Barker  sale  in  June  of  this  year, 
has  been  incorporated  with  that  of  1874.  A 
few  important  collections  of  porcelain  were  dis- 
persed during  this  year,  notably  that  of  Mr.  Charles 
Dickins,  of  Sunnyside,  Wimbledon,  which  brought 
a  total  of  nearly  ,£6,000  ;  the  249  lots  included  a 
gros-bleu  Sevres  lyre  clock,  mounted  with  a  mask 
of  Apollo,  and  ornaments  of  chased  ormolu,  with 
enamelled  dial  and  pendulum  set  with  pastes, 
^590  (apparently  bought  in) ;  a  pair  of  old  Chelsea 
square  vases,  each  side  painted  with  groups  of 
Chinese  figures  and  small  medallions  of  birds  in 
deep  blue  and  gold  border,  ^320  ;  a  fine  turquoise 
vase  of  the  same,  with  openwork  neck,  and  ewer, 
painted  with  figures  and  animals  in  a  landscape, 
^4/0 ;  a  large  beaker-shaped  vase  of  the  same, 
brilliant  deep-blue  ground,  painted  with  large 


medallions  of  exotic  birds  in  richly  gilt  borders, 
^504  ;  and  a  set  of  three  vases,  also  old  Chelsea, 
about  10  inches  high,  on  flat  oval-shaped  deep- 
blue  ground,  richly  gilt,  each  painted  with  two 
children  in  medallions,  and  group  of  birds,  ,£1,365  ; 
a  set  of  three  Worcester  vases,  each  painted  with 
medallion  of  horsemen  and  figures,  in  the  style  of 
Wouverman,  with  medallions  of  flowers  on  the 
necks,  deep-blue  ground,  ^650.  The  old  Dresden 
articles  included  a  group  of  Venus  and  Cupid,  in 
a  car,  supported  by  three  Tritons,  ^175;  a  fine 
group  of  a  lady  in  a  hooped  dress,  seated,  with  a 
gentleman  standing  by  her  side,  and  female  pedlar 
offering  wares,  ^260,  and  a  group  of  Venus  and 
Cupid  in  a  car  drawn  by  two  sea-horses,  and 
Neptune,  ^336  5*. 

The  earliest  picture  sale  of  note  in  1880  (Feb- 
ruary 2ist)  comprised  the  works  of  modern  artists, 
"  the  property  of  a  gentleman  [F.  W.  Hooper]  near 
Manchester,  and  the  158  lots  brought  a  total  of 
,£10,050  125-.,  of  which  about  one-third  represent 
actual  sales.  A  few  of  the  best  prices  are  as 
follows  :  James  Webb,  Anglesea,  with  Beaumaris 
in  the  distance,  190  guineas;  J.  Holland,  Rouen, 
290  guineas ;  A.  E.  Mulready,  Uncared  For,  145 
guineas  ;  Sir  John  Gilbert,  a  Family  Card-party, 
215  guineas;  T.  S.  Cooper,  Cows  in  a  Landscape, 
215  guineas  ;  J.  Pettie,  The  Hour,  500 guineas  (ap- 
parently bought  in  and  offered  again  in  1881,  when 
it  was  knocked  down  for  400  guineas)  ;  Sir  David 
Wilkie,  Escape  of  Mary  Queen  of  Scots  from 
Lochleven  Castle,  48  x  65,  700  guineas  (from  the 


Gillott  sale);  T.  Faed,  "God  Bless  It!"  30x20, 
400  guineas  ;  W.  J.  Miiller,  the  Old  Snuff  Mill, 
Stapleton,  780  guineas  ;  Frank  Holl,The  Deserter, 
330  guineas;  J.  M.  W.  Turner,  The  Brides  of 
Venice,  42  x  60,  400  guineas  (bought  in).  Another 
somewhat  important  sale  took  place  during  the 
following  week  (February  26th,  27th  and  28th), 
namely,  that  of  the  large  collection  of  pictures 
formed  by  James  Fenton,  Norton  Hall,  Glouces- 
tershire. There  were  450  lots,  and  the  total  of 
the  actual  sales  amounts  to  ,£8,565  19^.  6d.  It 
included :  G.  Morland,  Butcher  bargaining  with 
Farmer,  signed,  and  dated  1794,  20  x  25,  290 
guineas  ;  G.  Romney,  Portraits  of  Two  Children, 
said  to  be  the  children  of  Lord  Warwick,  life  size, 
24  x  30,  260  guineas  (from  the  Alton  Towers  sale 
in  1868,  when  it  sold  for  25  guineas);  Rubens, 
Helena  Forman,  and  her  two  children  as  Infant 
Christ  and  St.  John,  160  guineas,  and  Mercury 
and  Argus,  160  guineas;  J.  M.  W.  Turner,  The 
Tummel  Bridge,  1812,  12  x  18,  220  guineas;  Sir 
E.  Landseer,  Lion  preying  on  a  Fawn,  1840, 
16x12,  175  guineas;  T.  S.  Cooper,  Landscape 
with  three  Cows,  240  guineas  ;  J.  B.  Pyne,  the 
Blind  Beggar  of  the  Lago  Lugano,  210  guineas; 
J,  Linnell,  the  Isle  of  Wight  from  Lymington,  480 
guineas,  and  Sheepfold,  evening,  26  x  36,  455 
guineas  ;  W.  Linnell,  Landscape,  peasant  driving 
cattle  up  a  hill,  185  guineas  ;  T.  Creswick  and  W. 
P.  Frith,  a  Glade  in  the  Forest,  1849,  300  guineas  ; 
T.  Webster,  the  Young  Fisherman,  1840,  235 
guineas;  W.  Collins,  "  Les  Causeuses,"  1830,  335 


guineas;  A.  Elmore,  Rienzi  in  the  Forum,  1844, 
66x48,  210  guineas,  and  Guardi,  View  of  the 
Rialto,  410  guineas. 

The  great  picture  sale  of  this  year  was  that  of 
the  collection  of  the  late  Charles  Kurtz,  sold  by 
direction  of  the  executors  under  the  order  of  the 
Court  of  Chancery  on  March  1 2th  and  i3th.  The 
total  of  the  199  lots  of  water  colour  drawings  and 
pictures  amounted  to  ,£17,822  14^.,  the  nominal 
total  being  nearly  £9,000  in  excess  of  the  actual 
sales.  The  drawings  included  L.  Gallait,  Corona- 
tion of  Banderien,  Emperor  of  Constantinople,  in 
1204,  14  x  26,  1 90  guineas,  and  J.  L.  E.  Meissonier, 
L'Attente,  13x7,  400  guineas.  The  pictures  com- 
prised R.  Ansdell  and  J.  Phillip,  The  Spanish 
Muleteer,  21x24,  2O5  guineas;  R.  Beavis,  Col- 
lecting Wreck  on  the  French  Coast,  24x36,  135 
guineas ;  F.  Lee  Bridell,  The  Coliseum  by  Moon- 
light, 30  x  40,  200  guineas ;  T.  S.  Cooper,  The 
Defeat  of  Kellerman's  Cuirassiers  and  Carabineers 
by  Somerset's  Cavalry  at  Waterloo,  84  x  96,  600 
guineas  (bought  in,  and  offered  again  in  1881,  when 
it  fetched  400  guineas)  ;  T.  Creswick  and  T.  S. 
Cooper,  "Good  Evening,"  autumn,  36x51,  505 
guineas  ;  B.  W.  Leader,  Autumn  Sunset  in  the 
Lledr  Valley,  North  Wales,  40  x  60,  430  guineas  ; 
E.  Nicol,  His  Legal  Adviser,  31  x  43,  1877,  570 
guineas  ;  and  "  Examine  your  Change  before  you 
leave  the  Counter,"  26  x  20,  240  guineas ;  Alma 
Tadema,  The  Ambush  Attack,  27  x  39,  550 
guineas ;  A.  Achenbach,  A  Torrent  in  Norway, 
210  guineas;  O.  Achenbach,  Tivoli,  39x60,  150 


guineas ;  Auguste  Bonheur,  Cattle  on  the  Banks 
of  a  River,  39  x  55,  300  guineas  ;  Rosa  Bonheur, 
The  Shepherdess,  1846,  17  x  25,  650  guineas  ;  W. 
Bouguereau,  an  Italian  Mother  and  Child,  240 
guineas  ;  Henriette  Browne,  An  Armenian  Cap- 
maker, 45  x  35,  300  guineas  ;  F.  Domingo,  The 
Ruined  Gamester,  6x9,  430  guineas  ;  G.  Dore, 
Christian  Martyrs  in  the  reign  of  Diocletian,  1870, 
56  x  90,  760  guineas,  and  an  Alpine  Scene,  44  x  67, 
305  guineas  ;  J.  Dyckmans,  Paying  Accounts,  1837, 
31  x  27,  280  guineas;  L.  Escosura,  The  Singing 
Lesson,  32  x  42,  250  guineas  ;  L.  Gallait,  Columbus 
in  Prison,  60  x  43,  750  guineas,  and  The  Neapo- 
litan Flower  Girl,  45  x  30,  475  guineas  ;  J.  L. 
Gerome,  Neapolitan  Women,  35  x  27,  290 guineas; 
W.  de  Keyser,  Columbus  and  his  Child  in  the 
Convent  of  Petre  Santa,  63  x  48,  300  guineas  ;  L. 
Knauss,  Scene  during  the  Rebel  War  in  Germany 
in  the  Fourteenth  Century,  1*852,  43  x  39,  600 
guineas  ;  G.  Koller,  Faust  and  Marguerite,  34  x  54, 
380  guineas ;  B.  C.  Koekkoek,  View  on  the 
Meuse,  35  x  45,  160  guineas  (apparently  bought  in 
and  again  offered  in  1881,  when  it  realized  285 
guineas),  and  a  Winter  Scene  in  Belgium,  25  x  27, 
305  guineas;  Baron  H.  Leys,  Martin  Luther  in 
his  study,  with  his  wife  and  friends,  28  x  42,  1,150 
guineas  ;  J.  L.  E.  Meissonier,  The  Commercial 
Traveller,  man  in  green  coat  sitting  at  a  table  out- 
side an  inn,  15x9,  1,250  guineas  ;  H.  Merle,  Mar- 
guerite trying  on  the  Jewels,  60  x  39,  750  guineas, 
and  Fairy  Tales,  22  x  1 8,  230  guineas  ;  L.  Perrault, 
Philippean  Dancing,  28  x  43,  215  guineas;  T. 


Sadee,  Fishermen's  Wives  on  the  Look-out, 
25  x  39,  335  guineas  ;  J.  E.  Saintin,  The  Flower  of 
Joy,  1 30 guineas;  Van  Schendel,  a  Market  Square, 
candle  and  moonlight  effect,  32  x  47,  240  guineas  ; 
A.  Toulmouche,  The  Secret,  25  x  19,  210  guineas  ; 
C.  Troyon,  La  Valle*e  de  la  Tocque,  102  x  83,  700 
guineas  ;  and  F.  Willems,  The  Toilet,  215  guineas. 

The  principal  porcelain  sales  of  1 880  may  be  here 
bracketed  together.  The  earliest  of  these  comprised 
the  blue  and  white  collection  of  Dr.  E.  B.  Shuldham, 
sold  on  February  24th  ;  there  were  over  160  lots, 
but  the  chief  interest  centred  in  the  seven  hawthorn 
jars,  each  about  13  inches  high,  some  with  covers 
complete,  a  fine  set  of  three  vases  and  a  pair  of 
beakers.  "  The  prices,"  says  The  Times  reporter, 
"  to  which  these  were  run  up  were  preposterous  be- 
yond all  precedent,  scarce  as  these  old  jars  may  be." 
The  highest  prices  were  as  follows  :  A  globular 
hawthorn  jar  and  cover,  ,£262  ;  another  jar,  deep- 
blue  marbled  ground,  branches  of  hawthorn  in  white, 
carved  wood  cover,  ^232  ;  another  jar  and  cover, 
^410  us.',  another,  ^325  los.  ;  another,  ^620, 
and  yet  another,  ^650.  A  set  of  three  jars  and 
covers,  1 1  inches  high,  and  a  pair  of  beakers, 
painted  with  female  figures,  trees,  and  vases  of 
flowers,  necks  painted  with  birds,  10^  inches  high, 
£120  ;  a  similar  set,  with  female  figures  and  vases 
of  flowers  in  compartments,  18  inches  high,  ,£320. 

The  works  of  art  and  vertu  of  the  late  Dowager 
Lady  Carington,  sold  in  May  (total  £i  1,744)  also 
included  some  choice  bits  of  Dresden,  notably  a 
group  of  two  pug  dogs,  ^119;  a  large  pug  dog, 


£124  ;  a  spaniel  on  a  cushion,  with  chased  Louis 
XV.  ormolu  plinth,  ,£325  ;  lady  with  two  pugs,  on 
a  white  and  gold  pedestal,  £210;  lady  seated, 
gentleman  kissing  her  hand,  and  a  negro  attendant, 
£210  ;  and  another,  nearly  similar,  ,£208.  The 
choice  collection  of  old  English  porcelain  of  the 
late  George  William  Callender,  F.R.S.,  was  sold 
on  May  6th,  and  comprised  fine  figures  and  other 
specimens  of  old  Bristol  porcelain,  many  of  which 
form  illustrations  to  Owen's  "  Two  Centuries  of 
Ceramic  Art  in  Bristol " — and  a  number  of  these 
illustrations  were  reproduced  in  the  sale  catalogue. 
The  first  important  picture  sale  of  1881  com- 
prised the  highly  important  collection  of  examples 
of  modern  artists  formed  by  Colonel  Holds  worth, 
of  Shaw  Lodge,  Halifax,  sold  on  April  3Oth, 
eighty-three  lots  realizing  ,£33,040  js.  The  more 
notable  pictures  were :  R.  Ansdell,  Gossip  at 
Seville,  320  guineas,  and  Spate  jn  the  Highlands, 
420  guineas  ;  E.  W.  Cooke,  Grand  Canal,  Venice, 
sunset,  370  guineas,  and  Hastings,  36  x  60,  590 
guineas ;  T.  S.  Cooper,  Landscape,  with  cows, 
bull,  and  sheep,  evening  effect,  535  guineas;  T. 
Creswick,  Skirts  of  the  Park,  27  x  34,  350  guineas; 
Barnard  Castle,  36x48,410  guineas;  a  Watery 
Lane,  18  x  24,  320  guineas  ;  The  Cottage  and  the 
Hall,  with  figures  by  Cooper  and  Stone,  550 
guineas  ;  and  On  Shore,  with  Figures  by  Frith, 
600  guineas  ;  A.  Elmore,  Hotspur  and  the  Fop, 
12x24,  340  guineas;  T.  Faed,  Winter,  300 
guineas,  and  Cottage  Piety,  405  guineas  ;  W.  P. 
Frith,  Dolly  Varden,  signed,  and  dated  1843, 


340  guineas  ;  the  finished  sketch  for  the  Derby 
Day,  16x36,  610  guineas;  and  Pope  and  Lady 
Mary  Wortley  Montagu,  upright,  48x36,  1,190 
guineas  (from  the  Hargreaves  sale  of  1873,  when  it 
realized  1,350  guineas)  ;  W.  E.  Frost,  Cupid  and 
Nymphs,  310  guineas  ;  F.  Goodall,  Fete,  Brittany, 
12  x  1 8,  350  guineas  ;  J.  C.  Hook,  A  Cornish  Gift, 
24  x  26,  800  guineas,  and  Mending  Nets,  300 
guineas  ;  J.  Callcott  Horsley,  Stolen  Glances,  400 
guineas  ;  Sir  F.  Leighton,  A  Roman  Lady,  340 
guineas  ;  C.  R.  Leslie,  A  Picnic  Party,  30  x  36, 
510  guineas;  J.  Linnell,  English  Pastoral,  850 
guineas  ;  The  Sheep  Drive,  800  guineas ;  Barley 
Field,  950  guineas  (these  three  pictures  each 
measure  30x40);  Bark  Peelers,  14  x  20,  360 
guineas  ;  and  Coming  Storm,  18  x  27,  770  guineas  ; 
J.  T.  Linnell,  "  A-top  the  Hill,"  550  guineas  ;  W. 
Linnell,  Under  the  Greenwood,  220  guineas  ;  W. 
J.  M Ciller,  Pandy  Mill  (erroneously  catalogued  as 
11  The  old  Mill,  Pont-y-Pool"),  2,000  guineas  ;  W. 
Mulready,  The  Widow,  1,100  guineas ;  P.  Nas- 
myth,  River  Scene  in  Hampshire,  460  guineas  ; 
H.  O'Neil,  Mary  Queen  of  Scots'  Adieu,  24  x  30, 
330  guineas  ;  J.  Phillip,  Scene  from  the  "  Heart  of 
Midlothian,"  12  x  16,  450 guineas  ;  Gentle  Student, 
230  guineas ;  and  "  O,  Nannie,  will  ye  gang  wi' 
me  ?  "  800  guineas  ;  P.  F.  Poole,  Greek  Goatherd's 
Courtship,  280  guineas  ;  Mountain  Spring,  26  x  20, 
300 guineas;  and  Lighting  the  Beacon, 670 guineas; 
D.  Roberts,  Piazza  S.  Mario,  Venice,  October 
1851,  42  x  92,  1,540  guineas  ;  C.  Stanfield,  On  the 
Texel,  530  guineas  ;  T.  Webster,  See-Saw,  256 


guineas  ;  Punch,  310  guineas  ;  and  The  Gipsy,  230 
guineas;  Rosa  Bonheur,  Les  Paturages,  14  x  18, 
540  guineas ;  and  Landscape  with  cows,  goat,  and 
woman,  18  x  24,  820  guineas. 

But  the  principal  art  sale  of  1881  was  that  of 
the  extensive  collection  of  pictures,  drawings,  etch- 
ings, miniatures,  medals,  coins,  bronzes,  jewels, 
and  objects  of  decorative  art  generally,  formed  by 
the  late  Charles  Sackville  Bale.  Mr.  Bale  col- 
lected objects  of  art  in  pretty  much  the  same 
wholesale  way  as  Heber  collected  books.  His 
house  from  top  to  bottom  was  literally  packed  with 
treasures  of  the  greatest  interest  and  value,  and  all 
heaped  in  the  most  indiscriminate  fashion.  It 
would  perhaps  be  too  much  to  say  that  Mr.  Bale 
knew  where  to  lay  his  hands  on  every  object  in 
his  collection,  but  it  is  quite  certain  that  no  one 
had  ever  collected  with  more  judgment  or  with 
greater  success  in  so  many  branches  of  art.  The 
collection  was  dispersed  as  follows : 

FIRST  PART.  £      s.    d. 

May  13,  14,  and  16.  Pictures  and  drawings  of 

the  English  School  (449  lots)      ....    28,481    13     o 


May  17-19.  Oriental  porcelain,  rock  crystal, 
amber,  Japanese  lacquer,  Chinese  enamels, 
bronzes 6,750  2  o 

May  20.  Silver  and  silver  gilt,  jewels,  etc.  .     .      2,871     4     5 


May  23-24.  Old  Sevres,  Dresden  and  English 
porcelain,  majolica,  Palissy  ware,  carvings 
in  ivory,  etc i3>°53  6  6 


FIFTH  PART.  £     s.    d. 
May  30-31.  Coins,  medals,  gems,  glass,  terra- 
cottas, Etruscan  ware,  etc 8,711   1 8     o 

June  9,  10,  n,  and  13.  Drawings,    engravings, 

etchings u»576  15     o 

July  i.  The  library  (360  lots) 1,078  18     6 

The  total  number  of  the  lots,  including  the  pictures  and 
books,  3,500. 

The  collection  included  the  following  drawings  : 
Peter  de  Wint,  Kenilworth  Castle,  390  guineas  ; 
View  at  Goodwood,  6f  x  9^,  200  guineas  ;  grand 
Landscape,  a  river,  I5fx24,  400  guineas;  and 
London  from  Battersea,  5^  x  12,  195  guineas; 
Copley  Fielding,  coast  scene,  7^  x  10^,  120 guineas; 
Thomas  Girtin,  Landscape,  with  mountains, 
23^  x  35! ,  1 30  guineas  ;  The  River  Exe,  1 2\  x  20, 
154  guineas;  Durham,  10^  x  14^,  135  guineas; 
and  Morpeth  Bridge,  i2^x  2of,  from  the  Redleaf 
collection,  no  guineas;  W.  Hunt,  Grapes  and 
Plums,  9^x  13^,  130  guineas;  Samuel  Prout,  In- 
teriorof  Chartres  Cathedral,  \2\  x  9^,  102  guineas  ; 
and  the  following  long  series  of  drawings  by 
Turner:  Fall  of  the  Trees,  1,210  guineas;  and 
Chain  Bridge  over  the  Tees,  1,050  guineas — both 
these  drawings  were  engraved  in  the  "  England 
and  Wales  "  series,  and  the  latter  is  from  the  Novar 
collection,  1878;  Rye,  Sussex,  5f  x  9},  340 guineas; 

I.  Y 


and  Lyme  Regis  from  the  sea,  5f  x  8f ,  640 
guineas — both  engraved  in  the  South  Coast  Series  ; 
Hastings  from  the  Sea,  15^  x  23!  1818,  1,050 
guineas  ;  Weymouth,  5f  x  8f ,  520  guineas  ;  Burn- 
ing of  the  Houses  of  Parliament,  the  engraved 
vignette,  200  guineas  ;  Rouen  on  the  Seine,  5^-  x  7  J, 
85  guineas  ;  Lanthony  Abbey,  1 1  x  8^,  80  guineas  ; 
View  of  Ingleborough,  with  Hornby  Castle,  en- 
graved, n|-xi6f,  2,200  guineas;  and  View  in 
Switzerland,  9 j- x  n^-,  210  guineas. 

The  more  important  of  the  pictures  were  as 
follows  :  Fra  Angelico,  Virgin  and  Child  enthroned, 
nine  angels,  i  if  x  8|-,  from  the  Samuel  Rogers  col- 
lection, 360  guineas  ;  Giovanni  Bellini,  Portrait  of 
a  lady,  from  the  Charles  I.  collection,  13  x  u,  220 
guineas  ;  Velasquez,  Portrait  of  Don  Balthazar  in 
black  and  gold  dress,  20  x  15,  830  guineas — pur- 
chased in  1868  for  185  guineas  at  the  H.  Baillie 
sale,  Mr.  Baillie  having  purchased  it  on  June 
9th,  1827,  for  £27  8^.  ;  Claude,  Herdsman  feed- 
ing goats,  16x21,  400  guineas;  and  Mercury 
lulling  Argus  to  Sleep,  painted  for  Bafont,  etched 
by  the  artist,  No.  i  in  the  Choiseul  Gallery, 
23  x  29,  610  guineas— these  two  pictures  were  in 
the  Redleaf  sale  of  W.  Wells  in  1848;  N.  Berghem, 
Landscape,  two  men,  cattle  near  fountain,  12  x  14, 
450  guineas  ;  A.  Ostade,  Cabaret,  four  men  and 
dog,  ii  x  10,  signed  and  dated  1663,  960 guineas  ; 
and  A  Lawyer  in  his  Study,  signed  and  dated 
1664,  650  guineas  ;  William  Van  de  Velde,  Gentle 
Breeze,  three  men  in  a  boat,  13  x  14^,  from  the  Red- 
leaf  collection,  1841,  engraved  by  Canot,  460 


guineas  ;  A.  Waterloo,  Woody  river,  sportsman  and 
dogs,  figures  by  A.  Van  de  Velde,  19  x  10,  210 
guineas;  P.  Wouverman,  Hilly  sandbank,  horses 
and  figures,  from  the  Clewer  Manor  collection, 
7j  x  n,  300  guineas. 

As  will  be  seen  from  the  above  summary,  the 
drawings  by  the  old  masters  formed  perhaps  the 
most  valuable  portion  of  this  extensive  collection  ; 
but  we  have  only  room  to  mention  a  few  articles 
as  follows  :  A.  Diirer,  Head  of  a  young  man,  black 
chalk,  signed,  and  dated  1520,  180  guineas; 
Raphael,  Group  of  the  Holy  Women  and  Apostles, 
pen  and  bistre,  9^  x  6J,  from  the  Pieta,  en- 
graved by  M.  Antonio,  and  from  the  collections 
of  Mead  and  Barnard,  ^535  (Malcolm) ;  L.  da 
Vinci,  Study  of  a  child,  chalk  on  grey  paper,  from 
the  Lely  and  Samuel  Rogers  collections,  i6x  10, 
^309  ;  and  a  Female  head,  chalk  on  grey  paper, 
^204.  The  etchings  and  engravings  included 
Rembrandt,  Christ  healing,  second  state,  India 
paper,  ^75  ;  The  Three  Trees,  ^101  ;  Cottage 
with  white  pales,  ^157  ;  and  Vandyck,  Portrait  of 
J.  van  den  Wouver,  first  state,  ^450.  The  minia- 
tures included  Isaac  Oliver,  Richard,  third  Earl  of 
Dorset,  full  length,  standing,  a  magnificent  example 
of  this  master,  9!  x  6^,  ^800.  The  most  sensa- 
tional article  in  the  whole  sale  was  perhaps  an 
oval  locket  of  gold,  chased  and  enamelled,  the 
back  of  glass,  inlaid  with  arabesques  in  coloured 
enamel,  2,025  guineas — a  writer  in  The  Pall  Mall 
Gazette  of  April  23rd,  1894,  states  that  this  beau- 
tiful locket,  for  there  was  neither  medallion  nor 

324  MR.    COLEMAN  S    LA.NDSEERS. 

back,  was   bought  of   old  John    Webb   of  Bond 
Street  by  Mr.  Bale  in  1856  for  £10. 

A  number  of  important  pictures  occurred  in  the 
sale  of  May  28th,  but  six  works  from  the  collection 
of  Mr.  E.  J.  Coleman  completely  overshadowed 
the  other  properties,  inasmuch  as  they  realized  the 
handsome  total  of  ,£26,355.  Four  of  these  were 
by  Sir  Edwin  Landseer,  namely,  "  Well-bred 
sitters  who  never  say  they  are  bored,"  upright, 
36  x  28,  5,000  guineas  ;  "  Man  proposes,  God  dis- 
poses," the  bears  and  the  Franklin  relics,  from  the 
Albert  Grant  sale,  96  x  36,  6,300  guineas 
(Holloway) ;  Digging  out  the  Otter  in  the  Valley 
of  the  Tay,  figures  finished  by  Sir  J.  E.  Millais — 
this  picture  realized  in  its  unfinished  state  630 
guineas  at  the  artist's  sale  in  1874 — 60  x  98,  2,950 
guineas ;  and  Stag  pursued  by  Greyhound,  chalk 
cartoon,  life  size  in  colours,  72  x  96,  5,000  guineas 
(Holloway) ;  and  two  pictures  by  Clarkson 
Stanfield,  Pic  du  Midi  d'Ossau,  from  the  Bicknell 
collection,  2,550  guineas,  and  the  Battle  of 
Roveredo,  from  the  Mendel  and  Albert  Grant  sales, 
(see  p.  275)  3,300  guineas — both  purchased  by 
Mr.  Holloway,  and  now  at  the  Royal  Holloway 
College,  Egham.  The  other  properties  sold  dur- 
ing the  same  day  included  Sir  J.  E.  Millais,  The 
Princes  in  the  Tower,  3,800  guineas,  also  purchased 
by  Mr.  Holloway  ;  C.  Stanfield,  Coast  Scene,  with 
wreck,  220  guineas  ;  J.  Linnell,  The  Woodcutters, 
1861,  490  guineas  ;  C.  Cole,  Cornfield,  270  guineas  ; 
J.  Philip,  The  Music  Lesson,  Seville,  1860,  500 
guineas  ;  E.  W.  Copke,  Bay  of  Carthagena,  sunset, 

W.    SHARP    OF    IIANDSWORTII.  325 

1 86 1,  240  guineas  ;  T.  Creswick,  The  Trent  Side, 
2,000  guineas  (Holloway) — the  artist  received  500 
guineas  for  this  picture,  and  the  last  owner  paid  an 
advance  of  50  guineas  on  that  price  ;  D.  Roberts, 
The  Piazetta  of  St.  Mark,  Venice,  290  guineas  ; 

C.  W.  Cope,    Lear   recovering  at  the  sound  of 
Cordelia's  voice,  painted  in  1850  for  the  late  Mr. 
Brunei's  Shakespeare  room,  270  guineas  ;  P.   F. 
Poole,    Job's    Messengers,    1850,    60   x    72,    700 
guineas  ;  Sir  A.  W.  Callcott,  Approach  to  Verona 
from  the  Tyrol,    300  guineas  ;    W.  Collins,  The 
Cherryseller,   a   small    replica   of  the   celebrated 
picture,  29  x  25,  315  guineas. 

The  last  noteworthy  sale  of  this  year,  comprised 
the  collection  of  modern  pictures  formed  by  William 
Sharp  of  Handsworth,  near  Birmingham,  sold  on 
July  9th.  The  eighty  lots  realized  ,£22,967  14^. 
and  included  the  following  : — W.  Collins,  Borrow- 
dale,  a  Landscape,  with  children,  34  x  44,  2,500 
guineas  ;  J.  Constable,  Hampstead  Heath,  550 
guineas  ;  T.  S.  Cooper,  Landscape,  with  sheep 
and  goats,  520  guineas,  and  Mountain  Sheep,  250 
guineas  ;  T.  Creswick,  The  King  of  the  Forest,  a 
forest  glade,  with  a  stag  and  deer  by  R.  Ansdell, 
27  x  35,  650  guineas  ;  C.  Fielding,  Travellers  in  a 
storm,  on  the  road  near  Winchester,  40  x  49,  3,000 
guineas  (Holloway), — the  late  Mr.  Sharp  is  said  to 
have  purchased  this  work  for  ^240  in  1862  ;  F. 

D.  Hardy,  Interior,  with  fiddler  and  other  figures, 
230  guineas  ;   H.  Le  Jeune,  Consider  the  Lilies, 
the  engraved  picture,    260  guineas;    J.   Linnell, 
Hillside  Farm,  16  x  23,  905  guineas ;  The  Eve  of 


the  Deluge,  a  small  replica  of  the  celebrated  picture, 
25  x  34,  380  guineas,  and  a  portrait  of  J.  M.  W. 
Turner,  82  guineas  ;  D.  Maclise,  Spirit  of  Justice, 
from  the  artist's  great  fresco  in  the  House  of 
Parliament,  96x60,  210  guineas.  For  the  seven 
pictures  by  W.  J.  M  tiller  the  late  Mr.  Sharp  is  said 
to  have  refused  an  offer  of  ,£10,000 ;  they  now  sold 
as  follows: — Frosty  Morning,  figures,  18  x  24, 
155  guineas;  High  Life,  interior  of  a  richly 
furnished  house,  with  two  men,  24  x  34,  105 
guineas  ;  Frost  scene,  with  gamekeeper,  and  trees 
covered  with  frost,  1837,  72  x  48,  440  guineas; 
Arab  Shepherds,  a  mountain  landscape,  with  two 
figures  under  palm  trees,  arched,  1842,  33  x  65, 
2,600  guineas  ;  Tomb  in  the  water,  Telmessius, 
Lycia,  1845,  30x60,  2,250  guineas  (Holloway), 
and  Prayers  in  the  Desert,  landscape  with  distant 
mountains,  1843,  arched,  40  x  72,  1,800  guineas  ; 
J.  P.  Pyne,  Haweswater,  260  guineas ;  and  T. 
Webster,  The  Pedlar,  engraved,  550  guineas. 

The  Hamilton  Palace  sale  was  naturally  the 
great  event  of  1882,  but  prior  to  this  sensation  the 
choice  collection  of  modern  pictures  formed  by  the 
late  Edward  Hermon,  M.P.  for  Preston,  and  of 
Wyfold  Court,  Henley-on-Thames,  came  under  the 
hammer  on  May  i3th.  The  eighty-four  lots 
realized  the  high  total  of  ,£34,380  19^.  6d. — the 
nominal  total  of  the  sale  shows  about  ,£3,000 
beyond  this  amount,  as  a  few  articles  were  bought 
in.  The  principle  pictures  were  as  follows  :  E. 
de  Schampheleer,  Scene  on  the  river  Dort,  360 
guineas  ;  C.  Troyon,  Landscape,  near  Trouville, 


26  x  37,  400  guineas  ;  J.  Holland,  Gesuati-Chiesa, 
Venice,  9^  x  20,  230  guineas,  and  the  Barbarigo 
Palace,  19  inches  circular,  305  guineas  ;  W.  Miiller, 
Gillingham  Church,  1843,  23x16,  585  guineas; 
P.  H.  Calderon,  In  the  cloisters  at  Aries,  1863, 
33  x  28,  425  guineas ;  E.  W.  Cooke,  A  Dutch 
Vessel  aground,  1865,  42  x  66,  from  the  Leaf 
collection,  510  guineas  (Martin  Holloway) ;  three 
examples  in  oils  of  David  Cox,  Carrying  Vetches, 
1850,  14  x  21,  510  guineas;  Going  to  the 
Hayfield,  1848,  23  x  33,  1,000  guineas,  and 
Changing  Pastures,  1,400  guineas — these  three 
were  painted  for  the  late  Mr.  Dawes  of  Birming- 
ham between  1848  and  1851,  and  the  last  one 
was  again  offered  for  sale  in  1884,  when  it  was 
knocked  down  for  1,200  guineas;  Sir  C.  L.  East- 
lake,  Scene  in  the  Anno  Santo,  pilgrims  in  sight 
of  Rome,  1828,  the  engraved  picture,  260 guineas; 
T.  Faed,  Taking  Rest,  a  cottage  woman  and  her 
baby,  1858,  33  x  25,  710  guineas  (Martin  Hol- 
loway) ;  W.  P.  Frith,  Altisidora  pretending  love 
for  Don  Quixote,  1869,  58  x  61,  480  guineas — 
this  picture  is  said  to  have  cost  Mr.  Hermon 
2,000  guineas  ;  Peter  Graham,  A  Spate  in  the 
Highlands,  1872,  27  x  41,  750  guineas, — "  this, 
not  the  picture  of  the  same  title  which  first 
brought  the  painter  into  notice  when  exhibited 
at  the  old  Academy  Galleries  in  Trafalgar  Square, 
was  a  much  larger  work,  now  in  the  collection 
of  Mr.  Cunliffe  Brooks  "  and  is  said  to  have  cost 
about  1,300  guineas;  and  "Where  Deep  Seas 
Moan,"  rocky  cliff,  with  seabirds,  65  x  52,  760 


guineas  ;  F.  Holl,  Newgate  :  Committed  for  trial, 
1878,  60x82,  770  guineas  ( H  olio  way );  J.  C. 
Horsley,  The  Duenna's  Return  (not  The  Duenna 
and  her  Cares),  170 guineas;  Colin  Hunter,  Store  for 
the  Cabin,  Connemara,  a  coast  scene  with  figures, 
60  x  44,  320  guineas  ;  Sir  E.  Landseer,  Poachers 
deerstalking,  1831,  20  x  26,  800  guineas,  and  "  Old 
Brutus,"  a  white,  wire-haired,  bull-terrier  dog, 
43  x  55>  from  the  artist's  sale,  400  guineas;  three 
pictures  by  E.  Long,  The  Babylonian  Marriage 
Market,  exhibited  at  the  Royal  Academy,  1875, 
66  x  1 20,  6,300  guineas;  The  Suppliants,  the 
subject  taken  from  "  The  History  of  the  Gipsies," 
painted  in  1872,  72  x  113,  4,100  guineas — for  the 
former  of  these  two  pictures  the  artist  is  said  to 
have  received  7,  i oo  guineas,  and  for  the  latter  i ,  500 
guineas,  and  both  were  bought  by  Mr.  Holloway 
for  the  Royal  Holloway  College  Gallery ;  and 
Billeting  at  Cadiz,  1868,  62  x  44,  500  guineas;  J. 
MacWhirter,  Moonlight,  a  coast  scene,  39  x  65, 
270  guineas,  and  "  Spindthrift,"  also  a  coast  scene, 
with  carting  of  seaweed,  32  x  56,  300  guineas — both 
these  pictures  were  also  bought  by  Mr.  Holloway ; 
Sir  J.  E.  Millais,  A  Deserted  Garden,  early 
morning  effect,  exhibited  in  1 875,  with  the  following 
verse  from  Campbell : 

"  Yet  wandering  I  found  in  my  ruinous  walk, 

By  the  dial-stone,  aged  and  green, 
One  rose  of  the  wilderness  left  on  its  stalk, 

To  mark  where  a  garden  had  been," 

48x72,  900  guineas,  and  Getting  Better,    1876, 
41  x  35,  810  guineas;  P.  R.  Morris,  Bathers  dis- 


turbed,  46  x  72,310  guineas  ;  J.  Phillip, The  Church 
Porch,  selling  relics,  the  artist's  last  work,  begun  in 
Seville  in  1 86 1 ,  but  left  unfinished,  from  the  Mendel 
collection,  60  x  84,  3,750  guineas,  and  a  Highland 
Lassie  Reading,  exhibited  1867,  29  x  22,  900 
guineas;  J.  Pettie,  A  State  Secret,  a  Cardinal 
burning  a  document  in  presence  of  his  attendant 
monk,  48  x  63,  1,000  guineas  (Martin  Holloway); 
P.  F.  Poole,  Wayfarers,  a  country  woman 
with  her  baby,  29  x  26,  410  guineas  ;  J.  M.  W. 
Turner,  Cicero  at  his  villa  at  Tusculum,  exhibited 
at  the  Royal  Academy  1839,  36  x  48,  1,800 
guineas — this  picture  is  from  the  Novar  collection, 
and  was  now  understood  to  be  bought  in  ;  and 
E.  M.  Ward,  The  Return  of  Louis  XVI.  to  Paris, 
43  x  51,  310  guineas. 

END    OF   VOLUME    I. 


I.  Z 



Roberts,  William 

Memorials  of  Christie's